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E 4

Unit #4

In this unit, students will continue to develop their understanding of multiplication and division using

rectangular arrays, area model and equations with larger numbers. Students will be able to demonstrate

multiplication and division using the area model. An explicit connection between the area model and

the area formula should be made within this unit. The connection between multiplication and division

will be made through solving for unknowns within the area model. Students need to know that

multiplication and division are inverse operations. Division with remainders is introduced for the first

time in this unit. Students will apply their knowledge of all four math operations to estimate and solve

multiple-step word problems. Mastery of the traditional algorithm is not expected until 5 th grade.

Multiplication and division should be continuously reviewed and practiced throughout the year.

Connections to Previous Learning:

In Grade 3, students focus on understanding the meaning and properties of multiplication and division

and on finding products of single-digit multiplication equations and related quotients. The standards

focus on Equal Groups and on arrays. Area problems where regions are partitioned by unit squares are

foundational for Grade 3 standards because area is used as model for single-digit multiplication and

division strategies.

Where the Learning Goes Next:

In Grade 5, students will become fluent with the standard multiplication algorithm with multi-digit whole

numbers. They will

reason about dividing whole numbers with two-digit divisors, and reason about adding, subtracting,

multiplying, and dividing decimals to hundredths.

Content Standards Addressed in this Unit:

Practice Standards to be Emphasized in this

4.NBT.B.5, 4.MD.A.3 (area), 4.NBT.B.6, 4.OA.A.3 Unit:

MP1: Make sense of problems and persevere in

solving them.

MP2: Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP3: Construct viable arguments and critique the

reasoning of others.

MP4: Model with mathematics.

MP7: Look for and make use of structure.

GRAD

E 4

.

Enduring Understandings:

In the multiplication expression A x B, A can defined as a scaling factor.

A situation that can be represented by multiplication has an element that represents the scalar and

an element that represents the quantity to which the scalar applies.

A scalar definition of multiplication is useful in representing and solving problems beyond whole

number multiplication and division.

Using proper terminology and understanding the division algorithm provide the basics for

understanding how numbers such as the quotient and the remainder are used in a division

situation.

The right distributive property of division over addition allows computing flexibly and justifying

computations with whole numbers, but there is no left distributive property of division over

addition.

Properties of operations on whole numbers justify written and mental computational algorithms,

standard and invented.

In a rectangular array, one of the factors tells about the rows/number of units wide the figure is

and the other factor tells about the number of square units in each row/the width of the figure.

Either factor (the number of rows or number of square units in each row) can be worked with

separately to determine the area of a portion of the figure.

Section Explanation: In this section, students will be able to demonstrate multiplication and division

using the area model. An explicit connection between the area model and the area formula should be

made within this unit. The connection between the area model and traditional algorithm should be made.

Standards

Instructional Notes

4.MD.A.3

Fourth graders use multiplication, spatially

Apply the area and perimeter formulas for

structuring arrays, and area model, to

rectangles in real world and mathematical

generate the formula for the area of a

problems. For example, find the width of a

rectangle A = l x w. The formula is a

rectangular room given the area of the flooring and

generalization of the understanding, that,

the length, by viewing the area formula as a

given a unit of length, a rectangle whose

multiplication equation with an unknown factor.

sides have length w units and l units, can be

partitioned into w rows of unit squares with l

GRAD

E 4

4.NBT.B.5

Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a

one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit

numbers, using strategies based on place value

and the properties of operations. Illustrate and

explain the calculation by using equations,

rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

Tie to MP4, MP6, and MP7

the number of unit squares in the partition,

thus the area measurement is l x w square

units. These square units are derived from

the length unit. When engaging in the

mathematical practice of reasoning

abstractly and quantitatively in work with,

students think of the situation and perhaps

make a drawing. Then they recreate the

"formula" with specific numbers and one

unknown number as a situation equation for

this particular numerical situation. "Apply

the formula" does not mean write down a

memorized formula and put in known values

because at Grade 4 students do not evaluate

expressions.

Common Misconceptions:

Students who develop flexibility in breaking

numbers apart have a better understanding

of the importance of place value and the

distributive property in multi-digit

multiplication. Students use base ten blocks,

area models, partitioning, compensation

strategies, etc. when multiplying whole

numbers and use words and diagrams to

explain their thinking. They use the terms

factor and product when communicating their

reasoning. Multiple strategies enable

students to develop fluency with

multiplication and transfer that

understanding to division.

Use of place value and the distributive

GRAD

E 4

below.

o To illustrate 154 x 6 students use base 10

blocks or use drawings to show 154 six

times. Students will need to see 154 as

100 + 50 + 4 first. Then, this quantity is

multiplied by 6. This will lead to the

distributive property, 154 X 6 = (100 + 50

+ 4) x 6 = (100 x 6) + (50 X 6) + (4 X 6)

= 600 + 300 + 24 = 924.

o The area model shows the distributive

property.

48 x 26 = 1248

Using the area model, students first verbalize

their understanding:

o 20 x 40 = 800

o 20 x 8 = 160

o 6 x 40 = 240 , and

o 6 x 8 = 48

factors are decomposed. Decomposition is

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Knowledge

A=lxw

Define factor and product.

The area model develops a

visual of multiplication.

Academic Vocabulary

Rectangular array

Area model

Area

Formula

Factor

Product

Understandings

Skills

Multiplication has an

Use the formula for area to

element that represents

solve real world problems.

the scalar and an element

Demonstrate multiplication

that represents the

using rectangular arrays,

quantity to which the scalar

place value, and the area

applies.

model.

The area model develops a

Solve multiplication of

visual of the distributive

whole numbers up to fourproperty and place value

digits by one and two-digits

understanding in

by two-digits by using

relationship to

strategies based on place

multiplication.

value and properties of

In multiplication, factors

operations.

can be decomposed into

expanded values and those

values can be multiplied

and added back together.

Suggested Resources:

Engage NY: https://www.engageny.org/resource/grade-4-mathematics-module-3

North Carolina Task 4.NBT.B.5 Tasks 1- 3: http://3-5cctask.ncdpi.wikispaces.net/4.NBT.4-4.NBT.6

Georgia Unit: http://ccgpsmathematicsk-5.wikispaces.com/4th+Grade

Inside Mathematics: http://www.insidemathematics.org/common-core-resources/mathematicalcontent-standards/standards-by-grade/4th-grade

Illustrative Mathematics: https://www.illustrativemathematics.org/content-standards/4/NBT/B/5

Learn Zillion: https://learnzillion.com/resources/57239-4th-grade-numbers-and-operations-in-basetenl

Learn Zillion: https://learnzillion.com/resources/57241-4th-grade-measurement-and-data

GRAD

E 4

K-5 Math Teaching Resources: http://www.k-5mathteachingresources.com/4th-grade-numberactivities.html

Go Math Lessons: 2.3- 2.8, 2.10- 2.11, 3.1-3.6, 13.2- 13.3 (Use as needed)

Assessment Samples:

PARCC (4.NBT.B.5)

PARCC (4.MD.A.3)

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Section Explanation: In this section, students will be able to demonstrate division up to four-digit

dividends and one-digit divisors using the equations, rectangular arrays and area models. Students will

demonstrate the relationship between multiplication and division. Application of all four operations will

be made in multi-step word problems.

Standards

Instructional Notes

4.NBT.B.6

In fourth grade, students build on their third

grade work with division within 100. Students

Find whole-number quotients and remainders with

need opportunities to develop their

up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors,

understandings by using problems in and out

using strategies based on place value, the

of context.

properties of operations, and/or the relationship

between multiplication and division. Illustrate and

explain the calculation by using equations,

rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

Tie in MP4 and MP7

pencil boxes. She has 260 pencils. She wants

to put the pencils in the boxes so that each

box has the same number of pencils. How

many pencils will there be in each box?

GRAD

E 4

260 with base 10 blocks and distribute

them into 4 equal groups. Some

students may need to trade the 2

hundreds for tens but others may

easily recognize that 200 divided by 4

is 50.

o Using Place Value: 260 4 = (200

4) + (60 4)

o Using Multiplication: 4 x 50 = 200,

4 x 10 = 40, 4 x 5 = 20; 50 + 10 + 5 =

65; so 260 4 = 65

ideas.

o Using an Open Array or Area Model

After developing an understanding of using

arrays to multiply, students begin to use a

more abstract model for division. This model

connects to a recording process that will be

formalized in the 5th grade.

Example: 150 6

one of its sides. They express their

GRAD

E 4

rectangle as representing a total of 150.

o Students think, 6 times what number is

a number close to 150? They recognize

that 6 x 10 is 60 so they record 10 as a

factor and partition the rectangle into 2

rectangles and label the area aligned to

the factor of 10 with 60. They express

that they have only used 60 of the 150

so they have 90 left.

o Recognizing that there is another 60 in

what is left they repeat the process

above. They express that they have

used 120 of the 150 so they have 30

left.

o Knowing that 6 x 5 is 30. They write 30

in the bottom area of the rectangle and

record 5 as a factor.

o Students express their calculations in

various ways:

a. 150

150 6 = 10 + 10 +

5 = 25

- 60 (6 x 10)

90

- 60 (6 x 10)

30

-30 (6 x 5)

Division with a remainder: Amber baked 25

cookies. She wants to share the cookies

evenly among four friends. How many

cookies will each friend receive? We know

that if we divide 25 into four equal groups we

GRAD

E 4

remainder because we cannot place this

whole cookie into a group without making the

groups unequal. In this problem the answer is

that each friend will receive 6 cookies but

that 1 cookie will be remaining. It is

important to understand that the remainder

of 1 is related back to the word problem.

Sometimes we will need to ignore the

remainder and other times we may need to

round up based on the problem.

4.OA.A.3

Solve multistep word problems posed with whole

numbers and having whole-number answers using

the four operations, including problems in which

remainders must be interpreted. Represent these

problems using equations with a letter standing for

the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness

of answers using mental computation and

estimation strategies including rounding.

use and discuss various strategies. It refers

to estimation strategies, including using

compatible numbers (numbers that sum to

10 or 100) or rounding. Problems should be

structured so that all acceptable estimation

strategies will arrive at a reasonable answer.

Students need many opportunities solving

multi-step story problems using all four

operations.

remainders. Remainders should be put into

context for interpretation. Ways to address

remainders:

o Remain as a left over

o Discarded leaving only the whole

number answer

o Increase the whole number answer

up one

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E 4

for an approximate result

Understandings

Skills

Division is finding an

Determine the

unknown factor in a

reasonableness of a

multiplication situation.

product or quotient using

various strategies

In division, the unknown

(estimation, inverse

factor can be found by

operations, etc.).

decomposing the product

Demonstrate multiplication

into expanded place

values, dividing the values

and division as an inverse

by the known factor, and

relationship.

finding the sum of those

Write equations using a

quotients.

variable to represent the

When you divide whole

unknown.

numbers, sometimes there

Illustrate and explain

is a remainder, the

division using equations,

remainder must be less

rectangular arrays, and

than the divisor.

area models.

The real-world situation

Use and explain strategies

determines how a

based on place value, the

remainder needs to be

properties of operations,

interpreted when solving a

and/or the relationship

problem.

between multiplication and

division to divide.

Represent multistep word

problems using equations

and a symbol or variable

for the unknown.

Interpret the meaning of

the remainder in context.

Solve multi-step problems

o

Knowledge

Define division and

remainders.

Multiplication and division

are inverse operations.

Estimation and mental

computation can help

check the reasonableness

of answers.

Academic Vocabulary

Division

Quotient

Divisor

Dividend

Remainder

Rounding

Estimation

GRAD

E 4

and estimate to determine

the reasonableness of an

answer.

Suggested Resources:

Engage NY: https://www.engageny.org/resource/grade-4-mathematics-module-3

North Carolina Tasks 4.NBT.B.6: http://3-5cctask.ncdpi.wikispaces.net/4.NBT.4-4.NBT.6

Georgia Units: http://ccgpsmathematicsk-5.wikispaces.com/4th+Grade

Illustrative Mathematics: https://www.illustrativemathematics.org/content-standards/4/NBT/B/6

Inside Mathematics: http://www.insidemathematics.org/common-core-resources/mathematicalcontent-standards/standards-by-grade/4th-grade

Learn Zillion: https://learnzillion.com/resources/57239-4th-grade-numbers-and-operations-in-basetenl

Khan Academy: https://www.khanacademy.org/math/cc-fourth-grade-math/cc-4th-mult-div-topic/cc4th-div-pv-area/v/area-models-to-visualize-division-using-place-value

K-5 Math Teaching Resources: http://www.k-5mathteachingresources.com/4th-grade-numberactivities.html

Go Math Lessons: 2.9, 2.12, 2.7, 4.3

Assessment Samples:

Smarter Balance (4.OA.A.3)

GRAD

E 4

PARCC (4.OA.A.3)

GRAD

E 4

Professional Resources:

NCTM Essential Understanding Series

Common Core Progressions Documents - http://ime.math.arizona.edu/progressions/

TN Core http://tncore.org/math/instructional_resources.aspx

Illustrative Mathematics https://www.illustrativemathematics.org/blueprints

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