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Emission Inventories

http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps
/eog/course422/ce5.html

All the data collected through the measurement of


pollutants in the ambient air and from emissions
sources is used to develop emission inventories.
An emissions inventory is a quantitative list of the
amounts and types of pollutants that are entering
the air from all sources within a certain area.
The fundamental elements in an emission
inventory are the characteristics and locations of
the sources, as well as the amounts and types of
pollutants emitted.

An emission inventory can help identify air


pollution concerns and determine the air quality
goals that a certain region needs to meet.
An emissions inventory is one of the most basic
tools of air quality management.
The emission inventory data can be used to
simulate air pollution formation and transport,
estimate potential pollutant concentrations in an
area, and estimate the effectiveness of potential
emission reduction requirements.
Chemical transformation and computer dispersion
models use emission data and meteorological data
to project how pollutants will form and spread
(disperse) across a region. In other words,

EPA encourages states to develop and maintain


emission inventories, and provides technical
assistance to help the states achieve this goal.
EPA has published a number of documents to
assist states and local agencies in developing
inventories.
Development of an inventory is a tedious and
detailed task.
The data that make up the inventory must be
carefully collected and analyzed.
Strict quality assurance guidelines must be
followed to ensure the accuracy and validity of the
inventory.

Source Control Technology - 1


Air quality management sets the tools to control air pollutant
emissions. This control technology or control measurements describes
the equipment, processes or actions used to reduce air pollution. The
extent of pollution reduction varies among technologies and measures.
In general, control technologies and measures that do the best job of
reducing pollution will be required in the areas with the worst pollution.
The selection of control technologies depends on environmental,
engineering, economic factors and pollutant type.
Some techniques to control air pollutant emissions do not require
additional equipment, while other techniques require "add-on" controls.
Add-on controls are equipment added to a pollution generating process
to destroy or capture the pollutants. Techniques to curb air pollutant
emissions without using add-on controls include: process changes,
changes in fuel, good operating practices and plant shutdowns. These
control methods work equally well for gaseous and particulate
pollutants. An example of a process change might be the conversion
from a power source using fossil fuel to one using solar or hydroelectric
power. Solar and hydroelectric power generators produce less air
pollution than do generators that burn fossil fuels. An example of a
change in fuel would be to use coal with low sulfur content, rather than

Source Control Technology - 2


Good operating practices include common sense measures,
such as good housekeeping and proper maintenance. An
example is the use of a regular inspection and maintenance
system to ensure that volatile organic compounds are not
emitted by leaking equipment in a chemical plant. Equipment
leaks can be a large source of volatile organic compound
emissions. A regular inspection program using simple leak
detection devices, coupled with a prompt repair and
maintenance system, can greatly reduce this source of
emissions. In addition to reducing emissions, good
housekeeping and maintenance practices can also result in cost
savings to a plant by reducing losses of valuable materials.
Finally, plant shutdowns are an effective pollution reduction
technique. Plant shutdowns might be necessary in extreme
cases, such as during an air pollution episode. Replacing old
and outdated plants with modernized facilities is also effective
in reducing air pollution. In this unit we will describe some
techniques used to control particulate and gaseous pollutants

Source Control Technology - 3

Particulates

Gaseous Pollutants

ESPs
Fabric Filter
Venturi Scrubbers
Settling Chambers
Cyclones
Absorption
Adsorption
Condensation
Incineration

Mobile Sources
Cleaner Fuels
Cleaner Cars
I/M Programs