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TNG QUAN TR TU NHN TO

I. M U
Ch to c nhng c my thng minh nh con ngi (thm ch thng minh hn con ngi) l
mt c m chy bng ca loi ngi t hng ngn nm nay. Hn bn c cn nh n nh khoa
hc Alan Turing cng nhng ng gp to ln ca ng trong lnh vc tr tu nhn to. Nng lc
my tnh ngy cng mnh m l mt iu kin ht sc thun li cho tr tu nhn to. iu ny
cho php nhng chng trnh my tnh p dng cc thut gii tr tu nhn to c kh nng phn
ng nhanh v hiu qu hn trc. S kin my tnh Deep Blue nh bi kin tng c vua th
gii Casparov l mt minh chng hng hn cho mt bc tin di trong cng cuc nghin cu v
tr tu nhn to. Tuyc th nh bi c Casparov nhng Deep Blue l mt c my ch bit nh
c ! N thm ch khng c c tr thng minh s ng ca mt a b bit ln ba nh nhn din
c nhng ngi thn, kh nng quan st nhn bit th gii, tnh cm thng, ght, ... Ngnh tr
tu nhn to c nhng bc tin ng k, nhng mt tr tu nhn to thc s vn ch c trong
nhng b phim khoa hc gi tng ca Hollywood. Vy th ti sao chng ta vn nghin cu v tr
tu nhn to? iu ny cng tng t nh c m ch to vng ca cc nh gi kim thut thi
Trung C, tuy cha thnh cng nhng chnh qu trnh nghin cu lm sng t nhiu vn .
Mc d mc tiu ti thng ca ngnh TTNT l xy dng mt chic my c nng lc t duy
tng t nh con ngi nhng kh nng hin ti ca tt c cc sn phm TTNT vn cn rt
khim tn so vi mc tiu ra. Tuy vy, ngnh khoa hc mi m ny vn ang tin b mi
ngy v ang t ra ngy cng hu dng trong mt s cng vic i hi tr thng minh ca con
ngi. Hnh nh sau s gip bn hnh dung c tnh hnh ca ngnh tr tu nhn to.

Trc khi bc vo tm hiu v tr tu nhn to, chng ta hy nhc li mt nh ngha c nhiu


nh khoa hc chp nhn.

Mc tiu ca ngnh khoa hc tr tu nhn to ?


To ra nhng chic my tnh c kh nng nhn thc, suy lun v phn ng.
Nhn thc c hiu l kh nng quan st, hc hi, hiu bit cng nh nhng kinh nghim v th
gii xung quanh. Qu trnh nhn thc gip con ngi c tri thc. Suy lun l kh nng vn dng
nhng tri thc sn c phn ng vi nhng tnh hung hay nhng vn - bi ton gp phi
trong cuc sng. Nhn thc v suy lun t a ra nhng phn ng thch hp l ba hnh vi

c th ni l c trng cho tr tu ca con ngi. (D nhin cn mt yu t na l tnh cm.


Nhng chng ta s khng cp n y!). Do , cng khng c g ngc nhin khi mun to
ra mt chic my tnh thng minh, ta cn phi trang b cho n nhng kh nng ny. C ba kh
nng ny u cn n mt yu t c bn l tri thc.
Di gc nhn ca tp sch ny, xy dng tr tu nhn to l tm cch biu din tri thc, tm
cch vn dng tri thc gii quyt vn v tm cch b sung tri thc bng cch "pht hin"
tri thc t cc thng tin sn c (my hc).

II. THNG TIN, D LIU V TRI THC


Tri thc l mt khi nim rt tru tng. Do , chng ta s khng c gng a ra mt nh ngha
hnh thc chnh xc y. Thay vo , chng ta hy cng nhau cm nhn khi nim "tri thc"
bng cch so snh n vi hai khi nim khc l thng tin v d liu.
Nh bc hc ni ting Karan Sing tng ni rng "Chng ta ang ngp chm trong bin thng
tin nhng li ang kht tri thc". Cu ni ny lm ni bt s khc bit v lng ln v cht gia
hai khi nim thng tin v tri thc.
Trong ng cnh ca ngnh khoa hc my tnh, ngi ta quan nim rng d liu l cc con s,
ch ci, hnh nh, m thanh... m my tnh c th tip nhn v x l. Bn thn d liu thng
khng c ngha i vi con ngi. Cn thng tin l tt c nhng g m con ngi c th cm
nhn c mt cch trc tip thng qua cc gic quan ca mnh (khu gic, v gic, thnh gic,
xc gic, th gic v gic quan th 6) hoc gin tip thng qua cc phng tin k thut nh tivi,
radio, cassette,... Thng tin i vi con ngi lun c mt ngha nht nh no . Vi phng
tin my tnh (m c th l cc thit b u ra), con ngi s tip thu c mt phn d liu c
ngha i vi mnh. Nu so v lng, d liu thng nhiu hn thng tin.
Cng c th quan nim thng tin l quan h gia cc d liu. Cc d liu c sp xp theo mt
th t hoc c tp hp li theo mt quan h no s cha ng thng tin. Nu nhng quan h
ny c ch ra mt cch r rng th l cc tri thc. Chng hn :
Trong ton hc :
Bn thn tng con s ring l nh 1, 1, 3, 5, 2, 7, 11, ... l cc d liu. Tuy nhin, khi t chng
li vi nhau theo trt t nh di y th gia chng bt u c mt mi lin h
D liu : 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, ....
Mi lin h ny c th c biu din bng cng thc sau : Un = Un-1 + Un-2.
Cng thc nu trn chnh l tri thc.

Trong vt l :
Bn sau y cho chng ta bit s o v in tr (R), in th (U) v cng dng in (I) trong
mt mch in.

10

2.5

20

12

7.3

14.6

Bn thn nhng con s trong cc ct ca bn trn khng c my ngha nu ta tch ri chng ta.
Nhng khi t k nhau, chng cho thy c mt s lin h no . V mi lin h ny c th
c din t bng cng thc n gin sau :

Cng thc ny l tri thc.

Trong cuc sng hng ngy :


Hng ngy, ngi nng dn vn quan st thy cc hin tng nng, ma, rm v chun chun
bay. Rt nhiu ln quan st, h c nhn xt nh sau :
Chun chun bay thp th ma, bay cao th nng, bay va th rm.
Li nhn xt trn l tri thc.
C quan im trn cho rng ch nhng mi lin h tng minh (c th chng minh
c) gia cc d liu mi c xem l tri thc. Cn nhng mi quan h khng tng
minh th khng c cng nhn. y, ta cng c th quan nim rng, mi mi lin
h gia cc d liu u c th c xem l tri thc, bi v, nhng mi lin h ny thc
s tn ti. im khc bit l chng ta cha pht hin ra n m thi. R rng rng "d
sao th tri t cng vn xoay quanh mt tri" d tri thc ny c c Galil pht hin
ra hay khng!

Nh vy, so vi d liu th tri thc c s lng t hn rt nhiu. Thut ng t y khng ch n


gin l mt du nh hn bnh thng m l s kt tinh hoc c ng li. Bn hy hnh dung d
liu nh l nhng im trn mt phng cn tri thc chnh l phng trnh ca ng cong ni tt
c nhng im ny li. Ch cn mt phng trnh ng cong ta c th biu din c v s

im!. Cng vy, chng ta cn c nhng kinh nghim, nhn xt t hng ng s liu thng k,
nu khng, chng ta s ngp chm trong bin thng tin nh nh bc hc Karan Sing cnh bo!.
Ngi ta thng phn loi tri thc ra lm cc dng nh sau :
Tri thc s kin : l cc khng nh v mt s kin, khi nim no (trong mt phm vi xc
nh). Cc nh lut vt l, ton hc, ... thng c xp vo loi ny. (Chng hn : mt tri mc
ng ng, tam gic u c 3 gc 600, ...)
Tri thc th tc : thng dng din t phng php, cc bc cn tin hnh, trnh t hay
ngn gn l cch gii quyt mt vn . Thut ton, thut gii l mt dng ca tri thc th tc.
Tri thc m t : cho bit mt i tng, s kin, vn , khi nim, ... c thy, cm nhn,
cu to nh th no (mt ci bn thng c 4 chn, con ngi c 2 tay, 2 mt,...)
Tri thc Heuristic : l mt dng tri thc cm tnh. Cc tri thc thuc loi ny thng c dng
c lng, phng on, v thng c hnh thnh thng qua kinh nghim.
Trn thc t, rt him c mt tr tu m khng cn n tri thc (liu c th c mt i kin tng
c vua m khng bit nh c hoc khng bit cc th c quan trng khng?). Tuy tri thc khng
quyt nh s thng minh (ngi bit nhiu nh l ton hn cha chc gii ton gii hn!)
nhng n l mt yu t c bn cu thnh tr thng minh. Chnh v vy, mun xy dng mt tr
thng minh nhn to, ta cn phi c yu t c bn ny. T y t ra vn u tin l Cc
phng php a tri thc vo my tnh c gi l biu din tri thc.

III. THUT TON MT PHNG PHP BIU DIN TRI THC?


Trc khi tr li cu hi trn, bn hy th ngh xem, liu mt chng trnh gii phng trnh bc
2 c th c xem l mt chng trnh c tri thc hay khng? ... C ch ! Vy th tri thc nm
u? Tri thc v gii phng trnh bc hai thc cht c m ha di dng cc cu lnh
if..then..else trong chng trnh. Mt cch tng qut, c th khng nh l tt c cc chng trnh
my tnh t nhiu u c tri thc. chnh l tri thc ca lp trnh vin c chuyn thnh cc
cu lnh ca chng trnh. Bn s thc mc "nh vy ti sao a tri thc vo my tnh li l mt
vn ? (v t trc ti gi chng ta , ang v s tip tc lm nh th m?)". ng nh th
tht, nhng vn nm ch, cc tri thc trong nhng chng trnh truyn thng l nhng tri
thc "cng", ngha l n khng th c thm vo hay iu chnh mt khi chng trnh c
bin dch. Mun iu chnh th chng ta phi tin hnh sa li m ngun ca chng trnh (ri
sau bin dch li). M thao tc sa chng trnh th ch c nhng lp trnh vin mi c th lm
c. iu ny s lm gim kh nng ng dng chng trnh (v a s ngi dng bnh thng
u khng bit lp trnh).
Bn th ngh xem, vi mt chng trnh h tr ra quyt nh (nh u t c phiu, u t bt
ng sn chng hn), liu ngi dng c cm thy thoi mi khng khi mun a vo chng
trnh nhng kin thc ca mnh th anh ta phi chn mt trong hai cch l (1) t sa li m
chng trnh!? (2) tm tc gi ca chng trnh nh ngi ny sa li!?. C hai thao tc trn
u khng th chp nhn c i vi bt k ngi dng bnh thng no. H cn c mt cch
no chnh h c th a tri thc vo my tnh mt cch d dng, thun tin ging nh h
ang i thoi vi mt con ngi.

lm c iu ny, chng ta cn phi "mm" ha cc tri thc c biu din trong my tnh.
Xt cho cng, mi chng trnh my tnh u gm hai thnh phn l cc m lnh v d liu. M
lnh c v nh l phn cng ca chng trnh cn d liu c xem l phn mm (v n c th
c thay i bi ngi dng). Do , "mm" ha tri thc cng ng ngha vi vic tm cc
phng php c th biu din cc loi tri thc ca con ngi bng cc cu trc d liu m
my tnh c th x l c. y cng chnh l ngha ca thut ng "biu din tri thc".
Bn cn phi bit rng, t ra l cho n thi im bn ang c cun sch ny, con ngi vn
cha th tm ra mt kiu biu din tng qut cho mi loi tri thc!
lm vn m chng ta ang bn lun tr nn sng t hn. Chng ta hy xem xt mt s bi
ton trong phn tip theo.

IV. LM QUEN VI CCH GII QUYT VN BNG CCH CHUYN


GIAO TRI THC CHO MY TNH
Bi ton 1 : Cho hai bnh rng X v Y c th tch ln lt l VX v VY, hy dng hai bnh ny
ong ra z lt nc (z <= min(VX,VY)).
Bi ton 2 : Cho bit mt s yu t ca tam gic (nh chiu di cnh v gc, ...). Hy tnh cc
yu t cn li.
Bi ton 3 : Tnh din tch phn giao ca cc hnh hnh hc c bn.
Hai bi ton u l hai bi ton kh tiu biu, thng c dng minh ha cho nt p ca
phng php gii quyt vn bi ton bng cch chuyn giao tri thc cho my tnh. Nu s
dng thut ton thng thng, chng ta thng ch gii c mt s trng hp c th ca cc
bi ton ny. Thm ch, nhiu ngi khi mi tip cn vi 2 bi ton ny cn khng tin l n c
th hon ton c gii mt cch tng qut bi my tnh!. Bi ton s 3 l mt minh ha p mt
cho k thut gii quyt vn "v m", ngha l ta ch cn m t cc bc gii quyt mc tng
qut cho my tnh m khng cn i vo ci t c th.
Bi ton 1 s c gii quyt bng cch s dng cc lut dn xut (lut sinh). Bi ton 2 s c
gii quyt bng mng ng ngha v bi ton 3 s gii quyt bng cng c frame. y chng ta
cng nhau tm hiu cch gii bi ton u tin. Hai bi ton k tip s c gii quyt ln lt
cc mc sau.
Vi mt trng hp c th ca bi ton 1, nh VX = 5 v VY = 7 v z = 4. Sau mt thi gian tnh
ton, bn c th s a ra mt quy trnh nc i loi nh :
Mc y bnh 7
Trt ht qua bnh 5 cho n khi 5 y.
ht nc trong bnh 5
ht nc cn li t bnh 7 sang bnh 5

Mc y bnh 7
Trt ht qua bnh 5 cho n khi bnh 5 y.
Phn cn li chnh l s nc cn ong.
Tuy nhin, vi nhng s liu khc, bn phi "my m" li t u tm ra quy trnh nc. C
th, mi mt trng hp s c mt cch nc hon ton khc nhau. Nh vy, nu c mt ai
yu cu bn a ra mt cch lm tng qut th chnh bn cng s lng tng (d nhin, ngoi tr
trng hp bn bit trc cch gii theo tri thc m chng ta sp sa tm hiu y!).
n y, bn hy bnh tm kim li cch thc bn tm kim li gii cho mt trng hp c th.
V cha tm ra mt quy tc c th no, bn s thc hin mt lot cc thao tc "cm tnh" nh
ong y mt bnh, trt mt bnh ny sang bnh kia, ht nc trong mt bnh ra... va lm va
nhm tnh xem cch lm ny c th i n kt qu hay khng. Sau nhiu ln th nghim, rt c
th bn s rt ra c mt s kinh nghim nh "khi bnh 7 y nc m bnh 5 cha y th hy
n sang bnh 5 cho n khi bnh 5 y"... Vy th ti sao bn li khng th "truyn" nhng
kinh nghim ny cho my tnh v cho my tnh "my m" tm cc thao tc cho chng ta? iu
ny hon ton c li, v my tnh c kh nng "my m" hn hn chng ta! Nu nhng "kinh
nghim" m chng ta cung cp cho my tnh khng gip chng ta tm c li gii, chng ta s
thay th n bng nhng kinh nghim khc v li tip tc my tnh tm kim li gii!
Chng ta hy pht biu li bi ton mt cch hnh thc hn.
Khng lm mt tnh tng qut, ta lun c th gi s rng VX<VY.
Gi lng nc cha trong bnh X l x (0<=x<=VX)
Gi lng nc cha trong bnh Y l y (0<=y<=VY)
Nh vy, iu kin kt thc ca bi ton s l :
x = z hoc y = z
iu kin u ca bi ton l : x = 0 v y=0
Qu trnh gii c thc hin bng cch xt ln lt cc lut sau, lut no tha mn th s c
p dng. Lc ny, cc lut chnh l cc "kinh nghim" hay tri thc m ta chuyn giao cho my
tnh. Sau khi p dng lut, trng thi ca bi ton s thay i, ta li tip tc xt cc lut k tip,
nu ht lut, quay tr li lut u tin. Qu trnh tip din cho n khi t c iu kin kt thc
ca bi ton.
Ba lut ny c m t nh sau :
(L1) Nu bnh X y th ht nc trong bnh X i.
(L2) Nu bnh Y rng th y nc vo bnh Y.

(L3) Nu bnh X khng y v bnh Y khng rng th hy trt nc t? bnh Y sang bnh X (cho
n khi bnh X y hoc bnh Y ht nc).
Trn thc t, lc u gii trng hp tng qut ca bi ton ny, ngi ta
dng n hn 15 lut (kinh nghim) khc nhau. Tuy nhin, sau ny, ngi
ta rt gn li ch cn 3 lut nh trn.

Bn c th d dng chuyn i cch gii ny thnh chng trnh nh sau :


...
x := 0; y := 0;
WHILE ( (x <> z) AND (y<>z) ) DO BEGIN
IF (x = Vx) THEN x := 0;
IF (y = 0) THEN (y:= Vy);
IF (y > 0) THEN BEGIN
k:= min(Vx - x, y);
x := x + k;
y := y - k;
END;
END;
...

Th "chy" chng trnh trn vi s liu c th l :

Vx = 3, Vy = 4 v z = 2
Ban u : x = 0, y = 0
Lut (L2) -> x = 0, y = 4
Lut (L3) -> x = 3, y = 1
Lut (L1) -> x = 0, y = 1
Lut (L3) -> x = 1, y = 0
Lut (L2) -> x = 1, y = 4
Lut (L3) -> x = 3, y = 2

3 lut m chng ta ci t trong chng trnh trn c gi l c s tri thc. Cn cch thc
tm kim li gii bng cch duyt tun t tng lut v p dng n c gi l ng c suy din.
Chng ta s nh ngha chnh xc hai thut ng ny cui mc.
Ngi ta chng minh c rng, bi ton ong nc ch c li gii khi s nc cn ong l mt bi s ca c s
chung ln nht ca th tch hai bnh.
z = n USCLN(VX, VY) (vi n nguyn dng)

Cch gii quyt vn theo kiu ny khc so vi cch gii bng thut ton thng thng l chng
ta khng a ra mt trnh t gii quyt vn c th m ch a ra cc quy tc chung chung
(di dng cc lut), my tnh s da vo (p dng cc lut) t xy dng mt quy trnh gii
quyt vn . iu ny cng ging nh vic chng ta gii ton bng cch a ra cc nh l, quy
tc lin quan n bi ton m khng cn phi ch ra cch gii c th.
Vy th im th v nm im no? Bn s c th cm thy rng chng ta vn ang dng tri
thc "cng" ! (v cc tri thc vn l cc cu lnh IF c ci sn trong chng trnh). Thc ra th
chng trnh ca chng ta "mm" hn mt t ri y. Nu khng tin, cc bn hy quan st
phin bn k tip ca chng trnh ny.
FUNCTION DK(L INTEGER):BOOLEAN;
BEGIN
CASE L OF
1 : DK := (x = Vx);
2 : DK := (y = 0);
3 : DK := (y>0);
END;
END;
PROCEDURE ThiHanh(L INTEGER):BOOLEAN;
BEGIN
CASE L OF
1 : x := 0;
2: y := Vy;
3 : BEGIN
k := min(Vx-x,y);
x := x+k;

y := y-k;
END;
END;
END;
CONST SO_LUAT = 3;
BEGIN
WHILE (x<>z) AND (y<>z) DO BEGIN
FOR i:=1 TO SO_LUAT DO
IF DK(L) THEN ThiHanh(L);
END;
END.

on chng trnh chnh cng thi hnh bng cch ln lt xt qua 3 lnh IF nh chng trnh
u tin. Tuy nhin, y, biu thc iu kin c thay th bng hm DK v cc hnh ng ng
vi iu kin c thay th bng th tc ThiHanh. Tnh cht "mm" hn ca chng trnh ny
th hin ch, nu mun b sung "tri thc", ta ch phi iu chnh li cc hm DK v ThiHanh
m khng cn phi sa li chng trnh chnh.
By gi hy gi s rng ta c hm v th tc c bit sau :
FUNCTION GiaTriBool(DK : String) : BOOLEAN;
PROCEDURE ThucHien(ThaoTac : String) ;
hm GiaTriBool nhn vo mt chui iu kin, n s phn tch chui, tnh ton ri tr ra gi tr
BOOLEAN ca biu thc ny.
V d : GiaTriBoolean(6<7) s tr ra FALSE
Th tc ThucHien cng nhn vo mt chui, n cng s phn tch chui ri tin hnh thc hin
nhng hnh ng c miu t trong chui ny.
Vi hm v th tc ny, chng trnh ca chng ta s nh sau :
CONST SO_LUAT = 3;
TYPE
Luat RECORD
DK : String;

ThiHanh : String;
END;
DSLuat ARRAY [1..SO_LUAT] OF Luat; 9;
VAR
CacLuat DSLuat;
PROCEDURE KhoiDong;
BEGIN
CacLuat[1].DK := x = Vx;
CacLuat[2].DK := y = 0;
CacLuat[3].DK := y>0; 9;
CacLuat[1].ThaoTac := x:=0;
CacLuat[2].ThaoTac:= y:=Vy;
CacLuat[3].ThaoTac:= k:=min(Vx-x,y), x:=x+k, y:=y-k;
END;
BEGIN
WHILE (x<>z) AND (y<>z) DO BEGIN
FOR i:=1 TO SO_LUAT DO
IF GiaTriBoolean(CacLuat[i].DK)
THEN ThucHien(CacLuat[i].ThaoTac);
END;
END.

Chng ta tm cho rng trong qu trnh chng trnh thi hnh, ta c th d dng thay i s phn
t mng CacLuat (cc ngn ng lp trnh sau ny nh Visual C++, Delphi u cho php iu
ny). Vi chng trnh ny, khi mun sa i "tri thc", bn ch cn thay i gi tr mng Luat
l xong.
Tuy nhin, ngi dng vn gp kh khn khi mun b sung hoc hiu chnh tri thc. H cn phi
nhp cc chui i loi nh x=0 hoc k:=min(Vx-x,y) ...Cc chui ny, tuy c ngha i vi
chng trnh nhng vn cn kh xa l i vi ngi dng bnh thng. Chng ta cn gim bt
"khong cch" ny li bng cch a ra nhng chui iu kin hoc thao tc c ngha trc tip

i vi ngi dng. Chng trnh s c chuyn i li cc iu kin v thao tc ny sang dng


ph hp vi chng trnh.
lm c iu trn. Chng ta cn phi lit k c cc trng thi v thao tc c bn ca bi
ton ny. Sau y l mt s trng thi v thao tc c bn.
Trng thi c bn :
Bnh X y, Bnh X rng, Bnh X khng rng, Bnh X c n lt nc.
Thao tc
ht nc trong bnh, y nc trong bnh, nc t bnh A sang bnh B cho n khi B
y hoc A rng.
Lu rng ta khng th c thao tc " n lt nc t A sang B" v bi ton gi nh rng cc bnh u
khng c vch chia, hn na nu ta bit cch n lt nc t A sang B th li gii bi ton tr thnh qu
n gin.
"Mc y X"
" z lt nc t X sang Y"
V y l mt bi ton n gin nn bn c th d nhn thy rng, cc trng thi c bn v thao tc chng c
g khc so vi cc iu kin m chng ta a ra.

K tip, ta s vit cc on chng trnh cho php ngi dng nhp vo cc lut (dng nu ...
th ...) c hnh thnh t cc trng thi v iu kin c bn ny, ng thi tin hnh chuyn sang
dng my tnh c th x l c nh v d trn. Chng ta s khng bn n vic ci t cc
on chng trnh giao tip vi ngi dng y.
Nh vy, so vi chng trnh truyn thng (c cu to t hai "cht liu" c bn l d liu v
thut ton), chng trnh tr tu nhn to c cu to t hai thnh phn l c s tri thc
(knowledge base) v ng c suy din (inference engine).
C s tri thc : l tp hp cc tri thc lin quan n vn m chng trnh quan tm gii
quyt.
ng c suy din : l phng php vn dng tri thc trong c s tri thc gii quyt vn .

Nu xt theo quan nim biu din tri thc m ta va bn lun trn th c s tri thc ch l mt
dng d liu c bit v ng c suy din cng ch l mt dng ca thut ton c bit m thi.
Tuy vy, c th ni rng, c s tri thc v ng c suy din l mt bc tin ha mi ca d liu
v thut ton ca chng trnh! Bn c th hnh dung ng c suy din ging nh mt loi ng
c tng qut, c chun ha c th dng vn hnh nhiu loi xe my khc nhau v c s tri
thc chnh l loi nhin liu c bit vn hnh loi ng c ny !

C s tri thc cng gp phi nhng vn tng t nh nhng c s d liu khc nh s trng
lp, tha, mu thun. Khi xy dng c s tri thc, ta cng phi ch n nhng yu t ny. Nh
vy, bn cnh vn biu din tri thc, ta cn phi ra cc phng php loi b nhng tri
thc trng lp, tha hoc mu thun. Nhng thao tc ny s c thc hin trong qu trnh ghi
nhn tri thc vo h thng. Chng ta s cp n nhng phng php ny trong phn tm hiu
v cc lut dn.
Hnh nh trn tm tt cho chng ta thy cu trc chung nht ca mt chng trnh tr tu nhn
to.