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Module

13

Cranes
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Objectives
After this module you should be
able to
identify the most common crane
hazards
take the necessary steps to avoid
those hazards

Crane Hazards

Improper loading
Not using outriggers or leveling crane
Not calculating load weight correctly
Lifting on unstable support surface
Working around powerlines
Damaged windows and other crane
parts
No barrier around swing radius
No or poor regular inspections
No boom angle indicator
Wind and other side forces
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Preplanning the Lift


Level the crane to within 1% and ensure
support surface is firm, able to support
the load
Know the location and voltage of any
overhead powerlines; stay 10 away
Barricade the area within the swing
radius
Determine your pickup and drop
locations
Calculate the weight of the load and
determine how to safely lift that weight
Inspect the crane
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Daily Crane Inspection


Some items to inspect include

tires properly inflated


clearance for tail swing
wire rope wear
physical damage to crane
loose or missing hardware
fluid leaks

Inspection must be done by a


competent person
If it needs fixed, dont use it until it is
repaired
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Load Weight
Refer to the shipping ticket or other
documentation
Ensure load is within the load chart
rating for the boom length and load
radius the operator is using
remember that the crane is rated by
the maximum weight it will lift at
minimum boom length and minimum
radius
the further from the cranes center
point the load is, the less the crane will
handle safely
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Load Limiting Factors


An operator must also consider the
following when calculating for a safe
lift
wind
side loads
on wheels or outriggers
lifting over the side
use of extensions, jibs, or other
attachments
the limits of rigging
the actual weight of the rigging must be
considered
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the results of an
improperly loaded
crane are obvious

the crane operator must have reference to and be


familiar with rated load capacities, operating speeds,
and special hazard warnings

an illustration of the hand signals used in your


companys crane operations must be posted
at the job site

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do not stand under a suspended


load at any time; use tag lines to
guide the load

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a warning barrier must be placed so that


a worker will not enter the swing radius
of the crane

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this cranes window is badly


cracked

Corrective Action: this crane


must be taken out of service and

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this cranes outriggers are fully


extended and the crane is level;
therefore, it is stable

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a boom angle indicator must be


installed on every crane with
variable angle booms

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these sheaves are damaged


which causes excessive wear on
the wire rope

Corrective Action: replace the sheaves when they


are worn or broken or when their damage will cause

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a thorough, annual inspection of the


hoisting machinery must be made by a
competent person

the employer shall maintain a


record of the dates and results

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Applicable Standards
1910.181 Derricks
1926 Subpart N Cranes, Derricks,
Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors

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Your Employer Is
Responsible For
Designating competent persons to
inspect and operate cranes
Ensuring crane is inspected daily
before each use and thoroughly
annually
Providing the necessary rigging
devices
Responding to and correcting hazards
pointed out by you, the worker
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You Are Responsible For


Inspecting the crane daily before
use
Preplanning the lift
Knowing the load weight and
other factors to perform a safe lift
Correcting the hazards you are
able to correct
Reporting to your supervisor the
hazards you are unable to correct
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Case Study
Workers were in the process of
disassembling the boom. When
the pins were driven out, the
boom fell onto the workers.

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Always Remember
Level the crane within 1% and
ensure a firm support surface
Stay 10 from overhead powerlines
Consider other factors such as wind
and side loads when calculating for a
safe lift
Inspect the crane before each use
and perform a thorough inspection
annually
Never operate a crane that has any
component in need of repair
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Memory Check
1. A crane must be level to what
percentage before a lift?
a.
b.
c.
d.

1
5
10
12.5

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Memory Check
2. Which of the following is not a
factor that affects the load
calculation?
a.
b.
c.
d.

the limits of the rigging


the weight of the rigging
the wind speed
all of the above must be considered

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