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Watch Keeper

Training
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Watch Keeper Training Book

IBM - International 8afety ManaQement


IMO (International Maritime Organization)
A specialist agency of the United Nations created to provide co-operation among governments
affecting international merchant shipping.
(Created in 1948 as IMCO: Inter-Governmental Martime Consultative Organzaton)

Internatonal
International
lnternational
Internatonal

Convention on the InternationaI Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea


International Convention on Standards of Training, certifications and Watch-keeping

on technical matters

Safety Management code (ISM)


Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
Convention for the Preventon of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)
Convention on Load Lines
for Seafarers

15M Code (Internltiohal 5afety Mlnagement Code)


A resolution issued by the IMO Every Company should develop, implement and maintain a safety management
system (SMS), consisting of:

safety and environmental protection policy (policy statement)

instructions and procedures for safe operation of ships and protection of the environment

levels of authority (and responsibilities) and Iines of communication

procedures for emergencies

procedures for internal audits


The SMS (Safetv Manaqement Svstem) is a detailed description of
operation of our ships and the protection of the environment:

procedures and administration

responsibilities

communication

13.11

instructions and procedures for the safe

emergencies
audits

SMS for our company comprises of the following manuals and procedures:

Safety Management System (SMS) Manual

Shipboard Operations Procedures Manual (SOPM)

Head Office Procedures Manual (HOPM)

Emergency Contingency Plan (ECP) - Ship based

Emergency Response Plan (ERP) - Head Office based


A copy for the Technical Department is with the Chief Engineer. These manuals are updated when the Head Office
makes changes.
From SOPM index, highlight:

ship board organization - function descriptions

safety procedures (safe working practices / hot work permit / confined spaces)

training
Responsible for the SMS is the OP or OPA (Desiqnated Person Ashore): John Seaman
He reports to the Director Marine Ops (Mark Diamond) and Managing Director (Bernd GOlker)
So called audits are done, for office and ships, regularly to check
procedures and administration.
Internal audits, every year by DPA

13.11

procedures, level of training and familiarity with

Engine Oepartment Manual


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Electrical Manual

SAFETY ASPECTS RELATED TO THE ENGINE ROOM ENVIRONMENT ID


1.

2.

personal health & hygiene


Own responsibility
Work clothes to be changed frequently
Balance of work, rest and recreation
Simple infections can easily be spread (preventive measures and effective treatment)
Cuts and abrasions to be cleaned and given first aid treatment to avoid infections
Prolonged exposure to mineral oils can cause dermatitis and skin cancer, therefore wash hands (etc) and
working clothes frequently. Don't put oil soaked rags in pockets
drink much water (4 - 5 liters), extra salt when necessary
location of first aid box
Show location (at the moment left drawer watchkeepers' desk)

3.

procE)c:Jurefor dealing with an injured person while on watch


First concern is sa.fety of one's own, then of other person
Call for help (Qridge 230 / info O)
Iso late elec:trical pvvr if applicable
Do not (re) move if possible
Check pulse and respiration
Apply first aid if possible
Wait for help, but do not leave E/R without being relieved!

4.

Logos2 E/R workshop safety manual (?)


Logos2 Engine ISM manual page 22
Code of safe working practices for merchant seamen

1.

Logos2 Engine ISM manual


Different types of personal protection equipment:
Working clothes: coveralls with long sleeves
No loose flaps etc. because of risk of being caught by moving parts or catching on obstructions
No finger ringsor otherjew~lry (whenwotkingwith
machinery)
In the E/R safety footwear to be used (well fitting and not worn out)
Ear protection (plugs or ear muffs) to be us~d in E/R spaces
Gloves when working with sharp or hot objcts (not when walking stairs!)
Face and eye protection (spectacles, goggles or facial shields) to be used when using grinding tools or
chipping
(Special face and eye protection to be used when welding)
Head protection (safety helmets) to be used when working in low areas or under open hatches etc.
Respiratory protection (dust masks, respirators, breathing apparatus) to be used when creating dust,
working with chemicals or in confined spaces
Respirator filter to be chosen in accordance with instructions
Safety harness or belt to be worn when working above 2 meters of height (aloft, outboard or below decks)

6.

Safe working practices


don't run or jump in the E/R
beware of oily or wet floorplates
Beware of sudden / unexpected movements of the ship
(At sea) loose objects (open doors) to be properly secured (preparation for sea)
Instruction plates notices and signs to be kept clean and legible
Moving around in the E/R (marking of obstructions, moving through WTD's, temporary openings)
Touching in the E/R, hot areas
Walking stairs
Lifting heavy objects
Lock-out / tag-out (check isolation of systems, valves hydraulic and pneumatic pressure, electrical power)
Hot work permits (E/R manual appendix 3)
Working aloft (> 2 m), working on scaffolding or ladder
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Chemical storage
Use of handtools and portable appliances

7.

Procedure for enclosed spaces


See permit for entry in enclosed spaces E/R manual appendix 3

8.

Handling asbestos and other fibrous insulation material


- The inhalation of asbestos fibbers, even in concentrations too low to be readily detectable, may cause
serious lung disease or tumors.
Asbestos is commonly found in fire retardant bulkheads and thermal insulation and in friction materials
(brake linings)
Work area should be closed off
RElspiratory protective equipment should be worn
FuI! protective clothing $hould be worn (close fitting at the neck, ankles and wrists)
EVElryprecautiqn should be taken to avoid creation of dust:
U$ing dustElxtractiol1 equiprnel1t
Using hand tools
Thoroughly wetting the material
Contaminated clothing and equipment to be vacuum cleaned (vacuum cleaner with suitable filter) before
taken off
Clothing to be washed separately
AII contaminated material to be disposed off

SAFETV ASPECTS RELATED TO THE ENGINE ROOM ENVIRONMENT


Location and use of fire fighting appliances and first response
1. plan of E/R with all fire-fighting appliances
2.

Fire main system


discuss schematic with isolation valves
show location of pumps and valves

3.

How to use different forms of fire fighting appliances


Show in practice

4.

What to use different forms of fire fighting appliances for


Triangle of combustion: fuel
/ heat
/oxygen
Starvation / cooling / smothering
-

Fire classes

A
B
C
D
E
-

European
American
flammable solids
flammable solids
flammable Iiquids
fl. liquids and gases
flammable gases
electrical equipment
flammable metals
flammable metals
electrical equipment

Causes of fire:

1. smoking
2. spontaneous combustion (oily rags, boilersuits near a heat source)
3. Electrical
4. Welding
fire extinguishing

agents

1. water - red - class A - cooling (and smothering by steam)


2.

C02

- black - class B/C - smothering (no cooling)


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<ID.

3.
4.
5.

Watch Keeper Training Book


Foam - (yellow) - class B - smothering
Powder - blue - class A/B/C/(electric) - chemical
Wk's tirst response to tire

Find
I ntorm (bridge 230 / into O)
R estrict
shutdown ventilation
Close doors, hatches etc.
Check boundary areas
Remove tuel trom boundary areas
Start fire pump
Prepare fire hoses
E xtinguish

Fire prevention
Cleahing (removing oil and oi/y rags) is an importantpart ot tire prevention
Prevention ot oilleakage's
Use of metal containers tor combustible materals
Hot work should only be done after observing all appropriate precautions (hot work permit!)
6.

See below

7.

How to operate WTD's


Can be operated from
1.
The bridge
2.
Local (2 ways)
3.
Alleyway DR
Show in practice

8.

See below

9.

Emergencyescapes
- Know locations and where they lead

10.

Shut down of venti/ation


- Show on alarmpanel and local starter panel

11.

Checking and filling of sprinkler system


- Discuss schematic
- Show in practice

Main and emergency bilge system and ballast system


6.

Action to be taken in case of an E/R tlooding

8.

Main and emergency bi/ge


Ballast system

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FIRE MAIN SYSTEM


First response used to be, to start the emergency tire pump. Now tire main is constantly pressurized with cross-over
to sea c/w system cracked open
In case ot real tire: start geny c/w pump and close cross over valve
Where to read the system pressure? How much should pressure be? (5-6 bar)
Pressure reliet valve in alternator room?
Pump is started but no pressure, what could be the reason?
Is pump really running?
Are valves open, suction / discharge?
Is pump deairated?
Is there a leakage? How many hydrants are open?
Loosing water but nowhere visible? Pressure reliet valve leaking?
Is the pressure gauge ok?

SPRINKLER SYSTEM
2000 Itr pr~ssure tank
Pressure: 6 bar
For watch keepers check pressure and water level
What it water level is too high / low (emergency stop!)
What it during a 4-hour watches the level drops continuously?
What should you dO?
Shore connection tor sprinkler

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SAFE ENTRY OF ENCLOSED OR CONFINED SPACES


(Code of Safe Working Practices, Chapter 10)
Training tor crew to involve the following:
* Recognition of circumstances and activities Iikely to lead to the presence of a dangerous atmosphere.
* The hazards associated with entry into enc/osed spaces, and the precautions to be taken.
* The use of equipment and clothing required for entry into dangerous spaces.
* Instructions and drills in rescue from dangerous spaces.

1. RECOGNITION OF CIRCUMSTANCES ANO ACTIVITIES LlKELV TO LEAO TO THE


PRESENCE OF A OANGEROUS ATMOSPHERE.
The atmo$phere in an encIosed or confined sP:'ceis d:,ngerous, when it presents a risk to hea/th or life of any
person ehtering it. A dngeroUs situatih may occur throUgh:
- OXYGEN DEFICIENCY, or lack of Oxygen.
- Containment of FLAMMABLE GASES, VAPOURS OR FUMES.
- Containment of TOXIC GASES, VAPOURS OR FUMES.
Examples ot potential hazards, Iikely to encounter are:
* The process of "rusting combines the Oxygen and steel. In an enclosed space, the atmosphere will
Therefore have a reduced Oxygen /evel.
* After emptying a fueltank, fue/ vapors may remain, causing lack of Oxygen in the tank.
* Lack of Oxygen may occur in boilers, where Oxygen absorbing additives have been used to
prevent corrosion.
* If C02 or Dry Powder have been used to extinguish a fire in a confined space, lack ot Oxygen will
occur.
* Fuel vapours remaining in an empty fuel or sludge tank are toxic.
* Gases produced by a tire, especially when involving plastics, can be very toxic
* Paint vapours, if painting in an enclosed space, are toxic.
* Fuel vapours are highly flammable.

2. THE HAZAROS ASSOCIATEO WITH ENTRV INTO ENCLOSEO SPACES ANO


PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN.
At first entry:
1 Obtain a Permit-To-Work. Ensure the actual entry is well planned, under supervision of an officer.
2. Make sure an officer is in charge, aware of what you are doing. He should assess the situation and
decide wether it is safe for you to work.
3. When opening the entrance to a dangerous space, care should be taken to avoid a sudden pressure
release or toxic vapour to be released from the tank.
4. Ensure the space is isolated, pipes are blanked, valves are closed. Mark the valves, so that they.cannot
be opened by accident.
5. The space or tank must be thoroughly ventilated, before someone enters to measure the Oxygen level.
6. Make all officers aware of what is happening, to avoid accidents.
7. Ensure the entrance and the space are well illuminated. Lights used must be explosion proof when
working with a possibility of flammable vapours.
8. Betore work can start in the space, the Oxygen content must be checked by a person wearing a
breathing apparatus. The tests must be done in corners of the space and between frames and beams, as
well as in the middle. Possible pockets of gas should be detected and removed by forced ventilation.
The Oxygen level regarded as safe i9 20% or more (max. 21 %).
9. It an explosi-meter is on board, we should (especially in fuel and sludge tanks) also check the amount
of flammable vapours.
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10. Never let someone work alone in the space, without somebody at the entrance, keeping regular
contact.
11. At the entrance to the space the following equipment must be available:
- A breathing apparatus
- Spare aircilinders
- A lifeline with harness/belt
- An explosion proof lamp
If necessary, a means for hoisting a person out should be provided.
1I the space is regarded sale to work bv the officer in charge. the lollowing

arrangements are to be ensured:


1. Access to and within the space well illuminated.
2. No sources of ignition to go in the space, before approved by the responsible officer.
3. Before commencing activities involving heat, Iike welding or cutting, a fuel tank must be thoroughly
dried and cleaned.
4. Continuous ventilation is to take place.
5. The atrn()sphere must be tested regularly to ensure safe working conditions.
6. At least one person mUst sttyat the entrance, in constant comrnunicttion with those inside.
7. At the entrance to the space thefollowing equipment must be available:
- A bretthing apparltus
- Spare aircilinders
- A lifeline with harness/belt
- An explosion proof lamp
If necessary, a means for hoisting a person out should be provided.

3. THE USE oi=' EQUIPMENT ANO CLOTHING REQUIREO FOR ENTRY INTO
OANGEROUS SPACES.
* Breathing apparatus with twb separate air supplies.
* Oxygen meter.
* Lifelines and harness
* Stretcher.
* Resuscitator (medical oxygen).

4. INSTRUCTIONS

ANO ORILLS IN RESCUE FROM ENCLOSEO SPACES.

Instructions as done above, drills to be done regulrly.

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Watch Keeper Training Sook

Ship's Constructional Features


Double Bottom Construction
Ffam
Transverse

ffaming

DO DO
Platellors

Framing within the double bottom is to be either


longitudinal or transverse. The framing must be .
longitudinal in ships over 120 m in length and
when the notation 'Heavy Cargoes' is assigned.
In passenger ships the inner bottom plating is to
be continued out to the ship's side in such a
manner as to protect the bottom to the turn of the
bilge (SOLAS requirement). Drainage is effected
by means of wells situated in the wings, having a
capacity not les than 0.17 cubic metres.and
extendingto not nearer thE3sheH than 460 mm. I
Sufficient holes i3.reto I::>ecut in thE3inner bottom
non-vvatertightJnon-oilti~htfloor
i3.ndside QirdE3rs
to provide adE3quateventili3.tIon and access: Their
size should. not exceE3050% depth of the double
bottom and they should be circular or eliptical in
shape.

o
Platefloor

Bilge keels
Silge keels are fitted at the turn of the bilge to help damp the rolling motion of the ship. They extend over a portion
of the midship length of the ship and are positioned to minimize drag.

Watertight bulkheads
Transverse watertight bulkheaos which divide a ship into a number of watertight compartments
importance for the following reasons:
(1) Strength:
they give large structural support, resist any tendency to deformation
(racking) and assist in sprE3ading the hull stresses over a large area.
confines conflagration to particular regions.
(2) Fire:
divides a ship into a number of watertight compartments.
(3) Subdivision:

are of great

TRANSVERSE WATERTIGHi BULKHEAD

iJ.:

End ot,sti~~n_~-uJ"lttached
uppor ciack only

\ 1

Bulknaad

----

Plata. or wate:rtight

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AII ships are to have a collision bulkhead, situated not less than O.05L nor more than O.08L tor cargo ships (O.05L
+ 3 m tor passenger ships) trom the tore end ot the load waterline, an after peak bulkhead enclosing the stern tubes
in a watertight compartment and a bulkheadat each end ot the machinery space.
AII watertight bulkheads are to extend to the uppermost continuous deck, except tor the after peak bulkhead which
may termnate at the tirst deck above the load waterline provided this deck is made watertight to the stern or to a
watertight transom tloor.
The thickness ot bulkhead plating is greater at the bottom than the top as it depends on the head ot water that the
horizontal strakes ot plating would be subject to it the compartment was tlooded. It also depends on the spacing of
the vertical stiffeners whose sectional modulus increases with unsupported length ot span and depth of bulkhead.
The scantlings ot the tore peak bulkhead are greater than those of the other watertight bulkheads.
It there are openings in watertight bulkheads, watertight doors with suitable framing must be fitted, and additional
stiffening in way ot the doors must be fitted so that strength is the same as that ot the unpierced bulkhead.
Pipes and valves attached directly to the bulkhead plating are to be secured by studs screwed through the plating
or by welding.

Engine rooms
The illustrations show the arrangement through an engine room that is situated amidships and one that is situated
aft.
The location of the engine room is
dependent on a number of factors such as
the type ot ship, number ot screws, type of
machineryetc. In cargo ships it ranges
between aft and slightly aft of amidships,
whilst in passenger ships there is also a
trend tor the machinery to be ah ot midships.
Tankers and bulk carriers always have the
machineryatt.
The main engine seating is to be integral
with the double bottom structure, the tank
top plating in way of the seating being
substantially increased in.thickness.

Accom.

Aocommooalion

Machinery

Adequate transver$(; stiffening is required


throughoutthe double bottom, vvithso lid
plate floor$ at every trame, and additional
side girder$ to give the necessary support
and strength.
Additional transverse strengthening is to be
provided by means of web frames and
Aft
strong beams with suitable pillaring or other
arrangements. The webs are to be spaced
not more than five trame spaces apart and are to have a depth ot at least two and onehalt times the depth of the
normal frame.
Where the machinery is aft the double bottoms are to be transversely tramed. Webs as above are to be fitted
whether the side traming is transverse or longitudinal.
In the machinery spaces two means of escape, one of which may be a watertight door, are to be provided. There
must be two means of communication between the bridge and a engine room or control room.

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Pumps:
displacement pumps
centrifugal pumps
(axial flow pumps)

Displacement Pumps
The pumping action is achieved by the reduction or increase in volume of a space causing the liquid (or gas) to be
physically moved.
(pistons, vanes, gears or screws)
se/f prirning
2. will produce the discharge pressure required by the system (air compressor)
3. can handIe large amounts of vapour
4. complicated
5. before starting, the suction and discharge valves need to be opened, and no va/ves in the discharge line are to
be left closed! (relief valve)

Centrifugal Pumps
The pump consists of:
a pump housing
a top cover
a pump shaft
an impeller
a bearing bush (Iubrication)
a sealing arrangement
The pump housing has a special shape (volute).
Liquid enters the impeller, where the velocity increases. In the volute or diffuser most of the kinetic energy is
converted intq pressure.
The shaft seal can be a stuffing box or packed gland (most common on Logos2) or a mechanical sea!.
not self priming
can be (should be) started with c/osed discharge valve.
The simple centrifuga/ pump is used for sea water circulation and other duties where self priming is not a
requirement. When installed for bilge pumping or ballast duty, these pumps require a primer Le. some means of
removing air from the suction pipe so that the liquid to be pumped is caused to flow into the pipe and so to the eye
of the impeller.

Single Stage Centrifugal Pump


For general duties the impeller is of aluminium bronze keyed and secured to a stainless steel shaft. The impeller
shown (Fig. 1) is fully shrouded and of the single entry type. The renewable wear rings are of aluminium bronze
and the casing is normally of bronze or cast iron. The cover has a hub containing the shaft bearing at the bottom
and, above, either a packed gland or a mechanical sea!. The shaft bearing is of phenolic resin asbestos, lubricated
by the liquid being pumped except for pumps operating on high static lift. These have grease lubricated bronze
bearings to ensure adequate lubrication during the priming periodo A spigotted coupling spacer connects the motor
half coupling to the pump shaft. When this is removed, the pump cover, together with the impeller and shaft
assembly can be lifted out of the pump casing for inspection or maintenance.

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Pump

shaft

Watch Keeper Training Book


Coupling spacer

.-' (1land

Gland
Shaft
._______----

bearing

pa c k in g

Lubricator

__ Orain
connection

'O' ring
Uppc:r wear
nngs

S~cllring
w;lsh~r

Lowc:r wear

Imp~lkr

nngs

Single stage centrifugal pump (Hnmworthy Engineering Ud)

Impellers
The fully shrouded, single entry impeller in the pump shown (Pig. 1) is the type most widely used. It consists of a
number of vanes curving backwards from the direction of rotation. The vanes are supported on one side by
shrouding connected to the hubo The shrouding supporting the vanes on the other side, has an entry at the centre.
When the pump is operating, liquid in the casing is swirled by the rotating impeller. The swirling action causes the
liquid to move towards the outside and away from the centre (in the same way that stirred coHee moves to the side
of the cup, tending to spill over the rim and leaves a dip at the centre). The backward curving vanes and the
rotation give the liquid a combined radial and circular motion.

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Casing
The section of the volute casing shown in the sketch (Pig. 2) increases, thus allowing unrestricted flow from the
impeller. The volute also acts as a diffuser, converting kinetic head into pressure head. Some pumps have a double
volute casing which gives radial balance and reduced wear on the bearings. Pumps designed to produce high
pressure, have a diffuser ring so that a greater quantity of kinetic energy in the liquid can be converted to pressure.
Shroud

Yanes

;'

Shroud

Yolute _/

Discharge

casIng

Section through impeller and casing

Suction
When a centrifugal pump is operating, the liquid leaving the impeller produces a drop in pressure at the entry or eye
of the impeller. This causes Iquid from the suction pipe to flow into the pump. In turn, there is a movement of the
liquid to be pumped. The latter is normally subject to atmospheric pressure. A centrifugal pump will maintain a
suction !ift of four metres or more once it has been primed, beca use of the water passing through. The water in a
pump acts like a piston for water in the suction pipe and an empty pump will not operate. A pump which is required
to initiate suction from a !iquid level below itself, must be fitted with an air pump.

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Valves
Globe Valves
Valve parts:
valve body with flanges (liquid flow from below)
spindle and valve disc (Ioose or connected)
'valve seat
gland with packing
screw!ift
screw down non return
I - -. --

-------1

Gate Valves
Full f10w valves

Cocks
Used in small-bore pipe work and is joined to adjacent pipe work by a compression

coupling

Non Return Valves


Relief Valves
Spring loaded safety valves (used on displacement pumps, air bottles, cylinder heads, fire main line)

Quick Closing Valves


On all fuel valves above tank top level.

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Heat ExchanQers
Tube Coolers
Tube coolers for engine jacket water and lubricating oil cooling are normally circulated with sea water. The sea
water s in contact with the inside of the tubes and the water boxes at the cooler ends. Two pass Bow is shown in
the diagram (Fig. below) but straight flow is common in small coolers.

Oilout
Sea water out

Sliding

Ring and disc baffles

tube plate

Tubes

Sea water in

Tube cooler with two pass flow (Serck)

The oil or water being cooled is in contact with the outside of the tubes and the shell of the cooler. Baffles direct the
liquid across the tubes as it flows through the cooler. The baffles also support the tubes.
Tubes of aluminium brass (76 per cent copper; 22 per cent zinc; 2 per cent aluminium) are commonly used.
Ordinary brasses and other cheap materials have been used with unsatisfactory results. The successful use of
aluminium brass has apparently depended on the presence of a protective film formed along the tube length by
corrosion of iron in the system. Thus unprotected ron in water boxes and other parts, while itself corroding, has
prolonged tube life. This was made apparent when ste~1 wasreplac~d Oy other corrosian resistant materals or
protected more completely. The remedy in these systems has be en to fit sacrificial soft ron or mild steel anodes in
water boxes or to introduce iron in the form of ferrous sulphate fed nto the sea water. The latter treatment consists
of dosing the sea water to a strength of 1 ppm for an hour per day over a few weeks and subsequently to dose
before entering and after leaving port for a short periodo
Early tube falures may be due to pollution in coastal waters or to turbulence in some cases.
Many coolers are fitted with tubes of 70/30 cupro-nickel. More expensve materals are available. Tubes are
expanded nto tube plates and may be further bonded by soldering.

Tube Plates
Naval brass tubeplates are used
with aluminium brass tubes. Tube
stacks are made up to have a
fixed tube plate at one end and a
tube plate at the other end which
is free to move with the
expansion of the tubes (Fig.
right). Other materals found in
service are gunmetal, aluminium
bronze and sometimes special alloys.
Detail of cooler expansion arrangement
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Tu~s

fixed byexpansion

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Heat Exchan~ers
Tube Coolers
Tube coolers for engine jacket water and lubricating oil cooling are normally circulated with sea water. The sea
water is in contact with the inside of the tubes and the water boxes at the cooler ends. Two pass Bow is shown i11
the diagram (Fig. below) but straight flow is common in small coolers.
Gil out
Sea water out

Sliding

Ring and disc baffles

lube plate

Tubes

Sea water in

Tube cooler with two pass flow (Serck)

The oil or water being cooled is in contact with the outside of the tubes and the shell of the cooler. Baffles direct the
liquid across the tubes as it flows through the cooler. The baftles also support the tubes.
Tubes of aluminium brass (76 per cent copper; 22 per cent zinc; 2 per cent aluminium) are commonly used.
Ordinary brasses and other cheap materials have been used with unsatisfactory results. The successful use of
aluminium brass has apparently depended on the presence of a protective film formed along the tube length by
corros ion of iron in the system. Thus unprotected iron in water boxes and other parts, while itself corroding, has
prolonged tube life. This was made apparent when ste1 wasreplaced by othercorrosion resistant materials or
protected more c;ompletely. The remedy in thesesystems has been to fitsacrificial soft iron or mildstee1anodes in
water boxes or to introduce iron in the form of ferrous sulphate fed into the sea water. The latter treatment consists
of dosing the sea water to a strength of 1 ppm for an hour per day over a few weeks and subsequently to dose
before entering and after leaving port for a short periodo
Early tube failures may be due to pollution in coastal waters or to turbulence in some cases.
Many coolers are fitted with tubes of 70/30 cupro-nickel. More expensive materials are available. Tubes are
expanded into tube plates and may be further bonded by soldering.

Tube Plates
Naval brass tubeplates are used
with aluminium brass tubes. Tube
stacks are made up to have a
fixed tube plate at one end and a
tube plate at the other end which
is free to move with the
expansion of the tubes (Fig.
right). Other materials found in
service are gunmetal, aluminium
bronze and sometimes special alloys.
Detail of cooler expansion arrangement
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Tu~s

fixed byexpansion

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Tube Stack
The tube stack shown is fitted with alternate disc and ring baffles. The fixed end tube plate is sandwiched between
the casing and the water box. If the joints leak at the other end the special'tell tale' ring will allow the liquids to
escape without mixing. The joint rings are of synthetic rubber.

Water Boxes And Covers


Easily removable covers on water boxes permit repairs and cleaning to be carried out. The covers and water boxes
are commonly of cast iron or fabricated from mild steel. Where they have been coated with rubber or a bitumastic
type coating, the iron or steel has been protected but has provided no protection for the tubes and tubeplate.
Uncoated ferrous (iron) materials in water boxes provide a protective film on the tubes as the unprotectecl iron itself
corrocle$, the products of corrosan coating the tubes. The iron also gives some measure of cathodic protection.
Water boxes of gunmetal !nd other materials ar~ LJsedbut these, Iikethe coated ferrous metals, Qive no
protection. Soft iron or mild steel anodes can be fitt~d in the water boxes and provided they cause no turbulence,
will help to give cathodic protecton and a protective film.

Shell
The shell or cylinder is fabricated or casI. It is in contact with the Iiquid being cooled. This may be oil, with which
there is no corros ion problem, or water, which is normally inhibited against corroson. The material is not critical
(provided it is not reactive with any inhibiting chemicals) beca use it is not in contact with sea water.

Sea Water Side


Only the minimum of salt water should be circulated in coolers. Thus it is best to regulate temperature by means of
the salt water outlet valve, the inlet being left full open. If temperature is maintained by adjustment of the oil or
jacket water flow, with full flow on the sea water side, there is a greater corrosion risk.
Strainers on the sea water pump suctions should be cleaned and check~d regularly, as blockage will starve the
syst(3m of water. Damage to the str!iner plate will !UOWsoHds through Which willplock the end of the copler. The
cooler will become ineffective in either case and P!rtial blocking of the cooler tencls to lead to erosion d;.mage.
The sea water side should be disturbed only when necessa.ry to avoid damage to the protective film on the inside
of the tubes. If cleaning is needed to remove deposits, use should be made of the special soft brushes. Chemical
c1eaning may be recommended particularly where hard deposits have accumulated. The manufacturers handbook
willlist acceptable cleaning chemicals. For the sea water side of coolers, an acid such as hydrochloric acid may be
the agent.
Precautions are essential when dealing with corrosive chemicals used for cleaning. Gontact is avoided by wearing
gloves and protective goggles or a face shield. Should the chemical come into contact with the skin or the eye, the
best first aid is usually to wash the affected parts immediately with water. If other treatment is necessary this can be
found from the medical book. Before handling any chemical the instructions should be read and the type of first aid
that might be necessary ascertained. There are now such a variety of chemicals in use that reference books are
needed. Mixing instructions must be followed.
Before cleaning, coolers are isolated from the system by valves and blanks or by removing pipes and blanking the
cooler flanges. Flushing is necessary after the cleaning agent has been drained from the cooler.

Plate Tvpe Heat ExchanQer


Plate type heat exchangers were original!y developed for the milk industry where daily cleaning is necessary. They
were first used at sea, as coolers, in the nineteen-fifties.
The plates are metal pressings (Fig. next page left), corrugated with horizontal or chevron pattern corrugations.
These make the plates stiffer and therefore permit the use of thinner material. They also increase the heat
exchange area and produce a turbulent flow. Al! these factors contribute to the efficiency of heat transfer.
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Turbulence, as opposed to smooth tlow, causes more ot the liquid passing between the plates to come into contact
with them. It also breaks up the' boundary layer ot liquid which adheres to the metal and acts as a heat barrier in
smooth tlow. However, the turbulence can cause plate damage due to erosion and materials normally used in tube
coolers tor sea water contact, may not be suitable in plate coolers.

-.-

Sea water out

....

Lub.oil
in

Carrying
bars

Lub.oil
out

Sea water in

Cooler plate
Turhulent

Plate ccioler assembly

Ilow

TelltaJe

COlTugalion

Nilrite
rubber
joint

Plate material tor sea water contact is titanium. This is an expensive metal but apparently able to withstand the
conditions ot service. Aluminium-brass has been used with poor results. Possibly tailure ot aluminium-brass has
been due to the presence ot organic sulphides and other chemicals in coastal and inland waters. (Titanium is
immune trom ths type ot attack.) However, other tactors such as the turbulence in plate coolers or changes in the
materals ot sea water systems may be responsible tor early tailures. Stainless steel has been used in plate coolers
tor duty with sea water, but proved unsuccesstul although it is suitable tor other applications.
The joint material is normally nitrile rubber which is bonded to the plate with suitable adhesive such as Plibond.
Other joint materals tor higher temperatures are available, such as compressed asbestos tibre. The nitrile rubber is
suitable tor temperatures up to about 100C (230F). At high temperatures the rubber hardens and loses its
elasticity. The rubber joints are compressed when the cooler is assembled and the clamping bolts tightened.
Overtghtening can cause damage to the chevron corrugated plates so the cooler stack must be tightened, and
dimensions checked, during the process. Joints must be adequately clamped to prevent leakage.
Allliquid inlets and outlets are at the tixed end plate. The movable end sits in the horizontal carrying bars and the
plates are also located and supported by these. The tlow ports at the corners ot the plates are arranged so that the
cooling Iiquid and the liqud being cooled pass between alternate pairs ot plates. The sketch (Fig. above right)
illustrates the way in which the liquids tlow. Best efficiency is obtained by Iiquids moving in opposite directions Le.
contra-tlow. Joint leakage is visible externally except tor the double joint at the ports on one side ot the plate. A
drain hole acts as a tell-tale tor this section (see Fig. above left).

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Advantages And Disadvantages


Plate coolers are smaller and Iighter than a tube cooler giving the same performance. No extra space is needed tor
dismantling (a tube cooler requires enough clearance at one end to remove the tube nest). Their higher efficiency is
shown by the smaller size. Plates can be added, in pairs, to increase capacity and similarly damaged plates are _
easily removed, it necessary without replacement. Cleaning is simple as is maintenance. Turbulent how heIps to
reduce deposits which would interfere with heat tlow.
In comparison with tu be coolers, in which tube leaks are easily located and plugged, leaks in plates are sometimes
difficult to tind because the plates cannot be pressurized and inspected with the same ease as tu be coolers.
Deteriorating joints arealso a problem; they may be difficult to remove and there are sometimes problems with
bonding new joints. Tube coolers may be preterred tor lubricating oil cooling beca use ot the pressure differential.
Cost is another drawback; there are a large number of expensive joints on plate coolers and the plates are
expensive.

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Diesel Enaines
The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine which ignites the fue/ by injecting it into hot, highpressure air in a combustion chamber. In common with al! internal combustion engines the diese/ engine operates
with a fixed sequence of events, which may be achieved either in four strokes or two, a stroke being the travel oL
the piston between its extreme points. Each stroke is accomplished in half a revolution of the crankshaft.

Exhaust

-Exh.'lust port

valva

Piston

Air inlet

ports
----------

Crosshead"'""

Connecting

"~-""
...<
8ottom ehd

-A-fram.;;

belring

_~-"--Bedplate

Fig 1 Cross-section

of a four-stroke

Fig 2 Cross-section

diesel engine

of a two-stroke

diesel engine

Four-Stroke Cycle
The four-stroke cycle is completed in four strokes of the piston, or two revolutions of the crankshaft. In order to
operate this cycle the engine requires a mechanism to open and close the inlet and exhaust va/ves.
Consider the piston at the top of its stroke, a position known as top dead centre (TDC). The inlet valve opens and
fresh air is drawn in as the piston moves down (Figure 3(a)). At the bottom of the stroke, Le. bottom dead centre
(BDC), the inlet valve closes and the air in the cylinder is compressed (and consequently raised in temperature) as
the piston rises (Figure 3(b)). Fuel is injected as the piston reaches top dead centre and combustion takes place,
producing very high pressure in the gases (Figure 3(c)). The piston is now forced down by these gases and at
bottom dead centre the exhaust valve opens. The final stroke is the exhausting of the burnt gases as the piston
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rod

Watch Keeper Training Book


rises to top dead centre to complete the cycle (Figure 3(d)). The four distinct strokes are known as 'nlet' (or
suction), 'compression', 'power' (or working stroke) and 'exhaust'. Theseevents are shown diagrammatically on a
timing diagram (Figure 4). The angle of the crank at which each operation takes place is shown as well as the
period of the operation in degrees. This diagram is more correctly representative of the actual cycle than the
simplified explanation given in describing the four-stroke cycle. For different engine designs the different angles will
vary, but the diagram is typical.
" e;

-----,...-

~~~;:l"t
-,::- =r-

--

--

bhJlJSI
~u

__

\t1I

----/

+-:Cyli1lder

1, -~

\. "",..........
,

...

C'C""

'

ld)

Fig 4 Four-stroke

Fig 3 The four-stroke eycle. (a) suetion stroke and (b)


eompression stroke. (e) power stroke and (d) exhaust stroke

timing diagram

Two-Stroke Cycle
The two-stroke cycle is completed in two strokes of the piston or one revolution of the crankshaft. In order to
operate this cycle where each event is accomplished in a very short time, the engine requires a number of special
arrangements. First, the fresh air must be forced in under pressure. The incoming air is used to clean out or
scavenge the exhaust gases and then to fill or charge the space with fresh air. Instead of valves holes, known as
'ports', are used which are opened and closed by the sides of the piston as it moves.
Consider the piston at the top of its stroke where fuel injection and combustion have just taken place (Figure 5(a)).
The piston is forced down on its working stroke until it uncovers the exhaust port (Figure 5(b)). The burnt gases
then begin to exhaust and the piston continues down until it opens the inlet or scavenge port (Figure 5(c)).
Pressurized air then enters and drives out the remaining exhaust gas. The piston, on its return stroke, closes the
inlet and exhaust ports. The air is then compressed as the piston moves to the top of its stroke to complete the
cycle (Figure 5(d)). A timing dij.gram for a two-stroke engine is shown in Figure 6.
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':~''f'1.nuer

Fuel
injection
begins

E~h.u;t

p~r:

SC~""P.111-1e'

port

Fue'
ir.jctin
cnds

b.b~sl
(&l

,
Ro:oti[}n~,

'-~~ ~ ",

\
.. -....

...

-,J

..

101)

Fig 5 Two-stroke

cycle

Fig 6 Two-stroke

timing diagram

Comparison of Two-Stroke and Four-Stroke Cycles


The main difference between the two cycles is the power developed. The two-stroke cycle engine, with one working
or power stroke every revolution, will, theoretically, develop twice the power of a four-stroke engine of the same
swept volume. Inefficient scavenging however and other losses, reduce the power advantage to about 1.8. For a
particular engine power the two-stroke engine will be considerably Iighter--an important consideration for ships. Nor
does the two-stroke engine require the complicated valve operating mechanism of the four-stroke. The four-stroke
engine however can operate efficiently at high speeds which offsets its power disadvantage; it also consumes less
lubricating
Each type of engine has its applications which on board ship have resulted in the slow speed (i.e. 80-100 rev/min)
main propulsion diesel operating on the two-stroke cycle. At this low speed the engine requires no reduction
gearbox between it and the propeller. The four-stroke engine (usually rotating at medium speed, between 250 and
750rev/min) is used for auxiliaries such as alternators and sometimes for main propulsion with a gearbox to provide
a propeller speed of between 80 and 100 rey/mino

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ff
1I

.!
!

")1
r,

Fig.7 Crossection B&W 1035 VBF 65


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The Gas Exchange Process


A basic part of the cycle of an internal combustion engine is the supply of fresh air and removal of exhaust gases.
This is the gas exchange process. Scaveng2ng is the removal of exhaust gases by blowingin fresh air. Charging is
the filling of the engine cylinder with a supply or charge of fresh air ready for compression. With supercharging a
large mass of air is supplied to the cylinder by blowing it in under pressure. Older engines were 'naturally aspirated'-taking fresh air only at atmospheric pressure. Modern engines make use of exhaust gas driven turbochargers to .
supply pressurised fresh air for scavenging and supercharging. Both four-stroke and two-stroke cycle engines may
be pressure charged.
On two-stroke dieseis an electrically driven auxiliary blower is usually provided beca use the exhaust gas driven
turboblower cannot provide enough air at low engine speeds, and the pressurised air is usually cooled to increase
the charge air density. An exhaust gas driven turbocharging arrangement for a slow-speed two-stroke cycle diesel
is shown in Figure 1(a).
A turbobloweror turboch;:irger is an air compressordriven
by exhaust gas (Figure1(b)).The
single shaft hasan
exhaLlst g;:iSturbine on one end ano thEl air COmprEls~or on the other. $Llit;:iple.casing design anq sh;:ift seals ensure
that thEltWQ~ase~ do not mix. Ar is dra.wn from the lJla.chinery spacEl thrOLl~h a fIlter andthencprnptessed
before
p;:issingto thElscavenge space.The exhaust ga~IT1ayenter the turbinEl direqtlyfrom theenginEl or from a constantpressure cha.mber. Each of the shaft bearings has its own independent lubrication system, and the exhaust gas end
of the casing is usually water-cooled.

Fig. 1
Com:Jr~S50r

(a) Exhaust gas turbocharging


(b) A turbocharger.

(nl~t. (o

Charge
air
coole(

SCEi'llE:3flge;::

spacc

Auxilfary

IJlower
AI.rntak.e

Air n

CCImf1ressor

Exhoust

ga. out

Turhine
rulor
Compress.ed
air

tH...t

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arrangement.

Watch Keeper Training Book

Overview Engine Description MWM 440-8 TBD


Engine description
The engine is described in accordance with the breakdown of assemblies as Iisted in Note 01. Thorough knowledge
of the construction and operation of the engine provides the necessary understanding which facilitates working with
the engine.
Enqine, camshaft side
1. Intercooler
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Intake pipe
Injeption pump
Fuelsupply pump
Ins.trljment panel
Cylinder had
Lub oil filter
Operating lever
Oil filter for blocked oil to injection
pump
Lube oil thermostat
Hand primer
Crankcase
Oil pan
Fuel filter
Inspection cover with dipstick and oil
filler neck
Lube oil pump
Governor

Enqine, heat exchanqer side


1 Lube oil filter
2 Main starting air pipe
3 Cooling water collector pipe
4 Thermostat
5 Turbine (Exhaust turbocharger)
6 Fresh water pump
7 Raw water pump
8 Engine claw
9 Heat exchanger
(combined with 10)
10 Oil cooler
11 Housing for safety
valve and oil-pressure
regulating valve

10
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21

20-

12
18

13
14
15

17

~16

Enqine cross section


1 Intercooler
2 Cylinder head
3 Rocker arm
4 Injector
5 Exhaust va/ve
6 Indicator cock
7 Cooling water overflow
8 Exhaust pipes
9 Piston
10 Coo/ing water thermostat
11 Gil cooler / combination cooler

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12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

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Connecting rod
Crankcase
Crankshaft
Main bearing cover
Oil pan
Suction pipe to oi! pump
Oil pump
Injection pump
Governor
Camshaft

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10

11

12

's~~.
i.

22

lS

Enqine lonqitudinal section


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Intercooler
Main starting air pipe
Cylinder head
Exhaust valve
Injector
Inlet valve
Rocker arm bracket
Roller tappet
Camshaft

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10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

19
20
21
22
23
24

IncliGator cock
Instrument panel
Oi! tilter
Speedometer drive
Lube oil thermostat
Fuel filter
Fuel-supply pump
Crankshatt
Main bearing

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Suction nozzle tor lube oil


Connecting rod
Lube oil suction pipe
Lube oi! pump
Fuel injection pump
Governor

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Crankcase and oil pan


These two eomponents torm the load-bearing elements of the engine. They absorb the forees oeeurring during
operation in the eylinder and at the erank assembly.
In addition to the weight of the engine, the erankease transmits to the foundation the residual torees and the
support forees eaused by the torque delivered.
The crankease aeeommodates the eylinder liners and the erank assembly. The eamshaft is titted at the side in
camshatt housings.
The illustration below shows more details.

Crankease
1 Cylinder liner
2 Main belring eap
3 Saddle tor eamshaft mounting

Oil pan
1 Openings in oil pan
2 Opening tor lube oil pipe

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Cyli nder heads


The cylinder head closes off the cylinder liner at the topo
The cylinder head accommodates inlet and exhaust valves, injector and starting valve. In addition, there are
connections for measuring the exhaust temperature and the cylinder pressure (indicated).
The inlet and exhaust valves are operated by the rocker arms mounted on the cylinder head. The startng valve is
actuated with compressed air from the starting air distributor. The following illustration shows more details:

Cvli~~er~.ad
1 Push rod

2
4
5
6

Cylinc:Jerhead cover 3 Rocker arm bracket


Rocker arm
Lifting pece
Hiss cock

7 Starting valve
8 Valve rotating mechanism (Rotocap)
9 Exhaust valve
10lnjector
11 Inlet valve

11

10

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Crank assembly
The crankshaft is suspended in the crankcase and is driven via the connecting rods by the gas torees acting on the
pistons.
At the end ot the crankshaft is a flywheel for smoothing out the pulsating rotational torees. It necessary, the other
end ot the crankshaft is provided with a viscose vibration damper which reduces the occurring rotational vibrations'
In turbocharged engines the pistons are cooled by cooling coils which are cast into the piston crown.

=8
.....
-.--,
..
~
.--...
.

I .-.

---1

11+111
Li

ti

...

Groove

IV ~

Nut I Groove

---

Piston with cast-in cooling tubes


(TBD 440 and TBD 440 K)

1I

:::::111

-IV

--2
Crank assembly

12

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Piston rings
Pistn
Gudgeon pin
Connecting rod (D 440l
Big en bearing
Crank pin
ty1ajnbeaYing journal
G~arwheeJ td gear prive
Oilspray ring tor crank
shaft sealing
10 Flywheel flange
11 Counterweight
12 Connecting rod (T8D 440
and TBD 440 K)

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Gear drive and camshaft


Crankshaft rotation is transmtted to the injection pump drive via spur gear 1 va two idler gears 2; 3 and gear 4.
Gear 4 also turns the camshaft via gear 5 and gear 6 tor driving the governor. Gear 7 drven by dler gear 2 drves
the oil pump. The idler gears 8; 9 and 10 drive gear 11 whch in turn drives the coolng water pump.
Two inlet and exhaust valves are actuated by the cams ot the camshaft via roller tappets, push rods, rocker arms
and pressure pieces. The injection pump is driven by its own camshatt.

Geardrive

z = Number of teeth

5 1 Cr3.nkshaft spur gear

z = 72
2 Idler gear
z = 90
3 Idler gear
z = 40
4 Injection pump drive gear
z = 64
4 5 Camshaft drive gear
z = 64
6 Governor drive gear
z = 18
6 7 Lube oil pump drive gear
z = 36
8 Idler gear
z = 46
9 Idler gear
z = 46
10 Idler gear
z = 46
7 11 Cooling water pump drive gear
z = 20 at n Mot = max. 750 min-1
z = 31 at n Mot = more than 750 min-1

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Wateh Keeper Training Book

Fuel system
For the engine to operate, fuel is injeeted into the eylinder Iiner every 2nd revolution. The fuel burns in the air whieh
has been heated by eompression.
The fuel is pumped from the storage tank 8 into the serviee tank 1 by the transfer pump 6. From there the supply
pump 2 draws in the fuel and forees it through the fi/ter 3 into the injeetion pump 4. The injeetors 5 receive the fuel
at hgh pressure from the injecton pump and inject it finely atomized nto the cylinder. The leak-off fuel escaping
between nozzle needle and nozzle body is returned to the storage tank via the eolleetor pipe 7.
More fuel than aetually needed for eombustion is supplied to keep the operating temperature of the injection pumps
at a constant leve!. The exeess fuel is fed to the serviee tank va the overflow valves 9. The direetion of flow is
identified by arrows in the illustration.

Fuel system

- _. --- .~._--.
------ -.-. --- - lo --=- 1 ----__

~-

u~.

__

...

'

-----

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Servce tank
Supply pump
Fuel fi Iter
Injection pump
Injector
Transfer pump
Leakoff line
Storage tank
Overflow valves

L._._.

.--.
I
-----

---8

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Lecki.illeitung
Leakoff line

.0_._ Overflow
berstri.imleitung
lhe
Kraftstoffleitung
Fuelline

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12 -

Injection pump
11-

10-

95~
6-

1 Housing
2 Camshaft
3 Lube oi! return
4 Roller tappet
5 Plunger-and-barrel
6 Control sleeve
7 Control rod
8 Block-oil supply
9 Hlix
1O
11
12
13

assembly

Fu~l.supply
Ollivery valve
Delivety-va.lve holder
Metering va.lv for lube oil feed

13

In order to prevent the leakage fuel of the injection


pump getting into the lube oil, oil is supplied by a
separate microfilter into the plunger-and-barrel
assemblies where it penetrates between plunger
and housing. Thus preventing fuel from gettng
from the pressure chamber into the lube oil sump.

2
1

Injector
1 Adjusting screw
2 Leak-off port
3 Ports for nozzle cooling (only MOF operation)
4 Nozzle holder
5 Pressure piece
6 Nozzle needle
7 Nozzle body
8 Seal ring

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Governor
The task of the governor is to hold the set engine speed as constant as possible even when there is a change in
engine loading.
The governor, working by measuring centrifugal forces, is driven by the injection pump drive gear (see gear drive).
Each change in load on the engine causes initially a difference between the power required by the engine and the .
power momentarily produced by the engine. This difference must be compensated for by the energy of the rotating
masses (flywheel and crank assembly).
This taking or giving of energy from the rotating masses changes their rotational speed, i.e. changes theengine
;t'
speed ..
These variations from the set engine speed are measured by the governor and are converted into mechanical
adjusting movements.
In the injection pump these ldjusting mQvements enSljre th:t the quantity of fuel supplied to the engine (= quantity
of engine) is again acJlPtetlto the changed load on the en~inE3.
As a result, the variltions from the set engine speed or again finally wholly or partially eliminated (depending on the
speed droop setting on the governor).

1 Governor
2 Governor drive
3 Lube oilline
4 Controllinkage
5 Pneumatic speed control

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Lubricating system
In order to reduce the triction and in order to dissipate heat, the bearing points, cylinder Iiners and pistons are
supplied with lubricating oil
The lube oil pump 16 draws the lube oil trom the oil pan and pumps it to the thermostat. Below the operating
temperature the lube oil is led directly into the lube oil tilter 6. When the operating temperature is reached, the thermostat opens the way via the valve housing 9 to the oil cooler 11 trom where it is Iikewise ted to the lube oil
ti/ter 6. A bypass valve 7 prevents an interruption to the oil flow when the micra ti/ter cartridges are clogged. From
the lube oil ti/ter 6 the oil is ted via a second channel ot the valve housing and via the distributor line 14 in the
crankcase to the main bearings 13 and the tlange bearings 17 in the timing case. Oil bores in the crankshaft supply
the lube oil to the big end bearings 13 trom where it is passed on the gudgeon pin 1 and to the piston cooling
system.
A second distributor line 5 is directly connected to the tilter housing and supplies lube oil to the camshaft 4,
injection pump 2, govemor drive 18 and racker arm 3. The oil splashd frorr the crank assembly and returned
through the return Iines is collected in the oil pan 15 and is dr:'\Nnin aga.in from there.

I1

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.:-lrJJIFffiII
1

"",\

r"'L

f7T1:f1i~-"-=-"''''''-----'!'fT .~

.1

,., .....

-1']IIl~1::

15

14 13

Lube oil circuit


1 Gudgeon pin
2 Injection pump
3 Rocker arm
4 Camshaft
5 Distributor line
6 Lube oil filter
7 Bypass valve
B Reliet valve
9 Valve housing

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Thermostat
Oil cooler
Main bearing
Big end bearing
Distributor line
Oil pan
Lube oil pump
Flange bearing tor gear drive
Governor drive

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Cooling system
The thermal energy generated during combustion can only partial/y be converted into mechanical energy. The fresh
water surrounding the combustion chamber wal/s removes some of the residual heat and delivers it to a suitable
fluid (raw water, ambient air) in a recooler. A further part of the waste heat is absorbed by the piston cooling and
bearing friction in the lubricating oil, which is recooled in the oil cooler. The choice of cooling depends on the
respective conditions. Shown below by way of example is a diagram for indirect cooling. Arrows in the I/ustration
indicate the direction of flow of the coolant.

.--~.

Indirect coolinq (example)


1
2
3
4
5

Fresh water pump


Col/ector pipe
Turbocharger
Thermostat
Heat exchanger

7 E.xpansion tank
8 Raw water pump
9 Intercooler
10 Bypass line
} Combination

cooler

6 Oil cooler

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Air Compressor
Compressed air has many uses on board ship, ranging from diesel engine starting to the cleaning of machinery
during maintenance. The air pressures of 25 bar or more are usually provided in multi-stage machines. Here the air
is compressed in the first stage, cooled and compressed to a higher pressure in the next stage, and so on. The .
two-stage crank machine is probably the most common, and the type used on board LaGOS 11is shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1:

Longitudinal and cross-section of the HAMWORTHY two-stage air compressor used on board (2TF5 Series)

Air is drawn in on the suction stroke through the first-stage suction valve via the silencer/filter. The sUcton valve
closes on the piston upstroke and the air is compressed. The compressed air, having reached its first-stage
pressure, passes through the delivery valve to the first-stage cooler. The second-stage suction and compression
now take place in a similar manner, achieving a much higher pressure in the smaller, second-stage cylinder. After
passing through the second-stage delivery valve, the air is again cooled and delivered to the storage system.
The machine has a rigid crankcase which provides support for the three crankshaft bearings. The cylinder block is
located above and replaceable liners are fitted in the cylinder block. The running gear consists of pistons,
connecting rods and the one-piece, two-throw crankshaft. The first-stage and the second-stage cylinder head is
located on the cylinder block: each of the heads carries its suction and delivery valves. A rotary-gear pump
provides lubricating oil to the main bearings and through internally drilled passages in the crankshaft to both
connecting rod bearings. Cooling water is supplied from an integral pump. The water passes into the cylinder block
which contains both stage coolers and then into the first and second stage cylinder heads. A water jacket safety
valve prevents a build-up of pressure should a cooler tube burst and compressed air escape. Relief valves are
fitted to the first and second-stage air outlets and are designed to !ift at 10% excess pressure. A fusible plug is fitted
after the second-stage cooler to limit delivered air temperature and thus protect the compressed-air reservoirs and
pipework.
Cooler drain valves are fitted to compressors. When these are open the machine is 'unloaded' and does not
produce compressed air. A compressor when started must always be in the unloaded condition. This reduces the
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starting torque for the machine and clears out any accumulated moisture in the system. This moisture can affect
lubrication and may produce oil / water emulsions which line the air pipelines and could lead to fires or explosions.
The compressor motor is started and the machine run up to speed. The lubricating oil pressure should be
observed to build up to the correct value. The first-stage drains and then the second-stage drains are closed and
the machine will begin to operate. The pressure gauge cocks should be adjusted to give a steady reading. Where
manual drains are fitted they should be slightly opened to discharge any moisture which may collect in the coolers.
The cooling water supply should he checked, and also operating temperatures, after a period of running loaded.
To stop the compressor, the first and second-stage cooler drain valves should be opened and the machine run
unloaded for two to three minutes. This unloaded running will clear the coolers of condensate. The compressor can
now be stopped and the drains should be left open. The cooling water should be isolated if the machine is to be
stopped for a long periodo
~

Split pin

A ~Nut
~
\:.::)

Castle nutself-Iocking
(or al~ernative
washer
nut)
Valve seat

1--

Lift washer
Valve plate

MaintenanCe involves the usual checks ancj overhauls common to


reciprocating maphinery, e.g.crcmkc?se oillevel, cool.ingwa.ter
sY$tem, operatinQ temperatun:~$. Clnq press4fes, etc. The$4ction a.nd
deUveryairvalve$ fpr ea.ph $taQe will present the most work in any
maintenance schedule. These valves are automatic, requiring a
small pressure differential to operate.
The constant rapid opening and closing action of the valves may
require the seats to be refaced. Overheating, use of incorrect
lubricating oil, or the presence of dirt may result in sticking or pitting
of the surfaces. The various buffer plates, spring plates, valve plate
and seat which make up a suction or delivery valve can be seen in
Fig. 2. The valves should be stripped and all parts carefully cleaned
and examined, any worn parts replaced and the valve seat and
plate Iightly lapped separately on a flat surface before reassembly to
ensure a good sea!.

pring plates

Litt washer

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Centrifuging
A centrfuge consists of an electric motor drive to a vertical shaft on the top of which is mounted the bowl assembly.
An outer framework surrounds the assembly and carries the various feed and discharge connections. The bowl can
be a solid assembly which retains the separated sludge and operates non-continuously, or the bowl can be
arranged so that the upper and lower parts separate and the sludge can be discharged while the centrfuge
operates continuously. The dirty oil s admitted nto the centre of the bowl, pass es up through a stack of discs and
out through the top (Fig.1).
The purifvinq process
The centrifugal separation of two Iquids, such as oil and water, results in the formation of a cylindrical interface
between the two. The positioning of this interface within the centrifuge is very important for correct operation. The
setting or positioning of the interface is achieved by the use of dam rings ()rgravity disQs at the outletofthe
centrifuge. Various diameter rings are availlblefor each machine when cHffer(:3otd(:3nsities of oil are used. As a
general rule, the largest diameter ring which does not break the 'seal' should be used.
1

1
2+-

...
2

IJI:~tl
8. '-'"11-.2...3

3+-1111"':-1:
2+--

l-feed
2-purified
3-separated
4-sludge
Fig. 1: Purifyng

water

bowl arrangement

Fig. 2: Clarifying

bowl arrangement

The clarfvinq process


Cleaning oilWhich contain littl(:3or nowater is achieved in a c1arifier b()wl where theimpurities anq water collect at
the t)owl peripherY A c/ariner bowlhlS only OOeOl.tlet(Figure 8.2), N9~ravty cjisQ is nec.g$arysinc~ no interface
is formed; the bowl therefore operates at maximum separating efficiency since the oil is subjected to the maximum
centrifugal force.
The bowl discs
Purifier and clarifier bowls each contain a stack of conical discs. The discs may number up to 150 and are
separated from one another by a small gap. Separation of impurities and water from the oil takes place between
these discs. A series of aligned holes near the outside edge permits entry of the dirty oil. The action of centrifugal
force causes the lighter components (the clean oil) to flow inwards and the water and impurities flow outwards. The
water and impurities form a sludge which moves outwards along the undersides of the discs to the periphery of the
bowl.
Non-continuous operation
Certain designs of centrifuges are arranged for a short period of operation and are then shut down for cleaning.
After cleaning and removal of the sludge from the bowl, the machine is returned to service. Two different designs
are used for this method of operation: a long narrow bowl and a short wide bowl. The narrow-bowl machine has to
be cleaned after a shorter running period and requires dismantling in order to clean the bowl. Cleaning of the bowl
is, however, much simpler since it does not contain a stack of discs. The wide-bowl machine can be cleaned in
place, although there is the added complication of the stack of conical discs which must be cleaned.
Continuous operation
Modern wide-bowl centrifuge designs enable continuous operation over a considerable period of time. This is
achieved by an ejection process which is timed to discharge the sludge at regular intervals. The sludge deposits
build up on the bowl periphery as separation continues, and the ejection process is timed to clear these deposits
before they begin to affect the separation process. To commence the ejection process the oil feed to the centrifuge
is first shut off and the oil remaining in the bowl is removed by admitting flushing water. Water is then fed into the
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hydraulic system in the bottom of the bowl to open a number of spring-Ioaded valves. This 'operating' water causes
the sliding bowl bottom to move downwards and open dscharge ports in the bowl periphery. The sludge is
discharged through these ports by centrifugal force (see "Sludge Discharge"). Closing 'operating' water is now fed
in to raise the sliding bowl up again and close the discharge ports. Water is fed into the bowl to remake the liquid
seal required for the separation process, the oi! feed reopened, and separation continues.
The complete ejection cycle takes on/y a few seconds and the centrifuge is in continuous operation throughout.
Different bowl designs exist for various forms of sludge discharge, e.g. total discharge, controlled partial discharge,
and so on. With controlled partia/ discharge the oi! supply is not shut off and not all of the sludge is discharged. In
this way the separation process s not stopped. Whatever method is adopted the centrifuge can be arranged so that
the discharge process is performed manually or by an automatic timer.
Maintenance
The bowl and the disc stack will require periodical cleaning whether or not an ejection process is in operation. Care
should be ta.kenin stripping down the bowl, u$ing only the sp~cial too/s provided and noting that some left-hand
threads are used. The centrfuge is a perfecUy balanced piece of equipment, rotating at high speeds: all parts
should therefore be hand/ed and treated with care.

Sludge Discharge
The sludge discharge takes place through a number of
s/udge ports in the' bowl wall. Between discharges these
ports are closed by a large valve slide (a), the sliding
bowl bottom, which constitutes an inner, sliding bottom
in the separating space, The sliding bowl bottom is
forced upwards against a seal ring (b) by the liquid
pressure acting on its underside. During rotation, this
pressure increases with the dstance from the axis of
rotation because of the centrifugal force. The operating
liquid exerts an upward pressure exceeding the counteracting downward pressure from the process liquid,
becaqse the underside of the sliding bowl bottom has a
larger preSsure surface (radius R 1) than its upper side
(radius R2).

Operating liquid is supp/ied on the underside f the bowl


through a paring disc device. Leaka.ge or evaporation of
operating liquid is made up for autornatically by the
paring disc, which maintains a constant horizontal
operating liquid level (radius R3), as its pumping effect neutralizes the'static pressure from the supp/y.
This feed of operating liquid through the inner, narrower tube is going on also during the discharge cycle shown in
the following illustrations but has not been indicated in the latter, as it is of miner effect in this connecton.
Operating liquid is now supplied through the outer, wider
tube so that it f/ows over the lower edge of the paring
chamber (radius R4) and continues through a channel
out to the space above a sliding ring, the operating slide
(f). Between discharges the operating slide is pressed
upwards by coil springs, It is now forced downwards by
the liquid pressure, thereby opening discharge va/ves
from the space below the sliding bowl bottom so that the
operating liquid in this space flows out. A nozzle (g) in
the bowl body is always open but so small that the
outflow is negligib/e in view of the rapid inflow.

9
f

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When the pressure exerted by the operating liquid


against the underside of the sliding bowl bottom
diminishes, the latter is forced downwards and opens
so that the sludge is ejected from the bowl through
the sludge ports in the bowl wall. However, operating
liquid will always remain trapped in the space
between the sliding bowl bottom and a level ring
(m). When the sludge space in the bowl has been
emptied to a certain extent, the pressure exerted by
the remaining contents of the bowl falls below the
upward pressure exerted by the apera.ting liquid
trapp(?cj between leVel ring and slicjing bowl b()ttom.
The latter is then pressad upwards against the seal
ring in the bowl hbod.

The bowl is now kept closed only by the pressure


exerted on the underside of the sliding bovvl bottom
by the operating liquid that is trapped above the level
ring. When the supply of process liquid causes a
pressure rise on the upper side of the sliding bowl
bottom, the latter opens a little, allowing a
corresponding amount of sludge and process liquid
to discharge through the sludge ports. Normally, this
has only a negligible effect on the discharge quantity,
since the feed of operating liquid is interrupted for a
very short time. Operating liquid remaining above the
operating slide flows out through the nozzle (g), The
coi! springs force the operating slide upwards again,
which clO$es the discharge valves from the space
below the sliding bowl bottoll1.

Opera.ting liql1id is suppli(?d again through the outer,


wider tuba ahd flows ta the space below the sliding
bowl bbtt()m which is filled entirely, above the level
ring and below it as well. In consequence, the bowl is
closed completely and can be filled entirely with
process liquid without the sliding bowl bottom yielding
for the pressure exerted by this liquid. (Any surplus
supply of operating liquid flows through the channel to
the operating slide, opening the bowl again).
The discharge cycle is accomplished when the
situation is identical with that shown in the first
illustration in the series (but for the absence of
sludge), where the outer, wider tube is closed,
whereas the inner, narrower operating liquid intake is
still open.

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Selection 01 Gravity Disc


Gravity disc (D2) is suitable. The interface (D3) between the oil
(the light phase) and the water (the heavy phase) is well
disposed.

Gravity disc is too small. The interface is disposed too


near the bowl centre. Water may pass through the oil
outlet.

Gravity disc is too large. The interface is disposed too


near the bowl periphery. The liquid se al is broken and
oi! may pass through the water outlet.
The hole pitch diameter of the level ring is here marked D1.
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Self Cleaning Purifier


Most fuel and lubricating oil purifiers are fitted with a sliding bowl bottom which is raised or lowered by a water
operating system for self cleaning. Lubricating oil purifiers are sometimes self cleaning. Manual cleaning may be
preferred so that the solids can be examined and also beca use use may be intermittent and the extra expense not
justified. The drawing below shows one operating system for a self cleaning purifier.
While oil is passing through the purifier, the sliding bowl bottom is he Id up in the position shown by the operating
FIoaI v;lve
water beneath it. The sliding bottom seals the
bowl by being pressed against the sealing ring in
the rim of the cover. Solids from the oil are
..
o.1
thrown outwards by centrifugal force and collect
;,, . ..'~--'
-.. ..-"--";"
against the bowl periphery. At intervals dictated
by E?ithera timer or chOicE?,thE?oil fE?edis turned
off @q the bowl opneq to qic:hargE?th.e soliqs.
~linc

t).__
...

--

:;,;.

@:uJ

\IIlterWlk

10.

Bowl

ThrE?are a nurnbE?rOf d.ischa,rpe p0rtsaround


thE?pO\NL At the epd qf the dischl.rQe,the bowl is
c1o@danQ ~fter thE?Hqqid se~1 h.as been reestablished, the oi! feed is continued.
During normal running, the pressure exerted by
the water under the sliding bottom, is sufficient
to keep it closed against the pressure from the
liquid in the bowl. The operating water tank
maintains a constant head of water to the paring
disc which acts Iike a pump opposing this head,
provided that the radius of the liquid annulus
remains constant. If evaporation or leakage
causes a slight water loss, the reverse pumping
effect of the paring disc is reduced and water
from the operating tank brings the quantity of
water in the paring chamber back to the correct
radi.us. The opr~ting sHqe prevents 108S of
vv@:~rfrom beneath the sliding bowl, by closing
th drain holes.

Paring
l:hatnber

Operaling walerl';;}]

ToqIsCharge the solids, first the oi! feed is


closE?dand then the solenoid valve is opened.
This allows waterfrom the high pressure Hne to
flow into the paring chamber. The water enters from a point nearer the center than the normal radius at which the
operating water is maintained. This extra water (indicated by the arrow) fills th"e paring chamber unti! it runs over the
lip and via the drilling in 'he bowl body, into the 'opening chamber' immediately above the operating slide.
Selfcleaning p~r

operation (de Laval)

Water in the operating chamber, bui!ds up a pressure due to centrifugal force (despite small loss through the drain
nozzle) which pushes the operating slide down against the springs beneath it. As soon as the operating slide
begins to move downwards, the drain holes open and the high pressure operating water under the sliding bowl
escapes rapidly. Pressure exerted by liquid in the bowl forees the bottom down and solids are discharged through
the parts.
When all of the operating water has drained from the underside of the sHding bottom and discharge of soHds is
complete. then with the solenoid valve closed the operating slide is moved back UP by the springs to close the
drain holes. To raise the sliding bottom, the chamber under it must be filled with operating water. The filling is
completed quickly by a short opening of the solenoid valve. When the chamber is fi!led and pressurized the paring
chamber wi!1start to fill.
At this point the solenoid is closed to prevent overflow and a second opening. The radius of the Liquid annulus is
then maintained by the operating tank and paring disc arrangement.

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Watch Keeper Traininq Sook

Oi/v Water Separator

A Oily Water lnlet Valve


B Unit Drain h Sludge Outlet Valve
e Water Outlet Valve
D Oil Outlet Valve
E Clean Water Inlet Valve
F Water Pump
G Alarm Monitor Feed

H Pressure Gauge

J PressureNacuum

Gauge
K Control Valve
L Immersion Heater (Optional)
M Oil Probe

N Sample Drain to Silge


O Oil Probe Alarm (Optional)
P Oil Discharge Valve (Air Assisted)

[)~scripti(:m
Th Hamworthy Oily Water Separator is a compactsinQle, gravity type veSsel, using thecoalescinQ plate pack
principie of separation, this function being before th pumps producing a flow to give a more efficient unit.
The fabricated steel vessel contains a multi stage corrugated plate pack, the plates being vertical. One positive
displacement pump is mounted on the unit with a control panel fitted at the inlet end. Capacitance probes ate fitted
10 detect the oillevel
in the oi! chamber, controlling the pump to give fully automatic operation. A third alarm probe
can be fitted close to the water outlet to prevent oi! discharge due to a fault.
Oily water mixture is drawn into the separator where the majority of oi! separates in the gravity stage below the oil
chamber into which it rises and collects. The water pump draws the liquid through the plate pack which encourages
the remaining oi! droplets to coalesce and rise through the pack, eventually to the oil chamber. Clean water is
drawn from the rear end of the unit into the water pump to an overboard discharge connection.
When oil/air covers the lower probe, the water pump stops, the bi!ge valve closes and the water inlet and oil/air
discharge valves open to discharge the oi!/air. When the top probe again senses water the bilge solenoid valve
opens, the oil/air and water inlet valves close and the water pump starts. This sequence will continue automatically
when controlled by a high/low level switch in the bilge reservoir, or manual start/stop if required.
A 15 p.p.m. oi! content bi!ge alarm can be fitted with this type of separator,
to satisfy the legislation requirements,
wired to prevent any discharge above L5 p.p.m.

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Description 01 SewaQe Treatment Plant


AII waste water such as grey- and black waters shall be lead into the collecting tank. As soon as the sewage
reaches the START LEVEL, the plant will start the treatment.
Seperation
As the sucton pipe starts about 300 mm above the tank bottom, there is a space for sludge collection left in the
tank. This sludge must be spilled and discharged through the plant when in unrestricted waters, or must be pumped
out with a sludge pump in unrestricted waters, or ashore facilities according to the routine on board.
Oxidation
When ~ucking the sewage over the loop into the minimizer, there will be inserted about 1/3rd of the volume with air
by self-induction throughthe bore-hole in the high~st p9int The freshair containing the necessary oxygen gets
mixed with the sewage in the minimizer and oxidizes all demanding particles.
Enl~rgement Of Surface
The minimizer cuts all solids to 1mm pieces. ThE3liquid th~n enters into the. reaction Ch:.mberof the mb<ing- &
draining-pump, where propellers are working against the flow and S9 creating a heavy turbulence. This mechanical
force pLinches the 1mm pieces into nearly molecular pieces enlarging the surface optimal.
Oxidaton And Disinfection
The waste water which entered into the reaction chamber of the mixing- & draining-pump is now consisting of 2/3rd
sewage water and 1/3rd air plus NA-O-CL (Chlorine), which is dosed into the pipe before the pump. Oxygen and
chlorine are now working on the surface the organic matter (a drop of chlorine (NA-O-CL) burns a hole into your
shirt under atmospheric (air) condition).The larger the surface, the better the result.
In the same course of treatment the germs are eliminated by the contact with chlorine. Even the turbulence harms
the coli bacteria also without addition of chlorine.
Reaction Time
The reaction in the chamber of the pump is not sufficient. Therefor a whirl container is added to prolong the reaction
time. When the water is coming out of the whirl container it is treated according to the requirements.
Additional ..Sludqe-Pump
The sludQe pump is foreasier sludge remov:.1:.ndin cas~ of maximum-al3.rrnfor emerg~ncy pump out.
If the vessel is in unrestricted waters the plant can be switched over from "harbour working" to "sea working" so that
ol1ly the sludge pump empties the
DRY""RUNNING-:PROTE:CTION
tank.
roOM
SEAWATER""'"HYDROPHORE
N PIIRT

VENT lNl.ET
WHIRL-CONTAINER
DOSJNG-PUMP

ITANK!

TO STORM-VALVE

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_.

__ .-._~

~1

TRANSVER5Al

r"r

--(,-~.9C

... _~

..

\I'EW

--.-------------

)
I

------@
...------8

----0
{

I
1

I
I
OOlJBlf Borron

1
2

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Minimizer
Mixing and draining pump
Whirl container
E-box
Dsing station
Level feeler
Manhole
Inlet
Vent, to be let to the funnel
Cleaning hole
Tank

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12

13
14
15

16
17
18

19
20
21

22

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Coupling R2" for spilling


ChlOrinl?

tqhk

Outl~t, qisqharge pressure max. 4 bar


Dry rqnriIng pt()tection
Chlorine injection
Empty notice chlorine
Stern valve
Sink
Shower
WC
Limbers

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Air ConditioninQ

I Refriaeration - Basic TraininQ

System components:
Compressor - raises pressure of refrigerant vapour by compression.
Condenser - where heat is transferred from the hot, high pressure refrigerant to the cooling medium, such as ar or
water, causing condensation of the refrigerant gas to lquid.
Evaporator - where heat is transferred from the substance being cooled, such as air or water, to the cold, low
pressure refrigerant, causing the refrigerant to evaporate, changing from liqud to vapour.

Oil in system
Oillevel s checked at the compressor sightglass on the side of the crankcase, the system does not consume oil,
only circulate$ through system.
Ol presSl)re proplems, c!=lWst3dby:
Liquiq refri~erant in cOrnpress()r crankcase, indcated by:
Whte foaming ()l in compressor cr:J.nkc:J.se
sightgl:J.s$as opposed to splCishng (assuming compressor is
running), some fO:J.mingon t()p of the liqpid i$ :lccept:J.blebutit shouldn't be aH foam
Compressor body cold with frost or condensation; top of compressor shoUld be hot, crankcase should be
warrh (assumes compressor is running - the suction servce valve is normaHy cold)
Oil pump falure:
Do not mistake refrigerant gas in crankcase with oil pump failure or not enough oil in compressor
crankc3.se, caused by not enough ol in system:
Oil not returnng to compressor
Ol return problems
Cause of many frustratons
Ol and gas are together and circulate throughout the system
Oil depends on the velocity of the gas to "sweep" it along the pipes
Vertcal vapour downflow is never a problem beca use of gravity
Liquid lines in any directon are not a problem
Vertical vapour upflow lines need adequate velocity
This is usually a system design issue
Systern rnust be operating at ne:J.rrn:J.xirT1um
de$igned load
Oil separator not vvorking - float valve 01' solenoid valve, etc.
Oil failure cohtrol
WiH trip vvhehever there is an oil pressure problem
Must be manuaHy reset

Refrigerant gas in system


R22 most commonon the ship, boils at about -40 C
Liquid is clear like water
What is a sightglass?
Indicates presence of refrgerant gas
Gas s clear like water
If sightglass is clear it could be full of liquid or vapor
If system is running ok, t is assumed to be fuH of liquid
Indicates presence of moisture on so me models
Water is a contaminant in a system
deep purple - dry
pink - moisture
green - dry
yeHow - moisture
System does not consume gas, only circulates through system
Only meaningful when compressor is running
Causes of bubbles or churning in liquid line sightglass
Shortage of gas, usuaHy the reason but not always
Other reasons are beyond the scope of this session
Frostinq on compressor
caused by:
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Thermostatic expansion valves overfeeding
No air passing through evaporator, caused by:
Air filters plugged with dirt
Frost build-up on evaporator
Blower fan not running
Blower fan belt broken or loose

Pressure gauge readings


For the purpose of this session, it is adequate that you note any deviation from the usual readings when everything
is running normal. Readings are usually meaningful only when the system is running, unless, of course, all gages
read zero!
It is normal for oil pressure to read zera (O) when compressor is not running.
Any problems should be reported to the Reefer Engineer.

CHECKLlST
Refrigerant sightglass with compressor
Oillevels

in compressor

running - should be clear - full of Iiquid.

crankcase sightglass - should be anywhere in the glass, not foaming excessively.

Refrigeration tubing should never vibrate against other metals to avoid wear and a possible leak.
Small tubes at gauges and TX valves should not vibrate too much to avoid metal-fatigue,
break and leak. Use foam padding, tape or silicone to dampen vibration.

which causes tubes to

Filters in air handlers. Replace or clean as necessary.


Belts on fans and compressors.

Check tensions and wears, adjust or replace as necessary.

Excessive frost or condensation

on compressor.

Unusual noise at compressors

and blowers, such as bearings, internal mechanical problems, etc.

Any problems should be reported to the Reefer Engineer. Do not attempt to repair!

I:\engine\documents\training

watch keeper\training

- 46-

papers\watch

keeper training book