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2016 EMC Online Math Test: Resurgence (March 2016)

General Instructions:
1. This is a test containing 15 questions which cover the topics of algebra, geometry, combinatorics
and number theory.
2. Scratch paper, ruler, compass and protractor are permitted. Calculators (four-function or scientific) are allowed but computer softwares such as Maple, Mathematica, etc. and math websites
such as Wolfram Alpha etc. are not allowed.
3. (Important) How to submit your answers: I made a Google Form for submission of your answers,
which will be attached along with this test sheet. In the form, please write your name first (this
is required!), then on each question/problem write your correct answer. All answers are integers
from 0 to 999; if your answer is a one-digit number X, please write X and if it is a two-digit answer
XY, write XY. (Its useless to pad zeros before your answer if it is less than three digits, because
Google truncates these zeros.) If you didnt have an answer for a particular question, please leave
that question unanswered. The deadline of submission is on March 2016.
4. Each correct answer is worth 6 points, each question left unanswered is worth 1 point and each
incorrect answer is worth 0 points. There is no penalty for incorrect answers. Scores will be
posted at Elite Math Circle Facebook group on March 2016 (The exact time to post the scores is
to be announced).
5. The top 5 participants who got the highest scores will be recognized.
6. For comments, clarifications and/or violent reactions, please send your private messages to my
Facebook account
www.facebook.com/rhguadalupe2.
For those participants who are not friends with me yet, please add me. Solutions for this online
test will be posted at Elite Math Circle Facebook group on or before May 2016.
Good Luck and Happy Problem Solving!!
Problem Proposer: Russelle Guadalupe

2016 EMC Online Math Test: Resurgence Problems


1. How many ordered pairs (a, b) of integers are there such that a2 + 3ab + 8b2 = 3a + 16b?
2. There is a unique positive integer N = 20a16, where a is a digit from 0 to 9, that is a multiple of
42. Find N/42.
3. Find the sum of the distinct prime factors of 230 1.
4. A and B each rolled a fair 12-sided die on their respective turns until an odd prime appears, with
A being the first player. The one who first makes an odd prime appear after some rolls wins. The
for some relatively prime positive integers m and n. Find mn.
probability that A wins is m
n
5. Suppose that a1 , a2 , . . . is an arithmetic sequence with a1 = 1 such that a14 , a168 and a2016 are in
harmonic progression in that order. Find the value of a1682 .
7
AT
6. Let A and B be points in line `. Point T lies on segment AB such that BT
= 13
. Semicircles 1
and 2 with diameters AT and BT respectively are drawn on the same side of `. Suppose that
R
there is a circle of radius R tangent to `, 1 and 2 . Given that AB
=m
for some relatively prime
n
positive integers m and n, find m + n.

7. Find the smallest positive integer whose square ends in 2016.


8. Complex numbers a, b, c satisfy |a| = |b| = |c| = 21 and ab + bc + ca = 0. Determine the value of
|a2 + b2 + c2 |.
9. We define a unit divisor of N to be a divisor d such that gcd(d, N/d) = 1. Let S be the sum of
all unit divisors of 20162016 . Determine the remainder when S is divided by 1000.
10. Determine the sum of all positive solutions to the equation {x} + {2x} + {3x} + {4x} = x, where
{x} = x bxc denotes the fractional part of x.
11. Determine the remainder when

 2016 X

2016 2 
k 2016
5

6
5k
k
k=1

is divided by 1000.
12. For a positive integer k, let xk be the largest positive real solution to the equation
2
1
+p
= 1.
x
k(k + 1)x2 1
Let
Sn =

n
X
k=1

,
2 + 2kxk

Tn =

n
X
k=1


n 
X
1
k2
2

, and Un =
Tk + 2 .
Tk
1 + 2 + 2Sk
k=1

Find the least positive integer n such that Un > 201600.



13. Find the smallest positive integer n such that 2016
is divisible by all primes less than 42.
n
14. Let ABC be a triangle with AB : AC : BC = 10 : 17 : 21. Let A1 , B1 and C1 be the images of
1 B1 C1 ]
A, B and C respectively under the inversion about the incircle of ABC. If [A[ABC]
= m
, where
n
m and n are relatively prime positive integers, find m + n.
(Note: The image of the exterior point P under the inversion of the circle with center O and
radius r is the unique point P 0 on the line OP such that OP 0 OP = r2 . [XY Z] denotes the area
of triangle XY Z.)
15. Consider a triangle whose sides are positive integers forming an arithmetic progression with common difference 2017 and whose area is an integer. Determine the remainder when the smallest
perimeter of such triangle is divided by 1000.