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J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem (2014) 57(2), 197200

DOI 10.1007/s13765-014-4006-3

Online ISSN 2234-344X


Print ISSN 1738-2203

SHORT COMMUNICATION

Phototactic Behavior 4: Attractive Effects of


Trialeurodes vaporariorum Adults to Light-emitting
Diodes under Laboratory Conditions
Ju-Hyun Jeon Min-Gi Kim Hoi-Seon Lee

Received: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published Online: 30 April 2014
The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry and Springer 2014

Abstract The phototactic action of the greenhouse whitefly,


Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults to
light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at various luminous intensities and
light exposure times was investigated in a Y-maze bioassay
chamber, and was compared with a standard luring lamp, which is
used in commercial electric traps. Blue LED (97.3%) exhibited
the highest potential attraction rate, followed by green LED
(96.6%), white LED (93.7%), red LED (93.0%), UV LED
(90.3%), yellow LED (89.3%), and IR LED (7.7%). Based on the
relative efficiency values, the blue LED was approximately 1.2
times more effective than the luring lamp (84.3%). These results
suggest that the blue LED was the most useful for monitoring of
T. vaporariorum adults under optimal conditions.
Keywords light exposure time luminous intensity luring lamp
Y-maze bioassay chamber

The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood


(Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is one of the most important and
serious arthropod pests of vegetable and ornamental crops in
greenhouses (Gu et al., 2008; Moreau and Isman, 2011). The
greenhouse whitefly can cause many serious injuries to plants,
including contamination by sticky honeydew on leaf foliage, and
reduced yields, by extracting water, photosynthetic products, and
amino acids (Gu et al., 2008; Inbar and Gerling, 2008; Moreau
and Isman, 2011). Further damage is caused by the transmission
of plant pathogenic viruses, such as the lettuce infectious yellows
virus and the tomato chlorosis virus (Von Elling et al., 2002;
J.-H. Jeon M.-G. Kim () H.-S. Lee ()
Department of Bioenvironmental Chemistry and Institute of Agricultural
Science & Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Science, Chonbuk
National University, Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea
E-mail: hoiseon@jbnu.ac.kr (H.-S Lee); mingi21c@jbnu.ac.kr (M.-G Kim)

Mutwiwa and Tantau, 2005). Traditionally, primary management


of greenhouse whitefly on plants has relied on chemical applications,
such as systemic neonicotinoids (Gu et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2009).
Although effective, repeated and continued use of chemical
insecticides have resulted in many problems, including potential
whitefly resistance, risks to human health and to the environment,
as well as other negative impacts (Kim et al., 2003; Yang et al.,
2003; Lee et al., 2009). Hence, there is a need to develop nontoxic and effective management strategies for controlling T.
vaporariorum.
Insect light traps have long been used for trapping various
species of insect pests (Gu et al., 2008; Jeon et al., 2012). In recent
years, commercial light traps have been replaced with lightemitting diodes (LEDs) that have several specific advantages,
including low weight, small size, high energy efficiency, low
temperature sensitivity, long operating lifetime, specific wavelength
selection, and low costs (Chen et al., 2004; Tamulaitis et al., 2005;
Yeh and Chung, 2009). LEDs are also used for the monitoring or
mass trapping of agricultural insect pests (Jeon et al., 2012). Insect
visual cues, color and contrast are used by insects to distinguish
objectives in environment (Antignus, 2000). It is widely known
that insects recognize wavelengths between 350 and 700 nm (Cho
and Lee, 2012). Therefore, the objective of this study was to
evaluate the phototactic response of T. vaporariorum adults to
different wavelengths, various luminous intensities, and light
exposure times, with the use of LEDs under laboratory conditions.
The cultures of T. vaporariorum were obtained from the
National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA (Korea). The
insects were mass reared on eggplants (Solanum melongena) in
insect rearing containers (454545 cm) at 271oC, 605%
relative humidity, and a 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Only
adults of T. vaprariorum (mixed sex) were used for the behavioral
tests.
The light-emitting diodes were purchased from the Ciel Light
Corporation (Korea) and Kodenshi Auk Co. Ltd (Korea). The

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J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem (2014) 57(2), 197200

LED colors, part numbers, and wavelengths used were as follows:


UV (365 nm), blue (CL-1W-UBB, 47010 nm), green (CL-1WUPGB, 5205 nm), yellow (PP592-8L61-AOBI, 5905 nm), red
(CL-1W-URB, 62510 nm), white (CL-1W-URB, 450-620 nm),
and infrared (IR) (730 nm). Each of the LED modules (714 cm)
consisted of forty LEDs. The LED modules were installed on a
control circuit board (3014 cm) of the bioassay chamber. The
light exposure conditions, such as wavelength, luminous intensity,
and light exposure time, were set by a controller on the bioassay
chamber. The response of insects to LEDs were compared with
their response to a commercial luring lamp (F8T5 BLB: SankyoDenki Co. Ltd., Japan), which served as a control in terms of
current field applications of light-trapping.
The phototactic responses of the T. vaprariorum adults were
investigated using a modified Y-maze phototactic bioassay
chamber which was designed by Oh and Lee (2010) and Jeon et
al. (2012). The Y-maze phototactic bioassay chamber was made of
an opaque acrylic body (404020 cm) and two transparent
acrylic boards which were situated at both ends of the bioassay
chamber. The insect entrance holes were located in the center of
the bioassay chamber, and were covered with a 60 mesh cloth to
prevent the insects from escaping. The light source was installed
on the outside of the Y-maze bioassay chamber at a distance of 25
cm. Both ends of the outside chamber were installed with
detachable covers to equip the air cooling system and light source.
The interior of the bioassay chamber was maintained at 271oC
and 605% relative humidity in darkness.
The phototactic responses of the T. vaprariorum adults were
investigated in the Y-maze bioassay chamber according to
different wavelengths, luminous intensities, and light exposure
times. Thirty T. vaporariorum adults were collected by insect
vacuum sampler, and were then released into the bioassay
chamber. To determine the attractiveness of the light sources, the
numbers of greenhouse whiteflies in the light zone (LED light)
and dark zone (no LED light) of the bioassay chamber were
counted. The attraction of T. vaporariorum adults to the LEDs at
five luminous intensities (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 lx) was
measured. Next, the attraction of T. vaporariorum adults to the
LEDs at different light exposure times (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and

180 min) was investigated in the bioassay chamber at the optimal


luminous intensity. Finally, the attraction of T. vaporariorum
adults to each of the LEDs was repeatedly measured under
optimal conditions (luminous intensity and light exposure time).
All experiments were repeated six times. One-way analyses of
variance (ANOVA) using SPSS statistical software (version 18.0,
SPSS Inc., USA) was used to compare the numbers of T.
vaporariorum adults in the phototactic behavior tests. Duncans
multiple-range test was performed to compare the differences
among the mean values at p <0.05. Data were expressed as means
standard error of the mean.
The attraction effects of specific wavelengths, luminous intensities,
and light exposure times were compared to that of a standard
luring lamp (BLB), which served as a positive control. The
attraction rates of T. vaporariorum adults to five LEDs (blue,
green, yellow, red, and white) under various luminous intensities
are shown in Table 1. On the basis of the 90 min attractive effects
of five LEDs, blue (47010 nm), green (5205 nm), yellow
(5905 nm), and red (62510 nm) LEDs were highly attractive to
T. vaporariorum adults at 40 lx, and white (450-620 nm) LED
resulted in the highest attraction rate at 100 lx. Among the five
visible LEDs, the blue LED had the highest attraction rate
(96.8%), followed by green LED (96.4%), red LED (95.4%),
white LED (91.3%), and yellow LED (87.8%), under optimal
luminous intensities.
The attraction rates of T. vaporariorum adults for varying light
exposure times (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min) among the
LEDs and BLB were investigated (Table 2). Blue (47010 nm)
and yellow (5905 nm) LEDs were similar at all light exposure
times. In addition, blue and yellow LEDs exerted a rapid attraction
effect against T. vaporariorum adults. Therefore, the optimal light
exposure time for blue and yellow LEDs was determined to be 30
min. Red (62510 nm), white (450620 nm), and UV (365 nm)
LEDs, as well as BLB showed higher attraction against T.
vaporariorum adults upon exposure for 60 min, while other LEDs
including green (5205 nm) and IR (730 nm) LEDs showed an
optimal light exposure time of 90 min.
Based on the results of the above behavior tests, the attractive
effects of T. vaporariorum adults to seven LEDs and BLB were

Table 1 Attraction rates of Trialeurodes vaporariorum adults to visible wavelengths under various luminous intensities1)
Attraction rate (%)3)
Color

Blue
Green
Yellow
Red
White
1)

Wavelength

47010 nm
5205 nm
5905 nm
62510 nm
450-620 nm

n2)

30
30
30
30
30

Luminous intensity (lx)


20

40

60

80

100

85.4
71.8
64.5
83.9
85.7

96.8
96.4
87.8
95.4
83.3

96.4
96.1
78.3
94.6
87.2

91.2
82.8
73.5
83.9
87.2

91.5
88.3
77.8
84.6
91.3

Each value is the average of 6 determinations at each luminous intensity after 90 min exposure against 30 adult insects per replication.
Number of the tested insects.
3)
Attraction rate (%) is the average percentage of the 30 T. vaporariorum adults attracted to various luminous intensities.
2)

J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem (2014) 57(2), 197200

199

Table 2 Attraction rates of Trialeurodes vaporariorum adults to LEDs and BLB under various light-exposure times (min)
Attraction rate (%)2)
Wavelength (Color)

47010 nm (Blue)
5205 nm (Green)
5905 nm (Yellow)
62510 nm (Red)
450-620 nm (White)
365 nm (UV)
730 nm (IR)
BLB (Control)

Luminous
intensity (lx)

n1)

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

40
40
40
40
100
-3)
-

Exposure time (min)


30

60

90

120

150

180

97.4
86.2
88.9
81.8
91.3
85.3
4.2
85.5

97.4
93.1
88.9
93.9
94.7
93.2
4.2
89.6

97.4
96.6
88.9
93.9
94.7
93.2
7.5
89.6

97.4
96.6
88.9
93.9
94.7
93.2
7.5
89.6

97.4
96.6
88.9
93.9
94.7
93.2
6.6
89.6

97.4
96.6
88.9
93.9
94.7
93.2
6.6
87.7

1)

Number of the tested insects.


Attraction rate (%) is the average percentage of the 30 T. vaporariorum adults attracted by the end of each light-exposure time.
3)
Each value is the average of 6 determinations per each light-exposure time at 8W, using 30 adult insects per replication.
2)

Table 3 Attraction rates of Trialeurodes vaporariorum adults to LEDs and BLB under optimal conditions
Wavelength
(Color)

n1)

Luminous
intensity (lx)

Time (min)

47010 nm (Blue)
5205 nm (Green)
5905 nm (Yellow)
62510 nm (Red)
450-620 nm (White)
365 nm (UV)
730 nm (IR)
BLB (Control)

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

40
40
40
40
100
-4)
-

30
90
30
60
60
60
90
60

Number of adults
(Mean SEM)2)
Light side (attraction)
29.21.3a
28.90.7a
26.81.1ab
27.92.0a
28.11.2a
27.10.6a
2.30.9c
25.31.7b

No choice
0.80.5a
1.10.8a
3.20.7b
2.11.4ab
1.91.1ab
2.90.3b
27.71.1c
4.72.1b

Attraction rate
(%)3)
97.3
96.6
89.3
93.0
93.7
90.3
7.7
84.3

1)

Number of the tested insects.


Means within each column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (p=0.05).
3)
Attraction rate (%) is the average percentage of the 30 T. vaporariorum adults attracted under optimal conditions.
4)
Each value is the average of 6 determinations per each light-exposure time at 8W, using 30 adult insects per replication.
2)

evaluated under optimal conditions (Table 3). The blue LED


(97.3%) showed the highest attraction rate, followed by green
LED (96.6%), white LED (93.7%), red LED (93.0%), UV LED
(90.3%), yellow LED (89.3%), BLB (84.3%), and IR LED
(7.7%). Moreover, the blue LED was approximately 1.2 times
higher than that of a standard luring lamp against T. vaporariorum
adults. These results are consistent with an earlier study in which
the greenhouse whitefly, T. vaporariorum preferred UV light
(Mutwiwa and Tantau, 2005). Previous studies have reported that
sand flies, Phlebotomus papatasi were more attracted to red light,
and Culicoides brevitarsis, Euscepes postfasciatus, and Bemisia
tabaci was attracted to green LED in a greenhouse (Chu et al.,
2003; Hoel et al., 2007). Moreover, Gjullin et al. (1973) demonstrated
that low luminous intensity of red light was more sensitive to
Culex tarsalis than to high luminous intensity. These results
indicate that the phototactic response of the insects depends on the
multiple photoreceptors such as specific wavelength, luminous
intensity, and light exposure time. Insects are attracted or
repellence to specific wavelengths under the influence of internal

and external factors (Briscoe and Chittka, 2001). However, the


responses of insect to light of varying wavelengths and intensities
are not well known (Yang et al., 2012). Although many studies
have shown the effectiveness of various light traps, the important
factors (wavelength, luminous intensity, and light exposure time)
in the attraction or repellence of insect pests using LEDs have not
been investigated in detail (Jeon et al., 2012; Yang et al., 2012).
Results of the present study suggest that the blue LED (47010
nm) with 40 lx luminous intensity and an exposure time of 30 min
was the most suitable for protecting greenhouse plants from
infestation by T. vaporariorum adults. Further tests should be
conducted to compare the efficiencies of LEDs on a wide range of
greenhouse insect pests under field conditions.
Acknowledgments This work was carried out with the support of
"Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology
Development (Project title: Development of integrated pest management
techniques using natural products and LEDs in the grain storage, Project No.
PJ01004501; Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

200

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