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Unit #4

Multiplication and Division Strategies

Approximate Time Frame: 2530 days

Focus of the Unit:

In this unit, students will continue to develop their understanding of multiplication and division using
rectangular arrays, area model and equations with larger numbers. Students will be able to demonstrate
multiplication and division using the area model. An explicit connection between the area model and
the area formula should be made within this unit. The connection between multiplication and division
will be made through solving for unknowns within the area model. Students need to know that
multiplication and division are inverse operations. Division with remainders is introduced for the first
time in this unit. Students will apply their knowledge of all four math operations to estimate and solve
multiple-step word problems. Mastery of the traditional algorithm is not expected until 5 th grade.
Multiplication and division should be continuously reviewed and practiced throughout the year.
Connections to Previous Learning:
In Grade 3, students focus on understanding the meaning and properties of multiplication and division
and on finding products of single-digit multiplication equations and related quotients. The standards
focus on Equal Groups and on arrays. Area problems where regions are partitioned by unit squares are
foundational for Grade 3 standards because area is used as model for single-digit multiplication and
division strategies.
Where the Learning Goes Next:
In Grade 5, students will become fluent with the standard multiplication algorithm with multi-digit whole
numbers. They will
reason about dividing whole numbers with two-digit divisors, and reason about adding, subtracting,
multiplying, and dividing decimals to hundredths.
Content Standards Addressed in this Unit:
Practice Standards to be Emphasized in this
4.NBT.B.5, 4.MD.A.3 (area), 4.NBT.B.6, 4.OA.A.3 Unit:
MP1: Make sense of problems and persevere in
solving them.
MP2: Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
MP3: Construct viable arguments and critique the
reasoning of others.
MP4: Model with mathematics.
MP7: Look for and make use of structure.

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Enduring Understandings:
In the multiplication expression A x B, A can defined as a scaling factor.
A situation that can be represented by multiplication has an element that represents the scalar and
an element that represents the quantity to which the scalar applies.
A scalar definition of multiplication is useful in representing and solving problems beyond whole
number multiplication and division.
Using proper terminology and understanding the division algorithm provide the basics for
understanding how numbers such as the quotient and the remainder are used in a division
The right distributive property of division over addition allows computing flexibly and justifying
computations with whole numbers, but there is no left distributive property of division over
Properties of operations on whole numbers justify written and mental computational algorithms,
standard and invented.
In a rectangular array, one of the factors tells about the rows/number of units wide the figure is
and the other factor tells about the number of square units in each row/the width of the figure.
Either factor (the number of rows or number of square units in each row) can be worked with
separately to determine the area of a portion of the figure.
Section Explanation: In this section, students will be able to demonstrate multiplication and division
using the area model. An explicit connection between the area model and the area formula should be
made within this unit. The connection between the area model and traditional algorithm should be made.
Instructional Notes
Fourth graders use multiplication, spatially
Apply the area and perimeter formulas for
structuring arrays, and area model, to
rectangles in real world and mathematical
generate the formula for the area of a
problems. For example, find the width of a
rectangle A = l x w. The formula is a
rectangular room given the area of the flooring and
generalization of the understanding, that,
the length, by viewing the area formula as a
given a unit of length, a rectangle whose
multiplication equation with an unknown factor.
sides have length w units and l units, can be
partitioned into w rows of unit squares with l

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Tie to MP2, MP4, and MP7

Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a
one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit
numbers, using strategies based on place value
and the properties of operations. Illustrate and
explain the calculation by using equations,
rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
Tie to MP4, MP6, and MP7

squares in each row. The product l x w gives

the number of unit squares in the partition,
thus the area measurement is l x w square
units. These square units are derived from
the length unit. When engaging in the
mathematical practice of reasoning
abstractly and quantitatively in work with,
students think of the situation and perhaps
make a drawing. Then they recreate the
"formula" with specific numbers and one
unknown number as a situation equation for
this particular numerical situation. "Apply
the formula" does not mean write down a
memorized formula and put in known values
because at Grade 4 students do not evaluate
Common Misconceptions:
Students who develop flexibility in breaking
numbers apart have a better understanding
of the importance of place value and the
distributive property in multi-digit
multiplication. Students use base ten blocks,
area models, partitioning, compensation
strategies, etc. when multiplying whole
numbers and use words and diagrams to
explain their thinking. They use the terms
factor and product when communicating their
reasoning. Multiple strategies enable
students to develop fluency with
multiplication and transfer that
understanding to division.
Use of place value and the distributive

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property are applied in the scaffold examples

o To illustrate 154 x 6 students use base 10
blocks or use drawings to show 154 six
times. Students will need to see 154 as
100 + 50 + 4 first. Then, this quantity is
multiplied by 6. This will lead to the
distributive property, 154 X 6 = (100 + 50
+ 4) x 6 = (100 x 6) + (50 X 6) + (4 X 6)
= 600 + 300 + 24 = 924.
o The area model shows the distributive
48 x 26 = 1248
Using the area model, students first verbalize
their understanding:
o 20 x 40 = 800
o 20 x 8 = 160
o 6 x 40 = 240 , and
o 6 x 8 = 48

The area model works regardless of how the

factors are decomposed. Decomposition is

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Define factor and product.
The area model develops a
visual of multiplication.

Academic Vocabulary
Rectangular array
Area model

discussed in all grades from kindergarten on.

Multiplication has an
Use the formula for area to
element that represents
solve real world problems.
the scalar and an element
Demonstrate multiplication
that represents the
using rectangular arrays,
quantity to which the scalar
place value, and the area
The area model develops a
Solve multiplication of
visual of the distributive
whole numbers up to fourproperty and place value
digits by one and two-digits
understanding in
by two-digits by using
relationship to
strategies based on place
value and properties of
In multiplication, factors
can be decomposed into
expanded values and those
values can be multiplied
and added back together.

Suggested Resources:
Engage NY:
North Carolina Task 4.NBT.B.5 Tasks 1- 3:
Georgia Unit:
Inside Mathematics:
Illustrative Mathematics:
Learn Zillion:
Learn Zillion:

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Khan Academy Video:

K-5 Math Teaching Resources:
Go Math Lessons: 2.3- 2.8, 2.10- 2.11, 3.1-3.6, 13.2- 13.3 (Use as needed)
Assessment Samples:

PARCC (4.MD.A.3)

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Section Explanation: In this section, students will be able to demonstrate division up to four-digit
dividends and one-digit divisors using the equations, rectangular arrays and area models. Students will
demonstrate the relationship between multiplication and division. Application of all four operations will
be made in multi-step word problems.
Instructional Notes
In fourth grade, students build on their third
grade work with division within 100. Students
Find whole-number quotients and remainders with
need opportunities to develop their
up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors,
understandings by using problems in and out
using strategies based on place value, the
of context.
properties of operations, and/or the relationship
between multiplication and division. Illustrate and
explain the calculation by using equations,
rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
Tie in MP4 and MP7

Examples: A 4th grade teacher bought 4 new

pencil boxes. She has 260 pencils. She wants
to put the pencils in the boxes so that each
box has the same number of pencils. How
many pencils will there be in each box?

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o Using Base 10 Blocks: Students build

260 with base 10 blocks and distribute
them into 4 equal groups. Some
students may need to trade the 2
hundreds for tens but others may
easily recognize that 200 divided by 4
is 50.
o Using Place Value: 260 4 = (200
4) + (60 4)
o Using Multiplication: 4 x 50 = 200,
4 x 10 = 40, 4 x 5 = 20; 50 + 10 + 5 =
65; so 260 4 = 65

Students may use digital tools to express

o Using an Open Array or Area Model
After developing an understanding of using
arrays to multiply, students begin to use a
more abstract model for division. This model
connects to a recording process that will be
formalized in the 5th grade.
Example: 150 6

Students make a rectangle and write 6 on

one of its sides. They express their

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understanding that they need to think of the

rectangle as representing a total of 150.
o Students think, 6 times what number is
a number close to 150? They recognize
that 6 x 10 is 60 so they record 10 as a
factor and partition the rectangle into 2
rectangles and label the area aligned to
the factor of 10 with 60. They express
that they have only used 60 of the 150
so they have 90 left.
o Recognizing that there is another 60 in
what is left they repeat the process
above. They express that they have
used 120 of the 150 so they have 30
o Knowing that 6 x 5 is 30. They write 30
in the bottom area of the rectangle and
record 5 as a factor.
o Students express their calculations in
various ways:
a. 150
150 6 = 10 + 10 +
5 = 25
- 60 (6 x 10)

- 60 (6 x 10)
-30 (6 x 5)
Division with a remainder: Amber baked 25
cookies. She wants to share the cookies
evenly among four friends. How many
cookies will each friend receive? We know
that if we divide 25 into four equal groups we

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will have 1 cookie remaining. This is a

remainder because we cannot place this
whole cookie into a group without making the
groups unequal. In this problem the answer is
that each friend will receive 6 cookies but
that 1 cookie will be remaining. It is
important to understand that the remainder
of 1 is related back to the word problem.
Sometimes we will need to ignore the
remainder and other times we may need to
round up based on the problem.
Solve multistep word problems posed with whole
numbers and having whole-number answers using
the four operations, including problems in which
remainders must be interpreted. Represent these
problems using equations with a letter standing for
the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness
of answers using mental computation and
estimation strategies including rounding.

The focus in this standard is to have students

use and discuss various strategies. It refers
to estimation strategies, including using
compatible numbers (numbers that sum to
10 or 100) or rounding. Problems should be
structured so that all acceptable estimation
strategies will arrive at a reasonable answer.
Students need many opportunities solving
multi-step story problems using all four

This standard references interpreting

remainders. Remainders should be put into
context for interpretation. Ways to address
o Remain as a left over
o Discarded leaving only the whole
number answer
o Increase the whole number answer
up one

Tie to MP1, MP2, MP3 and MP4

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Round to the nearest whole number

for an approximate result
Division is finding an
Determine the
unknown factor in a
reasonableness of a
multiplication situation.
product or quotient using
various strategies
In division, the unknown
(estimation, inverse
factor can be found by
operations, etc.).
decomposing the product
Demonstrate multiplication
into expanded place
values, dividing the values
and division as an inverse
by the known factor, and
finding the sum of those
Write equations using a
variable to represent the
When you divide whole
numbers, sometimes there
Illustrate and explain
is a remainder, the
division using equations,
remainder must be less
rectangular arrays, and
than the divisor.
area models.
The real-world situation
Use and explain strategies
determines how a
based on place value, the
remainder needs to be
properties of operations,
interpreted when solving a
and/or the relationship
between multiplication and
division to divide.
Represent multistep word
problems using equations
and a symbol or variable
for the unknown.
Interpret the meaning of
the remainder in context.
Solve multi-step problems

Define division and
Multiplication and division
are inverse operations.
Estimation and mental
computation can help
check the reasonableness
of answers.

Academic Vocabulary

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using all four operations

and estimate to determine
the reasonableness of an
Suggested Resources:
Engage NY:
North Carolina Tasks 4.NBT.B.6:
Georgia Units:
Illustrative Mathematics:
Inside Mathematics:
Learn Zillion:
Khan Academy:
K-5 Math Teaching Resources:
Go Math Lessons: 2.9, 2.12, 2.7, 4.3

Assessment Samples:
Smarter Balance (4.OA.A.3)

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PARCC (4.OA.A.3)

Smarter Balance (4.OA.A.3)

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Professional Resources:
NCTM Essential Understanding Series
Common Core Progressions Documents -
TN Core
Illustrative Mathematics