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Classical Management

Perspective

Definition:

Classical approach of management


professes the body of management
thought based on the belief that
employees have only economical and
physical needs and that the social needs &
need for job satisfaction either does not
exist or are unimportant. Accordingly it
advocates high specialization of labour,
centralized decision making & profit
maximization.

Classical approach is the oldest formal school of thought


which began around 1900 and continued into the 1920s.
Its mainly concerned with the increasing the efficiency of
workers and organizations based on management practices,
which were an outcome of careful observation.
Classical approach mainly looks for the universal principles
of operation in the striving for economic efficiency.
Classical approach includes scientific, administrative &
bureaucratic management.

There are basically two types of viewpoints :

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT focuses on


the one best way to do a job.
(Individual Worker)
ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT
focuses on the manager & basic
managerial functions(Total
Organization.)

SCIENTIFIC
MANAGEMENT
THEORY

FREDERICK WINSLOW
TAYLOR
(1856-1915)

FREDERICK W.TAYLOR
(1856-1915)
- FATHER OF
SCIENTIFIC
MANAGEMENT

FRANK GILBERTH
(1868-1924) & LILLIAN
GILBERTH(1878-1972)

ANALYSED
MANAGEMENT
SCIENTIFICALLY TO
FIND OUT THE MOST
EFFICTIVE WAY TO DO
A JOB - ONE BEST
WAY TO DO THE JOB.

Scientific Management

Scientific management was a


theory of management that
analyzed and workflows, with
the objective of improving
labor productivity
management of a business,
industry, or economy,
according to principles of
efficiency derived from
experiments in methods of
work and production,
especially from time-andmotion studies- (mass noun)

Steps in Scientific Management


1.
2.
3.

Develop a science for each element


of the job.
Scientifically select employees and
then train them to do the job.
Supervise employees to make sure
they follow prescribed methods.
Continue to plan the work, but use
workers to get the work done.
2-7

Copyright Houghton Mifflin


Company. All rights reserved.

Steps in Scientific Management

2-8

Copyright Houghton Mifflin


Company. All rights reserved.

GENERAL
ADMINSTRATIVE
MANAGEMENT THEORY

HENRI FAYOL (1841- 1925)

- FATHER OF MODERN
MANAGEMENT

ANALYSED MANAGEMENT
AS A UNIVERSAL
PROCESS OF
PLANNING,ORGANIZING,
COMMANDING,COORDINA
TI-NG& CONTROLLING.
ALSO INTRODUCED
FOURTEEN PRINCIPLES
OF MANAGEMENT.

HENRI
FAYOL
(18411925)

Administrative
Management

Administrative
management
theoryattempts to find a
rational way to design an
organization as a whole. The
theory generally calls for a
formalized administrative
structure, a clear division of
labor, and delegation of
power and authority to
administrators relevant to
their areas of responsibilities.

The Classical Management


Perspective Today

Contributions
Laid the foundation for later theoretical
developments.
Identified management processes, functions, and
skills.
Focused attention on management as a valid subject
of scientific inquiry.
Limitations
More appropriate approach for use in traditional,
stable, simple organizations.
Prescribed universal procedures that are not
appropriate in some settings.
Employees viewed as tools rather than as resources.
Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All
rights reserved.

211

Emergence of Webers Bureaucracy


During 1800s, European Org.
were managed on a personal,
family-like basis.
Employees loyal towards a single
individual.
MAX
WEBER(1
8641920)

Resources used to realize


individual desires.
Weber envisioned Org. would be
managed on an impersonal,
rational basis. This form of Org. is
known as Bureaucracy.

Classical Management in todays


world

The ideas Classical Theorists have presented still have many applications
in the management of today's organisations but with some modifications.
Managers of today are facing many internal challenges which are similar
to the ones faced by the managers during earlier periods. Like Taylor's
concern for increase productivity of workers is still shared by managers.
The Scientific Management theory is still relevant, even today but it is
not as popular as it was in the past. The job design it presented is still
widely used in industries today and has made most of the industrial work
repetitive, tedious, menial and depressing, and can be noted for example
in fast-food restaurants like KFC and McDonald and in assembly lines of
automobile manufacturers. McDonald's divides its operation into a
number of tasks such as operating a deep fryer or cooking operation,
supervising and assign people to perform the tasks. The modern mass
automobile assembly lines pour out finished merchandises faster than
Taylor could have ever thought off or imagined. In addition to this, the
efficiency techniques of Scientific Management ate used in the training of
Surgeons.