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E 4

Unit #5

12-15 days

This unit encompasses fractional equivalency and comparing fractions. Students will be able to

demonstrate their understanding of equivalency using visual fraction models. This includes area models,

number lines or it could be a collection/set model. This extends the work in third grade (with

denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8) by using additional denominators (5, 10, 12, and 100). This unit

addresses equivalent fractions by examining the idea that equivalent fractions can be created by

multiplying both the numerator and denominator by the same number or by dividing a shaded region

into various parts. Comparison of fractions should be demonstrated in several ways. Before moving to

the procedure of finding a common denominator, fraction sense and reasoning should be the focus.

Connections to Previous Learning:

In Grade 3, the meaning of fraction is more formally built around the idea of partitioning the whole into

equal parts. Students started with unit fractions, which are formed by partitioning a whole into equal

parts and taking one part. Next students built fractions from unit fractions. Students did some

preliminary reasoning about equivalent fractions. Students experimented on number line diagrams

discovering that many fractions label the same point on the number line. Students also used fractions

strips to see fraction equivalence. In Grade 3, students compared fractions with the same denominator

or the same numerator. Students compared fractions of the same whole by reasoning about the size.

Where the Learning Goes Next:

In coming units, students will compare decimals using the meaning of a decimal as a fraction. Students

will compare two decimals, where one is given in tenths and the other hundredths, which is the same as

generating an equivalent fraction. This argument using the meaning of a decimal as a fraction

generalizes to work with decimals in Grade 5 that have more than two digits.

Also in Grade 5, students will use their knowledge of fractional equivalency when adding and subtracting

fractions with unlike denominators by creating fractions with common denominators.

Content Standards Addressed in this Unit:

Practice Standards to be Emphasized in this

4.NF.A.1, 4.NF.A.2

Unit:

MP2: Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP4: Model with mathematics.

MP5: Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP7: Look for and make use of structure.

Enduring Understandings:

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Rational numbers are a natural extension of the way that we use numbers.

The concept of whole is fundamental to the interpretation of rational numbers.

A fraction describes the division of a whole (region, set, segment) into equal parts.

The larger the name of the denominator the smaller the size of the piece.

Any rational number can be expressed as a fraction in an infinite number of equivalent forms, and

the forms are equivalent if the same portion of the set or area of the figure is represented or they

represent the same point of the number line.

When creating equivalent fractions all of the pieces in a whole are subdivided or partitioned thus

the amount of pieces named in the numerator is automatically partitioned in the same way.

Comparison to known benchmark quantities can help students determine the relative size of a

fractional piece because the benchmark quantity can clearly be seen as smaller as or larger than

the piece. One significant benchmark quantity is one-half.

A fraction can be named in more than one way and the fractions will be equivalent as long as the

same portion of the set or area of the figure is represented when the denominator is multiplied or

divided then the numerator is automatically divided into the same number of pieces because it is a

subcomponent of the denominator.

Standards

4.NF.A.1

Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a

fraction (n x a) / (n x b) by using visual fraction

models, with attention to how the number and size

of the parts differ even though the two fractions

themselves are the same size. Use this principle to

recognize and generate equivalent fractions.

Tie in MP4, MP5, and MP7.

Instructional Notes

Students can use visual models to generate

equivalent fractions.

Example: All the models show 1/2 . The

second model shows 2/4 but also shows that

1/2 and 2/4 are equivalent fractions

because their areas are equivalent. When a

horizontal line is drawn through the center of

the model, the number of equal parts doubles

and size of the parts is halved. Students will

begin to notice connections between the models

and fractions in the way both the parts and

wholes are counted and begin to generate a rule

for writing equivalent fractions.

GRAD

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1 2 2

=

2 2 4

1 2 2

=

2 2 4

1 3 3

=

2 3 6

1 4 4

=

2 4 8

Common Misconceptions:

Students think that when generating

equivalent fractions they need to multiply or

divide either the numerator or denominator,

1

such as, changing

to sixths. They would

2

1

multiply the denominator by 3 to get

,

6

instead of multiplying the numerator by 3

also. Their focus is only on the multiple of the

denominator, not the whole fraction.

Students need to use a fraction in the form of

3

one such as

so that the numerator and

3

denominator do not contain the original

numerator or denominator

GRAD

E 4

4.NF.A.2

Compare two fractions with different numerators

and different denominators, e.g., by creating

common denominators or numerators, or by

comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2.

Recognize that comparisons are valid only when

the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record

the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <,

and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual

fraction model

fractions by creating visual fraction models or

finding common denominators or numerators.

Students experiences should focus on visual

fraction models rather than algorithms. When

tested, models may or may not be included.

Students should learn to draw fraction models to

help them compare. Students must also

recognize that they must consider the size of

the whole when comparing fractions.

1

2

as a

benchmark.

1

1

is smaller than

because when 1

8

2

whole is cut into 8 pieces, the pieces are

much smaller than when 1 whole is cut into 2

pieces.

Possible student thinking by creating common

denominators:

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E 4

5 1

>

6 2

because

3 1

= and

6 2

5 3

>

6 6

numerators:

1 3

1 3

3 3

>

=

>

because

and

2 10

2 6

6 10

Knowledge

Equivalent fractions have

the same value.

There are linear and area

fraction models.

Academic Vocabulary:

Numerator

Common Misconceptions:

Students think that when generating

equivalent fractions they need to multiply or

divide either the numerator or denominator,

1

such as, changing

to sixths. They would

2

1

multiply the denominator by 3 to get

,

6

instead of multiplying the numerator by 3

also. Their focus is only on the multiple of the

denominator, not the whole fraction.

Students need to use a fraction in the form of

3

one such as

so that the numerator and

3

denominator do not contain the original

numerator or denominator.

Understandings

Skills

Multiplying by n/n is the

Explain why a fraction a/b

same as multiplying by 1

is equivalent to a fraction

(which is why equivalent

(n x a) / (n x b) by using

fractions have the same

visual fraction models.

value).

Use visual fraction models

When creating equivalent

(e.g., number lines, objects,

fractions all of the pieces in

drawings, etc.) to show

GRAD

E 4

Denominator

Equivalent fractions

Benchmark fraction

Visual fraction model

Comparison symbols

partitioned thus the

amount of pieces named in

the numerator is

automatically partitioned in

the same way.

When comparing two

fractions, it is only valid

when the two fractions

refer to the same whole.

Fractions can be compared

by reasoning about their

size.

equivalent fractions.

Recognize if two fractions

are equivalent.

Generate equivalent

fractions for a given

fraction.

Compare two fractions by

creating equivalent

fractions with a common

denominator or numerator.

Compare two fractions by

reasoning about their size

Compare to two fractions to

a benchmark fraction such

as .

Compare fractions using <,

>, and = and justify the

comparison.

Suggested Resources:

TN Core Tasks: Star Bar; Getting to School: http://www.edutoolbox.org/tntools/menu/grade/819/955

Engage NY: https://www.engageny.org/resource/grade-4-mathematics-module-5

North Carolina Tasks: http://3-5cctask.ncdpi.wikispaces.net/4.NF.1-4.NF.2

Georgia Units: http://ccgpsmathematicsk-5.wikispaces.com/4th+Grade

Inside Mathematics: http://www.insidemathematics.org/common-core-resources/mathematicalcontent-standards/standards-by-grade/4th-grade

Illustrative Mathematics: https://www.illustrativemathematics.org/content-standards/4/NF/A

Learn Zillion: https://learnzillion.com/resources/57240-4th-grade-numbers-and-operations-fractions

Khan Academy: https://www.khanacademy.org/math/cc-fourth-grade-math/cc-4th-fractions-topic/cc4th-visualizing-equiv-frac/v/equivalent-amount-of-pizza

K-5 Math Teaching Resources: http://www.k-5mathteachingresources.com/4th-grade-number-

GRAD

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activities.html

Go Math: Lessons 6.1 6.8

Assessment Samples:

PARCC (4.NF.A.1 & 4.NF.A.2)

GRAD

E 4

Professional Resources:

GRAD

E 4

Common Core Progressions Documents - http://ime.math.arizona.edu/progressions/

TN Core http://tncore.org/math/instructional_resources.aspx

Illustrative Mathematics https://www.illustrativemathematics.org/blueprints

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