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The enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (CAAA) and the

introduction of theIntermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA)

have changed the ways thatmost states and local governments deal with
transportation problems. Specifically, the CAAAhas geared transportation planning
towards improving air quality in addition to what it waspreviously geared to,
mobility.The transportation sector is the dominant source of U.S. fuel consumption
and emissions.Specifically, transportation accounts for nearly two-thirds of the
petroleum consumed in theUnited States, and the highway vehicle accounts for
nearly three-fourths of total transportationenergy use (NRC, 1995). Reduction in fuel
consumption will lead to reduction in carbon dioxideemissions, thus reducing the
contribution of motor vehicles to the production of greenhousegases. Moreover, by
reducing the total amount of gasoline consumed, hydrocarbon emissionscould be
reduced from the entire fuel cycle.Mobile source emissions contribute significantly
to the air pollution problem in the UnitedStates. Out of six principal pollutants
defined by EPA, three pollutants, which are hydrocarbon,carbon monoxide, and
nitrogen oxides, are discussed in this thesis.Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a colorless,
odorless and at high levels, a poisonous gas, resultingfrom incomplete combustion
of motor fuels. It is a component of motor vehicle exhaust.Nationwide, 79 percent of
carbon monoxide (CO) emissions come from transportation sources,with 60 percent
resulting from highway motor vehicles (EPA, 1996), as illustrated in Figure 1-1.High
concentrations of CO generally occur in areas with heavy traffic congestion. In
cities, asmuch as 95 percent of all CO emissions may come from automobile
exhaust.Oxides of Nitrogen (NO
) emissions consist of a mixture of NO and NO
, which are formed byhigh-temperature chemical processes during the combustion
of fossil fuels (Horowitz, 1982 andNRC, 1991). NO
is one of the ground-level Ozone precursors and has received significant attention
from the scientific and regulatory communities as result of the depletion of the
Ozone layer. Transportation sources account for 51 percent of NO
emissions, with 31 percent from highway motor vehicles (EPA, 1996), as illustrated
in Figure 1-1. Hydrocarbon (HC) emissions result from the unburned portion of the
fuel that escapes through the exhaust system and/or the vehicle fuel storage and
the delivery system. It is one of components of volatile organic compounds (VOCs),
which are the other ground-level Ozone precursors. The Transportation sector
contributes 41 percent of the total VOC emissions, with 29percent from highway
motor vehicles (EPA, 1996), as illustrated in Figure 1-1.

HC29%13%58%On-road Vehicles Non-road Vehicles Other Sources

Between 1970 and 1997, the population in US increased by 31 percent, with an
increase in vehicle miles traveled by 127 percent. At the same time, total emissions
of the six principal air pollutants decreased by 31 percent. However, in 1997 there
were still approximately 107 million people nationwide who lived in counties with
monitored air quality levels above at least one of the National Ambient Air Quality
Standards (NAAQS), and as of September 1997, 158 areas in the US are still
designated as non-attainment areas.

Problem Definition
HC, CO and NOx
are three primary pollutants associated with motor vehicles. These emissions can be
linked to two different emission producing processes, including the fuel combustion
process and the evaporation process, as illustrated in Figure 1-2. Furthermore,
vehicle emissions can be linked to two motor vehicle systems, which are the
exhaust system and the fuel storage and delivery system, as illustrated in Figure 12. Exhaust emissions are products of the

improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency can reduce the extent of the Nation's
dependence on foreign oil. Even though the impact of fuel economy improvements
on the emissions of other pollutants is still unclear, total volatile organic compound
(VOC) emissions are likely to be lower due to reduced demand for fuel.

It is well known that good maintenance of a vehicle can help curb its fuel
consumption increase with the vehicle's age and utilization.

Other vehicle characteristics like weight and size also affect fuel consumption. For
example, light and small vehicles typically consume less fuel than heavy and large
vehicles. In addition, the weather conditions, like temperature, moisture, and wind,
can have a significant influence on fuel consumption.

Fuel consumption is a more accurate measure of a vehicles performance. It is the amount of fuel
used per unit distance; for example, litres per 100 kilometres (L/100 km). In this case,
the lower the value, the more economic a vehicle is (the less fuel it needs to travel a certain

Fuel economy is the distance travelled per unit volume of fuel used; for example, kilometres per
litre (km/L) or miles per gallon (MPG), where 1 MPG (imperial) 0.354006 km/L. In this case,
the higher the value, the more economic a vehicle is (the more distance it can travel with a certain
volume of fuel).

fuel economy standards require automakers to design more efficient vehicles or to

shift sales toward more efficient models. More energy efficient vehicles require less fuel to
cover a given distance

Calculating fuel consumption

How to track your fuel consumption
If your vehicle doesn't have a fuel tracking mechanism, the following four easy steps show you how to
calculate how many kilometres you get out of a tank of fuel. Using fuel efficient driving practices can
increase the distance you travel for every tank.
STEP 1: Fill up your vehicles fuel tank completely and record the vehicles odometer reading
Example: the last time the tank was filled, the odometer reading was 40 200km.
STEP 2: When its time to refuel, fill the tank completely and record both the number of litres it took to fill
the tank, as well as the vehicles new odometer reading. Once two odometer readings have been taken,
you can calculate your vehicles fuel consumption.
Example: it took 56 litres to fill the tank, and this time around the odometer reading was 41 000km.
STEP 3: Calculate the distance travelled by subtracting the new odometer reading from the previous one.
Example: the distance driven would be 41 000km minus 40 200km = 800km.
STEP 4: Divide the number of litres it took to fill the tank by the distance travelled and multiply this value
by 100. The result is the vehicles fuel consumption for that driving period.
Example: 56 litres 800km = 0.07.
0.07 x 100 = 7.0 litres () per 100 km.
Therefore, the fuel consumption for that driving period would be 7/100km
What is your vehicle costing you to run?
Visit the AA of South Africa website to calculate how much it costs to operate your car.
The latest fuel prices are available here.
Would you like to know more about becoming a SMART Driver? Click here download the PDF version of the
full Travel SMART programme manual.