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Abstract: Aesthetic significance

Evaluating an environment usually involves making a judgment

about whether the environment is liked or not. This type of
judgment may be conscious or unconscious and the cognitive
procedure normally involves perception of the visual characteristic
of an environment and an emotional evaluation of the environment.
In environmental assessment and environmental aesthetics
researches, preference is usually corresponded to by the variable
Picasso is quoted as saying, People make things for people. Art for
its own sake is a hoax. Similarly, the aesthetic elements of a
building can seldom justify themselves. Instead, we must ask,
Why? to find higher order functions more closely related to the
objectives in the business plan for the building. These functions
will relate to the specific effects of the buildings aesthetics on the
people who experience them.
Aesthetic functions are as varied as the building types represented.
We generally divide them into 3 categories, depending on whom the
experience of the building is meant to affect. These are the general
public, visitors, and users.
Effects on the general public are usually are limited to experiencing
the building from the outside, but can include transparency to show
interior activities and circulation. Some of these functions may be
altruistic in nature, such as improve environment, provide
gateway, or match context. Others may exhibit more obvious
self-interest, such as attract customers or convey image.
Visitors may be as varied as parishioners of a church, shoppers in a
supermarket, or consultants joining a business meeting. Effects on
visitors may relate to the sequence, in which they experience the
building, including the faade, entry, circulation, and meeting
spaces. Impress clients, engender trust, produce delight, or
encourage reflection are among the functions that may be related
to visitors. The degree to which they relate to higher order functions
of the business plan should be investigated.
Users are the owners, managers and staff that work within a facility.
Spaces include the back-of-the-house elements as well as public
spaces. Aesthetic functions may relate to hiring, morale,
productivity, creativity and communication. Even small

improvements in these elements will justify major capital

expenditure when compared the aggregate salaries involved.
The problem, of course, is in the uncertain nature of this
relationship. We have all had trouble selling the methodology at
times because of the squishiness of the correlation between
function and cost. Here we have another level of uncertainty. It is a
difficult task is to define the degree to which functions are satisfied
and how these functions relate to a particular aesthetic element or
approach. Published studies are highly anecdotal. Extremes are easy
to define while the incremental value of subtle changes is almost
Picture this relationship as a correlation of distributions. The value in
one distribution (the degree to which a function is satisfied), while
not directly a function of the value in the other distribution (the
aesthetic approach), is somehow related. Even allowing for this
uncertainty, it is worth assigning functions to the aesthetic elements
and working backward to see how much value would be produced if
those functions could be satisfied to a specified degree. For
example, how much is it worth to cut turnover in half? What is the
net present value of a 2% increase in productivity? What if the client
base were expanded by 10%? Ask the question What it is worth to
install attribute A if it has an X percent chance of producing one
of these results.
Hopefully, becoming more explicit about aesthetic functions and
their relationship to the business plan will allow us to increase the
value of our projects rather than merely reducing their cost.
Heritage in the Perspective of Aesthetics Values
Defining heritage almost defies definition but offers as a stepping
stone toward a greater understanding of heritage. Heritage,
pertaining to the built environment, is problematic and this is so
because different people attach different values to defining
significant heritage features. Heritage seems to be constantly in
dispute and this is why it is often in the news. For example
archaeologists want to excavate an interesting site which frustrates
developers. Artists want a 21st century sculpture while architects or
the church may have a different agenda. Heritage advocates have
competing views. One person may take a more romantic traditional
approach to heritage values, whereas another person may lean
towards a more innovative view of heritage. Some heritage
practitioners are more concerned about the preservation of physical

remnants of the historic heritage whereas others are more

interested in historic narrative.
Ultimately with every heritage action, there is a section of society
that feels ignored or excluded. An appreciation for historical
heritage grows when it is widely accepted by the community as a
whole. Our worldview influences the development of heritage values
and in turn influences the way heritage is treated. People have
differing influences that shape their world view. Heritage values are
likely to be influenced by nationality, gender, ethnicity, class
religion, poverty, insideness, expertise and age. Heritage values
might be derived from innate experiences.
Aesthetic judgements are required in deciphering heritage values.
What is considered aesthetically pleasing to one person may not be
considered of value to another. Therefore careful use of language is
required in assessing a buildings external and internal spaces. Unity
of style and history of a place make up factors that inform analysis
and assessment for the built environment.
The conservation plan plays an effective role in establishing heritage
parameters. Subjective judgements are taken into consideration
when describing principal features of overall unity and design of a
building. The conservation plan also takes into account economic
and social values. When plans were developed to protect and
restore Victoria Theatre in New Zealand for example, the
conservation plan was an essential component in setting out policies
and specifications for the aesthetic significance (attractive or
artistic) alongside physical significance (architectural, engineering,
and technological). Physical elements were more easily measured.
History of a place is valued as an important quality in assessing
heritage significance. History provides a sense of the living, people,
social interaction, entertainment. The cultural significance of a
building or place comes from an appreciation of its physical
character and from an understanding of its associations over time
with persons and 23 events. The nature and scope of this
significance can be assessed on the basis of a number of
characteristics, for example, the extent to which a building
demonstrates design and/or construction techniques or knowledge
of the time, or whether the building has aesthetic significance due
either to its uniqueness, or its being representative of commonly
held ideas of beauty, design and form, or whether the building or
site has clear association with particular events or persons in

history (Milne, 2011). Historical value becomes more prominent as

research into heritage assessment develops. Buildings evolve over
time, adding further layers of meaning and significance to inform
knowledge and understanding of our cultural and historic heritage.
Maintaining an open mind and understanding the subjective nature
is necessary during the administrative process in assessing heritage
features. Achievable and effective outcomes for historic heritage
can only occur in the context of rigorous evaluation and assessment
frameworksin assessing theoretical principles andoperational
strategies (Milne, 2011). A good understanding of history, space,
architectural merit and aesthetic all come into play during analysis
and assessment of heritage buildings.
Assessing the Aesthetics Impact of the Orchid Garden Suites
As architecture created by one a national artist, the design of the
building is conveys aesthetically inclined concepts that can be
approached towards the development of its surrounding spaces.
Created as an art deco style structure, the building is typically fit in
being aesthetically functional as a hotel. It provides adequate
services for visitors and staff having an average of 3.5 star rating
from different hotel and travel evaluations. The hotel has
guestrooms and suites that are spacious and well-appointed,
revealing just the right fusion of comfort and simplicity. Each room
has a sweeping view of the famous Manila Bay Sunset and the city
The design is of earthly tones and in contemporary Filipino
applications. The practical use of lighting and vegetation within its
interiors sets up its elegance as a beauty within the city. However, in
a location where most of the structures are in negligible design, the
structure is marginalized with a society in risks of aesthetic
Abstract: The economic impact of hotels
How can a luxury hotel make a difference in the lives of average
people living in the community around it? Hotel investments hold
vast potential for job creation and economic stimulus.
Systematically measuring these benefits has become more
important now in a time when Corporate Social Responsibility is an
increasingly mainstream part of business in the tourism industry.
Managers and owners in many sectors are now expected to answer

for the impact to the larger society of their various business

For hotels it seems easy enough to measure the direct economic
impacts: number of jobs created at the hotel, local purchase of
goods and services, various taxes paid. But to get a complete
picture one must dig a bit deeper to assess the indirect impacts:
visitor spending outside the hotel, multiplier impacts of hotel and
employee spending, etc.
Hotel investments are appealing from a development impact
perspective, creating jobs and generating foreign exchange and tax
revenue. This is particularly important to some of the less developed
countries heavily reliant on tourism. In a city environment, hotels
comprise important business infrastructure to help a country
develop or recover after armed conflict or some other calamity.
Of course, the economic impact of a hotel differs from one country
or city to the next depending on several factors including:
availability of suitable construction materials/equipment and
operating supplies vs. the need to import, availability of skilled staff
vs. need for expatriates and imported labor, and the various taxes
levied on the hotel or the guest. Impacts also differ by type of hotel
product. For example, a full service luxury hotel with a host of
services will certainly create more jobs, tax revenue and foreign
exchange than a limited service budget type product, though there
is a real need for both in todays travel environment. And clearly,
much depends on the mindset of the hotel managers and their
efforts to be good corporate citizens, developing and promoting
local staff and working creatively to strengthen linkages with
potential suppliers of goods and services.
The significant benefits of hotel investments are often an untold
story for the tourism industry. Articulating and communicating these
benefits represents an opportunity for companies to improve brand
appreciation and strengthen their relationships in the communities
where they do business.
The growing significance of tourism and the hotel industry in
developing countries highlights the opportunity for further job
creation and economic growth, especially when a high percentage of
purchases are local and communities are constructively engaged.
Assessing the Economic Impact of the Orchid Garden Suites

The function of the structure as a hotel provides opportunities for

the economic development of its locality. A hotel is a place of
business already, catering its staffs with employment services.
Hotels are also places where business meetings can be debriefed,
both by local and international agencies. As a hotel the architecture
invites tourism that conveys the beauty of our country, into an
economic value that keeps our countrys stability.
Abstract: Identifying the Historical Significance of a
What makes a building historically significant?
Questions that can help you understand whether a building is
historically significant can be organized according to four areas:
1. History
Who were the original occupants and what did they do for a living?
Heritage buildings usually have greater potential for interpretation
and telling interesting stories if the original occupants were well
known in the community. Were any of the original occupants people
who made a notable contribution to the community in terms of
economic, political, social or cultural activities? Were they leaders in
those endeavours?
Who were later occupants?
If the original occupants cannot make a claim for leadership or
participation in community endeavours, perhaps later occupants
Did an event of historical importance occur in the building?
An event of historical importance will include things like the formal
signing of a significant document, a famous trial, or a meeting
between important people. It will be a rare building that will be able
to make any claim in this regard.
Can the building be said to illustrate an historical issue?
Some buildings are associated with or illustrative of an important or
enduring historical development, such as local agriculture (old barn)
or the community political life (house of the first mayor).
2. Architecture

When was the building constructed?

How old is the building, it is one of the most relevant determining
features of historic materials. Ultimately involves the relevance of
an object in the chronological order of events in a regions specific
history. The important ones will be those that introduced new styles,
building methods, or materials to the provincial landscape.

Many of the significant buildings constructed before and after a

specific event such as (celebrations, liberation, war, disasters) are
based upon the impact of the structure in its time. Hundreds of
these buildings remain; important ones will be those that have
considerable architectural merit by the quality of their architecture,
materials, and craftsmanship.
Who designed the building?
Most buildings were designed without an architect. Where a building
was designed by a trained architect, however, it may be possible to
discuss architectural styles and even to compare the building with
others designed by that individual.
Did the designer use a style or tradition to create the design?
The design of many buildings is very simple, often a box with a
gable roof. There are some buildings, though, where a particular
architectural style or tradition was used. These will typically be
public buildings or substantial private buildings.
Who constructed the building?
The carpenters, masons, and craftspeople who made the province's
early buildings were skilled individuals. It might be possible to
discuss the quality of their work at a particular site and also to
compare the work with that of other buildings in the community.
What materials were used in the construction of the building?
Most historic buildings that remain in the province were constructed
of light wood frame and were covered with horizontal wood siding.
The use of other materials (heavy wood frame, brick, stone, metal)
and different building technologies will make a building more
unusual by comparison.
3. Integrity

Have there been changes made to the building?

Few historic buildings have survived the years without some
change. Roof shingles will likely have been replaced. Paint will have
been applied. These changes are minor and do not necessarily
adversely affect the historic character of a building. Interior changes
may also not detract from the building's character. It will be those
significant changes made outside (for instance, an addition, new
window openings, removal of original materials and details) that
may most affect an appreciation of a building's original appearance.
Has the building always fulfilled its present function?
Over the years many buildings have seen changes to their original
function. In some cases, this is the nature of the building and will
not detract from its character; for example, commercial structures
are expected to accept many different tenants. Other buildings,
however, will suffer in terms of their historic character when
different functions are introduced. A one-room school that is closed
and then used as a community hall, then a store, and then a garage,
will likely have been so altered that its original character is erased.
4. Environment
Does the building look like any others in the community?
Generally we regard buildings with a unique appearance as special
and important. These will be structures like town halls, churches,
schools, and large and ornate houses. However, more modest
buildings in our communities should not be overlooked. In these
cases it will be necessary to identify and to select structures that
can be said to best represent those more typical examples.
Is the building a local landmark?
Public buildings such as town halls, schools, and churches are often
the best known local buildings. Some privately owned buildings may
also be well known either for their architecture (a big, ornate house)
or their occupant (the home of a well-known local citizen).
Assessing the Historical Significance of the Orchid Garden
Based upon the historic background of the structure, it was built in
the late 30's, the Orchid Garden Suites was an Art Deco style
mansion that was converted into a hotel about 10 years ago. It was
the previous residence of past Supreme Court Associate Justice

Antonio Villareal, son of Luis Enciso Villareal, one of the 13 martyrs

of Bagumbayan. It was designed by National Artist for Architecture
Pablo Antonio Sr. with the prominent design style of Art-Deco.
The structure is historically rich in the basis of it being a national
artists design. It has a value as piece of art that can engage the
locality in reflection of historic rendition of their contemporary life.
The styles that were used can be product of discussion and basis for
historical researches. The building can easily be identified locally as
a significant architectural creation.

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