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Sandeep U. Mane

Pankaj G. Gaikwad

Rajarambapu Institute of Technology,

Rajaramnagar, India

manesandip82@gmail.com

Rajarambapu Institute of Technology,

Rajaramnagar, India

gaikwadpankaj04@gmail.com

and creates a hierarchical structure that reflects the order in

which groups are merged or divided. K-Means clustering

algorithm is of partitioning type of clustering algorithm,

however divisive (top down) and agglomerative (bottom up)

algorithms are hierarchical clustering algorithms.

decades, the research is stimulated on new computing paradigms

and result of this effort is emergence of new problem solving

techniques like Nature Inspired Computing, Evolutionary

Computing. Nature inspired problem solving techniques are

widely used to solve complex problems. These techniques are

widely used due to their decentralized and self-organized

behavior. Such behavior is observed in social systems such as

artificial bee colony algorithm, particle swarm optimization, ant

colony optimization, bat algorithm, firefly algorithm, glowworm

swarm optimization etc. In this paper we have given overview of

nature inspired techniques used for data clustering,

hybridization with traditional clustering techniques and their

effectiveness.

clustering algorithms are also categorized into hard and fuzzy

(soft) clustering [2], [13]. A hard clustering algorithm assigns

each pattern to a single cluster during its operation. A fuzzy

clustering method assigns degrees of membership to each

input pattern in several clusters. A fuzzy clustering can be

converted to a hard clustering by assigning each pattern to

cluster according to largest measure of membership. Hard

clustering algorithms are sensitive towards missing values and

outliers detected in input dataset. These limitations can be

overcome by using fuzzy clustering algorithm [13], [14].

Traditional Clustering Techniques; Hybrid Clustering Techniques;

I.

INTRODUCTION

challenges. From literature it is found that partitioning

algorithms gives better performance than hierarchical

algorithms, but the necessity is that it requires predefined

number of clusters. The result of such algorithms is highly

depend on the initial choice of centroid and in the process of

optimizing the objective function it may get stuck in local

optimum. To overcome these limitations researchers have

proposed nature inspired techniques. These nature inspired

techniques are decentralized and self-organized in behavior

[15].

an unsupervised classification method, where patterns are

grouped based on similarity features [1], [2]. The absence of

category

information

distinguishes

data

clustering

(unsupervised) from classification or discriminate analysis

(supervised). The aim of clustering is to find structure in

pattern and is therefore investigative in nature [2]. The

measure of similarity is usually pattern dependent. Euclidean

distance is one of the commonly used parameter to measure

the similarity. Minimum Euclidean distance means better

similarity and vice versa. In precise manner, data clustering is

a technique where the information which is logically similar,

physically stored together. Clustering analysis is a subjective

process which is basic cause for the availability of number of

clustering algorithms [3]. The diversity in clustering algorithm

is due to the diversity of induction principles (mathematical

formulation which believe to form cluster) and clustering

models. Different researchers employ different cluster models

with different algorithms. Understanding these cluster

models is the key to make analysis of various algorithms.

Widely considered cluster models for clustering analysis are

connectivity based model (e.g. hierarchical clustering) [4], [5],

centroid based model (e.g. k-Means) [6], [7], distribution

based model (e.g. Gaussian mixture) [8], [9] and density based

model (e.g. DBSCAN) [10], [11]. Basically, traditional

clustering techniques are widely used in partitioning methods

and hierarchical methods [12].

Swarm Intelligence (SI) is one of the categories of natureinspired problem solving techniques. Swarm (i.e. individuals)

uses their environment and resources more efficiently by

collective intelligence. The nature inspired techniques like

artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), particle swarm

optimization (PSO), ant colony optimization (ACO), bat

algorithm (BA), firefly algorithm and glowworm swarm

optimization (GSO) are introduced in following sections.

The theme of clustering analysis process is shown in fig.1.

Raw Data

Clustered Data

Clustering Analysis

specifying an initial number of groups, and iteratively

allocating objects among groups for convergence. In contrast,

a hierarchical algorithm combines or divides existing groups

Clustering Algorithms

for analysis of different clustering algorithms, available online

at archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets.html and kdd.ics.uci.edu.

Ackerman et al. in [16] proposed theoretical proofs of

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2014 International Conference on Circuits, Systems, Communication and Information Technology Applications (CSCITA)

represents a solution in a high-dimensional space. The

particles represented with four vectors, its current position,

best position found so far, best position found by its

neighborhood so far, and their velocity. Swarm adjusts its

position in the search space according to the best position

reached by it (pbest) and the best position reached by its

neighborhood (gbest) during the search process.

categories of algorithms like traditional clustering techniques,

AI techniques, or nature inspired techniques are applied.

Based On the result, the analysis work is done at last stage.

The rest of the paper is organized as, section II gives

overview of nature inspired techniques. In section III, we have

presented applications of nature inspired techniques in data

clustering. In section IV, we have discussed prior work on

hybridization of nature inspired techniques with traditional

clustering techniques. Finally we have concluded in section V.

modified. Initially, the process is started with initializing each

particle with K random cluster centers. After initialization

process, Euclidian distance is computed with all cluster

centroid and data vector is assigned to cluster which have

nearest centroid for each particle. In next step, fitness value is

computed. The clusters are formed with the best fitness value.

The reassignment of data vectors to cluster is done by updating

the position and the velocity of particles [20].

There are different problem solving techniques are existing

which are inspired from happening in nature. In this section

we have discussed few techniques like, ant colony

optimization, particle swarm optimization, artificial bee

colony algorithm, bat algorithm and fire-fly algorithm.

The Artificial bee colony algorithm is one of the recently

introduced swarm based problem solving technique, simulates

the forging behaviour of honey bees. Originally ABC was

proposed to solve numerical optimization problems by

Karaboga and latter it is modified for clustering problems by

Karaboga et al. in [21], [22]. In ABC three groups of artificial

bees are used employed, onlookers and scouts bees. In the

modified algorithm, the first and second half of the colony

consists of employed and the onlooker bees. The employed

bees or the onlooker bees are equal to the number of cluster

centers in solution.

Ant Colony Optimization is inspired by behaviour of an

ant colony. It was proposed by Dorigo & Di Caro [17]. The

interactive behavior is through pheromone deposition. Ants

lay down pheromones directing each other to resources while

exploring their food searching environment. Ants select new

path by taking probabilistic decision, based on the amount of

pheromone deposited on path. Stronger the pheromone trail,

the higher its probability. ACO is structured into three main

functions as follows:

a) Ant Solution Construct: This process is carried out

according to adjacent states of problem for iteratively building

solutions.

b) Pheromone Update: This process update the

pheromone trail at the end of every step. In addition to

pheromone trail reinforcement, ACO also includes pheromone

trail evaporation. Evaporation of the pheromone trails helps

ant to forget bad solutions that were found in the initial stages.

c) Deamon Actions: This process is optional for

applying additional updates from a global perspective.

Lumer and Faieta proposed Ant Clustering Algorithm

(ACA), the modified version of ACO is suitable for data

clustering. ACA uses a dissimilarity-based evaluation of the

local density, in order to make it suitable for data clustering.

Data items that are scattered within solution space can be

picked up, transported and dropped by the agents in a

probabilistic way. The picking and dropping operation are

influenced by the similarity and density of the data items

within the ant's local neighborhood. If an ant is not carrying an

object and finds an object Xi in its neighborhood, it picks up

this object with a probability that is inversely proportional to

the number of similar objects in the neighborhood. If however,

the ant is carrying an object x and perceives a neighbor's cell in

which there are other objects, then the ant drops off the object,

it is carrying with a probability that is directly proportional to

the object's similarity with the perceived ones [18].

The solution is updated by the employed, onlooker and scout

bees in next generations. An employed bee modifies old

solution depending on local information and tests fitness value

of new solution. After that employed bees share the nectar

information about food sources and their position with

onlooker bees. As like employed bees, onlooker bees choose a

food source depending on the probability value associated with

that food source. The food source of which the nectar is

discarded by the bees is replaced with a new food source by the

scout bees. The important control parameters in ABC for

clustering are, the number of food sources which are equal to

the number of employed or onlooker bees, the maximum cycle

number i.e. the limit for rejection of food sources.

D. Bat Algorithm

Bat-inspired algorithm is another nature-inspired

optimization algorithm developed by Xin-She Yang [23]. The

algorithm is based on the echolocation behavior of microbats

with varying pulse rates of emission and loudness. The process

of the echolocation of microbats can be summarized as

follows: Each virtual bat flies randomly with a velocity Vi at

position (solution) Xi with a varying frequency or wavelength

and loudness Ai. As they searches and finds their prey, they

changes frequency, loudness and pulse emission rate I.

Searching process is by a local random walk. Selection of the

best solution continues till certain stopping criteria are not met.

For this essentially uses a frequency-tuning mechanism to

control the dynamic behavior of a swarm in bats. The

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is swarm based global

optimization technique proposed by Kennedy and Eberhart

[19]. It is inspired by the social behavior of bird flocking

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2014 International Conference on Circuits, Systems, Communication and Information Technology Applications (CSCITA)

glowworm moves towards a neighbor that has a luciferin value

higher than its own, which is decided using a probabilistic

mechanism. The glowworms are attracted to neighbors that

glow brighter [28]. The clustering GSO algorithm is tested on

standard dataset available at UCI repository [29].

The traditional bat algorithm is modified for clustering

process by randomly assigning k-clusters to each of the N bats.

In next stage, fitness of centroid in each bat is computed. The

data items or objects are placed in proper cluster based on

fitness value of centroid in a bat. In successive generations, the

new solution is generated by adjusting the frequency, updating

the velocity and creating new centroid values. For each bat,

best solution is selected among a set of best solutions from the

other bats. To accept new solution, increase in frequency and

reduced loudness is considered. Based on the newly selected

solution clusters are reassigned for centroid update assignment

[24]

III.

DATA CLUSTERING

(SI), has attracted several researchers from the field of

engineering and technology. Swarm based techniques have

reported better performance over classical problem solving

techniques, to solve pattern recognition and clustering

problems. These algorithms belong to the domain, inspired

from the collective intelligence emerging from the behavior of

a group of social insects. These insects struggles to find and

store food and choosing materials for future usage; these

problems are solved by insect colonies without any kind of

supervisor or controller. In this section, several applications

are discussed; where nature inspired clustering techniques

applied. These areas are: image segmentation, document

retrieval, and web mining.

E. Firefly Algorithm

Firefly algorithm proposed by Yang [25] is swarm-based

algorithm inspired by the flashing behavior of fireflies. The

algorithm constitutes population-based iterative procedure

with numerous agents as fire flies. Agents communicate with

each other via bioluminescent glowing which enables them to

explore cost function space more effectively than in standard

distributed random search. The standard firefly algorithm has

three rules as follows:

of identifying groups of similar objects. The goal of

segmentation is to simplify and/or change the representation

of an image into more meaningful and easier to analyze. In

precise, image segmentation is the process of assigning a label

to every pixel in an image such that pixels with the same label

share certain visual characteristics [30].

1) All fireflies are unisex and they will move towards more

attractive and brighter ones regardless of their sex.

2) The degree of attractiveness of a firefly is proportional

to its brightness.

3) The brightness of a fire fly is determined by the value of

the objective function of a given problem.

The standard firefly algorithm is modified so as to apply it,

to solve clustering problem. The modified firefly algorithm

has 2 stages: [25]

approach where firefly algorithm with unsupervised learning

approach effectively identifies the problem region in

mammographic images [31]. Sag and Cunkas in [32] presented

four different clustering algorithms namely k-Means, fuzzy cmeans (FCM), PSO and ABC, for synthetic, satellite image

segmentation. Quantization error is used for measuring quality

of cluster. Ouadfel and Meshoul in [33] proposed hybridized

fuzzy c-means algorithm and artificial bee colony algorithm for

image segmentation in clustering. The limitations of fuzzy cmeans algorithm are handled by using new mutation strategy

based on differential evolution in order to improve the

exploitation process.

function acting as the Euclidean distance.

b) The clustering processes initializes with the position

of best firefly and refine the centers.

F. Glowworm Swarm Optimization

The glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) is one of the

effective techniques to solve optimization problems and

recently introduced for data clustering problems [26]-[28].

The data clustering problem is formulated as an optimization

problem which finds the optimal centroid of the clusters rather

than to find optimal data partitions. The GSO finds multiple

optimal solutions. The solution has either equal values for the

dedicated objective function or not.

system helps the user to get more appropriate data in search. It

also helps for improving the efficiency of search engines.

Document clustering is a fundamental operation in

unsupervised document organization, topic extraction, and

information retrieval [34]. The cluster-based information

retrieval is used to retrieve one or more clusters in their

entirety, in response to a query. The task for the retrieval

system is to match the query against clusters of documents

instead of individual documents, and rank the clusters based on

their similarity to the query. Any document from a higher

ranked cluster, is considered more likely to be relevant than

any document from a lower ranked cluster on the list. The PSO

clustering algorithm is used to discover the proper centroid of

clusters for minimizing the intra-cluster distance as well as

maximizing the distance between clusters. The entire clustering

initialization phase, luciferin level update, and glowworm

movement. In initialization phase, the number of dimensions,

number of glowworms, and maximum number of iterations are

initialized. Also for each glowworm gj, a random position

vector (pi) is generated using uniform randomization within

the given search space. The luciferin update depends on the

glowworm position. During the luciferin-update phase, each

glowworm adds, to its previous luciferin level, a luciferin

quantity proportional to the fitness of its current location in the

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2014 International Conference on Circuits, Systems, Communication and Information Technology Applications (CSCITA)

based on fuzzy C-means and fuzzy particle swarm optimization

(FPSO) which makes use of the strengths of both algorithms.

Euclidian distance measure is used for calculating distance

from object to cluster center. Experimentation is done with six

well known datasets such as Iris, Glass, Wisconsin breast

cancer data set, Wine, Contraceptive Method Choice, Vowel

data set[42]. Dai et al. proposed an improved ant colony based

clustering algorithm which makes use of basic model of

Denueubourg and LF algorithm. It enables the ants to consult

historical information when conveying objects by importing

adjusting process and short period memory. The result shows

advances in convergence speed of the algorithm and the

efficiency of the cluster [43].

stages namely, a global searching stage and a local refining

stage. The global searching stage guarantees that each particle

searched to cover the whole problem space. The refining stage

makes all particles converge to reach near the optimal solution

[35].

The ant colony approach is used to solve unsupervised

clustering and the data retrieval problem. The ant based

clustering algorithm was better than traditional partitioning

algorithm to solve text document clustering [36], [37]. When

multiple ant colony approach is used for data clustering, it

outperforms than single ant colony approach as well as kMeans algorithm; as multiple ant colony approach involves

parallel engagement of several individual ant colonies [38].

clustering using k-Means and particle swarm optimization

algorithm [44], [45]. In this paper, initialization problem of

partition based clustering methods is overcome by hybridizing

PSO with k-means clustering algorithm. The motivation for

this idea of hybridization is from PSO algorithm; at the

beginning stage of algorithm, the clustering process is started

due to its fast convergence speed and then the result of PSO

algorithm is tuned by the k-Means to near optimal solutions.

Jinfeng Ding et al. worked for ant swarm intelligence to obtain

global search [46]. Authors used fuzzy logic to locate objects in

cluster by updating pheromones according to the total cluster

variance. The ACO algorithm gives better performance

compared with genetic algorithms (GAs) and self-organization

map (SOM).

web mining, the web structures, the regularity and dynamics of

web contents are identified to determine web access patterns.

In web mining data can be collected at the client-side, serverside and proxy servers or obtained from an organizations

database. Web mining is broadly categorized into three classes

namely web content mining, web usage mining and web

structure mining [39].

Web content mining is the process of extraction and

integration of useful data, information and knowledge from

web page content. Web content mining has two different

views: Information Retrieval View and Database View. Web

usage mining is the process of extracting useful information

from server logs. Usage data captures the identity or origin of

web users along with their browsing behavior at a web site.

The graph theory is used to analyze the node and connection

structure of a web site in Web structure mining. Document

structure mining is analysis of the tree-like structure of page to

describe HTML or XML tag usage. G. Sudhamathy in [39]

presented review of different techniques used for clustering,

temporal cluster migration, fuzzy clustering and PSO

approach for web usage mining. Karol and Mangat in [40]

discussed PSO algorithm for web usage mining, where, PSO is

used for finding web usage pattern, data feature extraction and

web service selection. Abraham and Ramos in [41] proposed

accurate trend prediction model based on ANT-LGP to

analyze the hourly and daily web traffic volume.

IV.

(xFKM) algorithm for clustering categorical valued data where

the cluster centroid vectors are represented as clustering

information. To solve the problem of clustering categorical

data, Ralambondrainy presented Conceptual Version of the kmeans (CVKM) algorithm which converts multiple categorical

attributes into binary attributes. One represents presence of a

category and zero absence of it. These binary attributes are

used as input values in the k-means algorithm [47]. In [48], the

fuzzy C-means and k-means are hybridized with PSO. These

approaches are compared with traditional approaches along the

evolution measures, Entropy and F-measure.

Rehab and Kader [49] proposed two phase algorithm for

data clustering. In first phase genetically improved PSO (GAIPSO) is used to combine the standard velocity and position

update rules of PSO with the ideas of selection, mutation and

crossover from GAs. The GAI-PSO algorithm searches the

solution space to find an optimum initial seed for the second

phase. In second phase, k-means algorithm can efficiently

converge to the optimum solution. The experiments conducted

on Iris and Wine datasets.

WITH TRADITIONAL CLUSTERING TECHNIQUES

limitations of one problem solving techniques using another

technique and to increase strength of algorithm. To achieve

better performance in data clustering applications, researchers

are working on different traditional clustering techniques as

well as on nature inspired or SI techniques. Recently

researchers are attracted towards hybridization of traditional

and nature inspired techniques for better performance. As kMeans algorithm outperforms among clustering techniques,

researchers have focused on k-Means and other nature

inspired techniques for hybridization. Some of hybrid

techniques are presented here.

which uses a fuzzy C-means operator in artificial bee colony

algorithm. The technique of FCM is used in scout bee phase of

ABC, are introduced by FCM operator. Krishnaveni and

Arumugam [51] proposed GHSBEEK clustering algorithm

combination of Global best Harmony Search (GHS) along with

features of artificial bee colony (ABC) and k-means algorithm.

Mohammad Ali Shafia et al. [52] proposed population based

swarm to solve fuzzy clustering problem. To solve clustering

422

from literature that knowledge based clustering has not been

applied to large data sets or in domains with large knowledge

bases. From our study, we recommend that hybrid clustering

techniques can be applied to large datasets or knowledge bases.

(GBTKC). The GBTKC combines Genetic Bee Tabu k-means

Clustering algorithms based on Honey Bee Algorithm which

added benefits of k-means algorithm for improving efficiency.

Sood and Bansal [53] proposed new technique where Bat

algorithm combined with k-medoid clustering algorithm to

overcome the limitations of partition based k-medoid clustering

algorithm. Abshouri et al. [54] proposed new hybrid clustering

algorithm of firefly and k-Harmonic Mean (FFAKHM). In this

work, the drawback of k-Harmonic Mean is overcome by using

firefly clustering algorithm. The results are compared against

KHM, PSO-KHM and PSO-Genetic-KHM algorithm. Hashmi

et al. [55] proposed swarm algorithms with comparative

analysis, namely PSO, bat algorithm, bees algorithm, cuckoosearch algorithm, artificial fish school algorithm and firefly

algorithm to overcome the limitations of k-means algorithm.

There are more hybrid techniques like evolutionary

approaches, heuristics approaches and local search methods

used with traditional techniques are available in literature [56],

[57].

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

techniques with important features or purpose.

TABLE I.

Algorithm

Improved

ACO

FCM & fuzzy

PSO

Hybrid

kmeans & PSO

GAIPSO

GBTKC

GHSBEEK

clustering

Firefly

and

KHM

FCM-PSO

k-means-PSO

FCM-ABC

k-medoid with

Bat Algorithm

Hybrid

SI

based

approach

[7]

Purpose/feature

To improve performance based on

Denueubourg model & LF algorithm

Hybridized to solve fuzzy clustering

problem

Results of PSO are tuned by the kMeans to near optimal solutions

For efficient convergence GAIPSO

hybrid with k-means

Hybridization of Bee Algorithm,

GA, Tabu and k-means used for

improving efficiency of k means

ABC algorithm applied to improve

convergence rate of Harmony Search

To overcome drawbacks of kHarmonic Mean

Used to measure performance over

Entropy and F-measures

Performance measured over Entropy

and F-measures

FCM operator is used to introduce

scout bee phase of the ABC

To overcome the drawbacks of

partition based k-medoid algorithm

Hybridizing ABC, ACO, PSO,

Cuckoo search, Bat Algorithm with

k-means

V.

Author& Year

Weihui

Dai

(2009)

Izakian et al.

(2010)

Sandeep Rana

(2010)

Rehab & Kader

(2010)

Mohammad Ali

Shafia et al.

(2011)

V. Krishnaveni

et al. (2012)

Abshouri et al.

(2012)

Karol

and

Mangat (2013)

Karol

and

Mangat (2013)

Krishnamoorthi

et al (2013)

Sood

and

Bansal (2013)

Adil Hashmi et

al. (2013)

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[15]

CONCLUSION

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every clustering problem. Nature Inspired techniques plays an

important role in finding solutions to these problems due to

their special characteristics like self-organized, decentralized

and collective behaviors. It is advantageous to hybridize nature

inspired techniques with traditional techniques to enhance it to

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