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Technical Language 3

First writting exam:


Lean manufacturing
Process diagrams
Quality control
Fossil Fuels and Alternative energy
Solar power and Hydropower

Lean Manufacturing:
Is a production without wastes, lean is centered on
creating more value with less work. This is derivate of
TPS (Toyota Process Systems).
The goal of Lean is the elimination of waste and Toyota
define three broad types of waste:

Muda: activity that is wasteful and doesnt add

o Transportation,
o Inventory, to have a lot of product.
o Motion, people or equipment more that the
o Waiting, wait for the next production step.
o Overproduction, more production than the
required or produced before the time
o Over processing, to make an extra work
over the product.

o Defects, defects on the production or the

mistakes on the service that dont add
value. Low quality, bad design of the
Mura: term for unevenness, inconsistency in
physical matter or human spiritual condition.
Muri: term for overburden, unreasonableness or

Lean Manufacturing Goals:

1. Improve quality; design the necessary process for
to willing the costumers.
2. Eliminate waste, the before mentioned 7 wastes.
3. Reduce time, finish an activity from start to finish.
4. Reduce total costs, to minimize the cost.
Steps to achieve (complete) lean systems:
1. Design a simple manufacturing system: inventory
is only pulled through each production center
when it is needed to meet a customers order.
Reduce the cycle time, less inventory, increased
productivity and capital equipment utilization.
2. Recognize that there is always room for
improvement: The value adding activities are
simply only those things the customer is willing to
pay for, everything else is waste.
3. Continuously improve the lean manufacturing
system design: essentially to reach a companys
goals. Improve products, processes, services.

4. Measure: a performance metrics which

considered to fit well in a lean environment.


Process Diagrams:
A method of visually documenting the stages involved
in performing a certain processes. They give us a clear
perspective of the processes with every step. They are
composed by three parts:

Header, include all the relevant information,

campany, analyst, date, process, area, page
number, type of diagram.
Body, the graphic representation that is required
according the specifications of each
Summary, this is all the steps that the process

Operations Diagram:

Operation: when the process has materials

transformation, or for the creation of products.
Inspection: when we check how the process is
going and the quality of the product. (Square)
Combined: is an operation-inspection step.
Delay: use when nothing is being done in the
process. (D form)
Transportation: when the product is moved more
than 1.5 meters to the next step. (Right arrow)
Storage: used at the beginning of the process
when the materials are taken from the raw

materials storage and at the end of it int the finished

product storage. (Triangle)

Important considerations:

Time in minutes
Diagram is drawn in a plan view of the
manufacturing plant
The time is placed in the upper left corner of the
Distance in meters in the lower left corner of the
Short description of each step written at the right
side of the symbol.
Sequence in the processes with numbers.

Quality Control
This is a
product or
does its job

critical concept in every industry and

Quality is associated with the idea of a
service that is well done, looks good and

Quality control concepts:

Costumer based: quality is meet customer

Statical based: the less variation you have.

Quality Assurance: focuses on the ability of a process to

produce o deliver a quality product or service.