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152 views23 pagesUma pequena apresentação sobre LWR Models de primeira ordem.

Jun 20, 2016

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Uma pequena apresentação sobre LWR Models de primeira ordem.

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152 views

Uma pequena apresentação sobre LWR Models de primeira ordem.

© All Rights Reserved

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Emanuel P. Fontelles

T

opicos de Mec

anica Estatstica

June, 2016

Introduction

Continuity Equation:

The continuity equation is a partial differential or difference equation for

the macroscopic quantities (density) and V (speed) or Q (flow). Due to

the hydrodynamic relation flow equals density times speed these two

options are equivalent. While the parameterless continuity equation is

always valid, we need an additional equation for the flow or speed to

complete the model.

Since the continuity equation is completely determined by the geometry of the road infrastructure, the macroscopic models differ in their

modeling of speed or flow, only.

Continuity Equation:

tot

t

(tot V )

x

=0

In 1955 and 1956, Lighthill and Whitham, and independently also

Richards, proposed the following static relation to complement the

continuity equation:

Q(x, t) = Qe ((x, t))

or V (x, t) = Ve ((x, t))

dQ()

Qe

=

, yield the simplest form of a Lighthill

chain rule

x

d x

Whitham Richards model

dQ()

+

=0

t

d x

e

+ Ve + dV

=0

d

t

x

LWR Model

LWR Model

The schematic example of a static speed-density relation to LWR

models.

Proposed by Lighthill and Whitham (1955) and Richards (1956), the LWR

model describes traffic flow on a single one-way road without entrances or

exits:

t + V () = 0

x

= density

V () = preferred velocity, a given nonincreasing function of ,

nonnegative for between 0 and m (thejam density)

Predicts piece-wise smooth density, with transitions between regions

approximated by shocks

Problem: Doesnt adequately describe the motion of cars passing

through shocks (cars change velocity instantaneously)

One of important parameters is the propagation velocity c(), this

parameter is related with density variation, and using the traveling-wave

ansatz

(x, t) = 0 (x ct)

0 (x) = (x, 0)

The partial differential equations are nonlinear wave equations

Describes the propagation of kinematic waves

Propagation velocity c

c() =

dQe

d

d(Ve ())

d

LWR model in comparison with the local vehicle speed V (). In the fundamental

diagram (top), c is given by the slope of the tangent while V is given by the

slope of the secant through the origin.

8.3.1 Formation

Continuous LWR models describes density variations of constant

amplitudes but with varying local propagation velocities

How to density variations affects the traffic?

How to behave the vehicles on a stop-go-wave? (Density Profile)

8.3.1 Formation

velocities in the LWR model.

which is the defining feature of a shock wave or shock front.

8.3.2 Derivation of the Propagation Velocity

The transitions free congested and congested free in the LWR

models are unrealistic

The propagation of the wave positions, the motion of transition zones

to and from extended congested traffic, are described realistically

Figure: A shock front at location x12 (t) with constant flow and density within

small road sections on either side.

8.3.2 Derivation of the Propagation Velocity

To derive the propagation velocities, to find the velocity c12 = dxdt12 , we

will express the rate of change in the number of vehicles, dn

dt , in two

different ways:

From the conservation of vehicles

And with the definition of the density

dn

= Q1 Q2

dt

dx12

n = 1 x12 + 2 (L x12 ) dn

dt = (2 1 ) dt = (2 1 )c12

Comparing both expressions for

c12 =

dn

dt

gives us

Q2 Q1

Qe (1 ) Qe (2 )

=

2 1

2 1

8.3.3 Vehicle Speed Versus Propagation Velocities

The LWR model allows us to extract all relevant velocities directly

from the fundamental diagram

from the fundamental diagram.

1

by the slope of the fundamental diagram.

the secant connecting points of the fundamental diagram

corresponding to traffic on either side of the front.

connecting the origin with the corresponding point on the

fundamental diagram.

This is generally done by finite-difference methods: Space is divided

into cells of generally constant length x (although this is not

required), and time in the index k increasing in the downstream

direction.

The equations for the LWR models have the form of a so-called

conservation law for which many specialized explicit solution

methods are available.

Figure: Cells of the CTM for a simple straight road and definition of the relevant

quantities for the supply demand method.

Godunov scheme

Courant-Friedrichs-Levy condition (CFL condition) for LWR models

These discretization errors lead to the phenomenon of numerical

diffusion which increases with the cell size

triangular fundamental diagram

The discrete version is formulated as an iterated coupled map with

time and space discretized into time steps and cells, respectively, and

supplemented by a special supply-demand update rule. This model

is known as cell-transmission model

and the section-based model.

8.5.1 Model Parameters

the minimum distance headway leff , which is the average vehicle length

plus the average minimum gap s0 in stopped traffic:

leff = s0 + l =

1

max

8.5.1 Model Parameters

the minimum distance headway leff , which is the average vehicle length

plus the average minimum gap s0 in stopped traffic:

leff = s0 + l =

1

max

8.5.9 Examples

Shock waves are not very realistic in describing traffic flow. Furthermore,

the associated discontinuities turn out to be problematic for a numerical

solution - at least for non-triangular fundamental diagrams. As a simple

phenomenological solution, one may introduce diffusion to the continuity

equation by adding a diffusion term D/x 2 with the diffusion constant

D > 0:

Questions?

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