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Tooth contact patterns and KH

EES KISSsoft GmbH


P.O. Box 121
Weid 10
6313 Menzingen
Switzerland

++41 41 755 09 54 (Phone)


++41 41 755 09 48 (Fax)
++41 79 372 64 89 (Mobile)
h.dinner@EES-KISSsoft.ch
www.EES-KISSsoft.ch

1 Tooth contact pattern calculation, KH


calculation
1.1 Executive summary
Below, the calculation of the contact patterns and contact stresses based on a numerical
(FEM) model inside KISSsoft is shown.
Furthermore, the calculation of KH according to ISO6336, Annex E is shown.

1.2 Table of content


1

3
4
5

Tooth contact pattern calculation, KH calculation........................................................... 1


1.1
Executive summary .................................................................................................... 1
1.2
Table of content.......................................................................................................... 1
1.3
Document change record............................................................................................ 2
1.4
Abbreviations ............................................................................................................. 2
1.5
References .................................................................................................................. 2
Set up calculation in KISSsoft ........................................................................................... 2
2.1
System data ................................................................................................................ 2
2.2
Shaft data.................................................................................................................... 3
2.3
Gear data .................................................................................................................... 4
2.3.1
Basic data ........................................................................................................... 4
2.3.2
Gear corrections ................................................................................................. 5
2.4
Set up of tooth contact analysis.................................................................................. 8
Calculation of contact......................................................................................................... 9
Improving the contact....................................................................................................... 11
Example report of tooth contact analysis ......................................................................... 14

Public

EES KISSsoft GmbH


Title:
Weid 10 / P.O. Box
No.:
6313 Menzingen
Date:
Switzerland
Manager: HD
www.EES-KISSsoft.ch
Email: h.dinner@EES-KISSsoft.ch
C:\TRANSFER\EES-KISSsoft-GmbH\KISSsoft\Anleitung-zu-KISSsoft\ANL-064-TCA-with-shafts.doc

Revision: 0
Autor: HD
Date: 2.3.2011
Approved: HD
Date: 2.3.2011
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1.3 Document change record


Revision Dated
Who
0
2.3.2011 HD

Comments
Original document

1.4 Abbreviations
[]

Units

1.5 References
[1] ISO6336, Annex E
[2] KISSsoft 03-2011

2 Set up calculation in KISSsoft


2.1 System data
Let us look at the following gearbox, a standard industrial helical gearbox. Let us consider the
two shafts at the output end of the gearbox, so, the tooth contact analysis is applied for the last
gear mesh. Below, the sense of rotation and the direction of the power flow is shown. Note
that a Side I and a Side II is defined as shown below.

Side II

Gear 1, z=12

Gear 2, z=39

Side I
Figure 2.1-1 Gearbox system, last stage is downwards orientated.

Note that the right flank is in contact!


If we look at the deformation of the gearbox, we can see the following:

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Side I

Side II

Figure 2.1-2 Deformed shape of the gearbox shafts

From the above, we can see that the contact will be more on Side I. Therefore, we will have to
reduce the helix angle on the pinion or put a helix angle correction such that the resulting
helix angle is smaller

2.2 Shaft data


The driving shaft is shown below

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Gear 1, z=12

Side I

Side II

The driven shaft (output shaft) is shown below

Gear 2, z=39

Side I

Side II

2.3 Gear data


2.3.1 Basic data
The basic gear data as used is shown below. Note Gear 1 and Gear 2 as indicated above.

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2.3.2 Gear corrections


First, let us define a tip relief. For this, use the sizing function as shown below. Press
Calculate and Accept to get the tip relief as shown below:

Figure 2.3-1 Sizing of profile modification (tip relief)

Then you get:

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Figure 2.3-2 Resulting profile modification

You can see the profile diagramm here:

In the face width direction, the following corrections should be applied: all corrections are
applied on the pinion (which is Gear 1) only and no corrections are on the gear. We want to
put 40um end relief on the pinion, on both sides (side I and side II). The length should be 1/10
of the total face width. Also, we put a crowning of 25um. This is done by using the + button
to add lines to the table and then enter/select the corrections:

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Figure 2.3-3 Adding end relief and crowning to the pinion

Now, we also add a helix angle correction to the pinion such that the helix angle is lower than
the nominal helix angle (which is 10deg). To get the information CHb=-25 ->
beta.eff=9.983deg-left, press

Figure 2.3-4 Adding the helix angle correction on the pinion

You can see the flank line diagram here:

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Figure 2.3-5 Flank line diagramm for gear 1. Note that the green lines are the individual corrections
whereas the blue line is the resulting flank

You can see that the helix angle correction is towards the right hand side whereas the initial
hand of the helix is left hand. This means that the resulting gear still has a left hand
orientation but a smaller one than originally.

2.4 Set up of tooth contact analysis


In the gear calculation, add the tab for the Contact analysis as shown below:

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Figure 2.4-1 Add the tab for the tooth contact analysis

Here, do the following settings

Figure 2.4-2 Set up of tooth contact analysis

We are looking at the right flank in contact


The torsional deformation of the gears is
taken from the shaft deformation calculation
We calculate the tooth contact pattern for
nominal load

We take the tilting/bending of the gears from


the shaft deformation calculation
Here, select the two shafts. For Gear 1 (the
pinion), select the first shaft. For Gear 2 (the
pinion), select the second shaft.
The deformation is scaled with the value of
wt (in our case, it is 100%)

Now, run the calculation by pressing

3 Calculation of contact
Once the calculation is completed, we can display the contact stress on the flank as shown
below:

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Figure 2.4-1 How to display the contact stress on a flank

Figure 2.4-2 Contact stress on Gear 2 / Gear B (the gear on the output shaft)
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In the results, we find KH as follows:

Figure 2.4-3 KHbeta of gear mesh, without optimisation

4 Improving the contact


In the above images, we can see that the contact is still a bit too much on side II. Therefore,
the helix angle correction that we have chosen is too high and we need to reduce it, e.g. to 15um only. Also, we reduce the crowning a little, to 10um only. This gives:

Figure 2.4-1 Modified corrections on gear 1 (crowning and helix angle modification is changed)

Once we repeat the calculation, we now find the stress patterns are more balanced in the
centre of the face and KH is also reduced:

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Figure 2.4-2 Improved KHbeta value after optimisation of the corrections

Figure 2.4-3 Contact pattern on driving gear = gear 1 = pinion after optimisation

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Figure 2.4-4 Contact pattern on driven gear = gear 2 = wheel after optimisation

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5 Example report of tooth contact analysis


KISSsoft - Release 03-2011
KISSsoft evaluation
File
Name
: Unnamed
Changed by : Dinner

on: 02.03.2011

at: 10:32:10

Calculation of path of contact under load


Mesh gear 1 - gear 2 (Right Tooth Flank)
Shaft file A: C:_292_A.w10, selected gear: Gear5(c56)
Shaft file B: C:_292_B.w10, selected gear: Gear6(c56)
Partial load for calculation
Center distance
Single pitch deviation
Coefficient of friction
Torque

Transmission error
Stiffness curve
Line load
Torque Gear 1
Torque Gear 2
Loss power
Flash temperature
Lubricating film
Hertzian stress

100.00
200.00
0.00
0.14
2945.23

[a]
[fpt]
[]
[T1]

(m)
(N/mm/m)
(N/mm)
(Nm)
(Nm)
(W)
()
(m)
(N/mm)

min
-226.1970
16.1341
0.0000
2943.2773
9199.5020
0.0000
72.3034
0.0056

Transverse contact ratio under load[Epsa']


Overlap ratio under load
[Epsb']
Total contact ratio under load[Epsg']

%
mm
m
Nm
max
-221.0994
22.0002
1126.9901
2948.0056
9440.9912
30.7474
127.6216
0.0818
2221.1083

Delta
5.0976
5.8661
1126.9901
4.7283
241.4893
30.7474
55.3182
0.0762

-223.1440
19.6264
679.2393
2945.3369
9314.3494
11.1572
94.3402
0.0192
1285.8008

sigma
1.5633
1.9517
274.1363
0.9054
82.6795
7.5764
12.8000
0.0055

1.28
0.52
1.80

KHbeta Calculation
Gear 1
Point in polar co-ordinates:
R =
47.059 mm , phi =
310.693
Displacement calculated in direction
y
Public

phi1.t

335.078
f1.t

f1.b

f1.tot

EES KISSsoft GmbH


Title:
Weid 10 / P.O. Box
No.:
6313 Menzingen
Date:
Switzerland
Manager: HD
www.EES-KISSsoft.ch
Email: h.dinner@EES-KISSsoft.ch
C:\TRANSFER\EES-KISSsoft-GmbH\KISSsoft\Anleitung-zu-KISSsoft\ANL-064-TCA-with-shafts.doc

Revision: 0
Autor: HD
Date: 2.3.2011
Approved: HD
Date: 2.3.2011
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f1.C

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

70.2127
74.0831
77.9536
81.8240
85.6944
89.5649
93.4353
97.3057
101.1761
105.0466
108.9170
112.7874
116.6579
120.5283
124.3987
128.2691
132.1396
136.0100
139.8804
143.7509
147.6213

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

0.0000
0.0001
0.0001
0.0003
0.0005
0.0008
0.0011
0.0014
0.0018
0.0023
0.0028
0.0034
0.0040
0.0046
0.0054
0.0061
0.0069
0.0078
0.0087
0.0097
0.0107

0.0000
0.0001
0.0001
0.0003
0.0004
0.0006
0.0008
0.0011
0.0014
0.0018
0.0021
0.0026
0.0030
0.0035
0.0040
0.0046
0.0052
0.0059
0.0065
0.0073
0.0080

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

0.0185
0.0191
0.0196
0.0201
0.0205
0.0210
0.0213
0.0216
0.0219
0.0221
0.0223
0.0224
0.0225
0.0226
0.0225
0.0225
0.0224
0.0222
0.0220
0.0217
0.0214

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

f2.b
-0.0140
-0.0142
-0.0145
-0.0147
-0.0150
-0.0153
-0.0155
-0.0158
-0.0160
-0.0163
-0.0165
-0.0168
-0.0171
-0.0173
-0.0176
-0.0178
-0.0181
-0.0183
-0.0186
-0.0188
-0.0191

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

0.0185
0.0191
0.0197
0.0203
0.0209
0.0215
0.0221
0.0227
0.0233
0.0239
0.0244
0.0250
0.0255
0.0261
0.0266
0.0271
0.0276
0.0281
0.0285
0.0290
0.0295

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

0.0319
0.0095
0.0040
0.0019
0.0001
-0.0017
-0.0032
-0.0045
-0.0057
-0.0067
-0.0075
-0.0081
-0.0086
-0.0088
-0.0089
-0.0088
-0.0085
-0.0081
-0.0074
-0.0033
0.0176

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

f2.tot
-0.0140 mm
-0.0143 mm
-0.0146 mm
-0.0150 mm
-0.0153 mm
-0.0156 mm
-0.0159 mm
-0.0162 mm
-0.0165 mm
-0.0168 mm
-0.0171 mm
-0.0174 mm
-0.0177 mm
-0.0180 mm
-0.0183 mm
-0.0185 mm
-0.0188 mm
-0.0191 mm
-0.0194 mm
-0.0196 mm
-0.0199 mm

f2.C
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

Gear 2
Point in polar co-ordinates:
R =
152.941 mm , phi =
310.754
Displacement calculated in direction

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

y
140.2127
144.0831
147.9536
151.8240
155.6944
159.5649
163.4353
167.3057
171.1761
175.0466
178.9170
182.7874
186.6579
190.5283
194.3987
198.2691
202.1396
206.0100
209.8804
213.7509
217.6213

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

phi2.t
0.0000
-0.0000
-0.0001
-0.0001
-0.0001
-0.0001
-0.0002
-0.0002
-0.0002
-0.0002
-0.0002
-0.0002
-0.0003
-0.0003
-0.0003
-0.0003
-0.0003
-0.0003
-0.0003
-0.0003
-0.0003

335.139
f2.t
-0.0000
-0.0001
-0.0002
-0.0002
-0.0003
-0.0004
-0.0004
-0.0005
-0.0005
-0.0005
-0.0006
-0.0006
-0.0006
-0.0007
-0.0007
-0.0007
-0.0007
-0.0008
-0.0008
-0.0008
-0.0008

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

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Explanations:
y
: Width
phi.t
: Static torsion
f.t
: Displacement due to torsion
f.b
: Displacement due to bending
f.tot
: Total displacement (f.b+f.t)
f.C
: Change due to flank line modification
Load distribution
Contact stiffness = 15.813 N/mm/m
y
g
1.
70.2127 mm
30.2577 m
2.
74.0831 mm
51.7241 m
3.
77.9536 mm
56.3198 m
4.
81.8240 mm
57.4731 m
5.
85.6944 mm
58.4456 m
6.
89.5649 mm
59.2418 m
7.
93.4353 mm
59.8717 m
8.
97.3057 mm
60.3202 m
9.
101.1761 mm
60.6068 m
10.
105.0466 mm
60.7238 m
11.
108.9170 mm
60.6593 m
12.
112.7874 mm
60.4513 m
13.
116.6579 mm
60.0619 m
14.
120.5283 mm
59.5062 m
15.
124.3987 mm
58.7942 m
16.
128.2691 mm
57.9008 m
17.
132.1396 mm
56.8546 m
18.
136.0100 mm
55.6365 m
19.
139.8804 mm
54.2410 m
20.
143.7509 mm
49.4265 m
21.
147.6213 mm
27.7414 m

w
478.4777
817.9351
890.6094
908.8473
924.2260
936.8160
946.7771
953.8696
958.4021
960.2513
959.2318
955.9430
949.7855
940.9978
929.7387
915.6109
899.0667
879.8045
857.7363
781.6034
438.6875

N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm
N/mm

Explanations:
g : Flank overlap
w : Line load
wmax = 960.251 N/mm, wm = 870.687 N/mm
KHb = wmax/wm = 1.103 (Calculation according to ISO 6336-1, Appendix E)
Notice: The influence of the exceeding tooth width is not taken into account in the calculation of KHbeta.

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Figure: Path of contact

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wt = 100 %, a = 200 mm, fpt = 0 m, = 0.1353268402

Figure: Transmission error

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1st Harmonic frequency [1/s] : 6.52173913


Harmonics
Amplitude [m]
1.
2.124983227
2.
0.4323017983
3.
0.2125395327
4.
0.09486427952
5.
0.1413154232
6.
0.08580080112
7.
0.02168405216
8.
0.04891069949
9.
0.05630266734
10.
0.05762765055

Figure: FFT of transmission error

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wt = 100 %, a = 200 mm, fpt = 0 m, = 0.1353268402

Figure: Stiffness curve

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1st Harmonic frequency [1/s] : 6.52173913


Harmonics
Amplitude [N/mm/m]
1.
2.676415579
2.
0.5578203278
3.
0.2268231372
4.
0.102757942
5.
0.04899932469
6.
0.07548357828
7.
0.09250584354
8.
0.09916733709
9.
0.05235889837
10.
0.04911862118

Figure: FFT of contact stiffness

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wt = 100 %, a = 200 mm, fpt = 0 m, = 0.1353268402

Figure: Normal force curve (Line load)

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wt = 100 %, a = 200 mm, fpt = 0 m, = 0.1353268402

Figure: Stress curve

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wt = 100 %, a = 200 mm, fpt = 0 m, = 0.1353268402

Figure: Stress curve Gear A

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wt = 100 %, a = 200 mm, fpt = 0 m, = 0.1353268402

Figure: Stress curve Gear B

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wt = 100 %, a = 200 mm, fpt = 0 m, = 0.1353268402


vg: 1.0 = 0.083 m/s

Figure: Kinematics

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wt = 100 %, a = 200 mm, fpt = 0 m, = 0.1353268402

Figure: Loss power

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wt = 100 %, a = 200 mm, fpt = 0 m, = 0.1353270606


the0il = 70.0 C, theM = 72.3 C, etaM = 21.50 mPa*s

Figure: Flash temperature (ISO TR 15144)

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wt = 100 %, a = 200 mm, fpt = 0 m, = 0.1353270606


the0il = 70.0 C, theM = 72.3 C, etaM = 21.50 mPa*s
hmin(ISO) = 0.006 m, Ra = 0.600 m

Figure: Lubricating film (ISO TR 15144)

Remark:
The report contains only the important graphics.
The other graphics can be found in menu 'Graphics' -> 'Contact analysis'.
End report

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