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Cou.Pus JuRis SEcUNDUM

indestructible states. 16 The United States


is not, in relation to the several states,
regarded as a foreign nation. 17 The United 3 Generally
States is a "state" as such word is frequently used in international law .18
Research References
The United States is a body politic19 and West's Key Numbe1 Digest, United States c:=2
corporate. 20 The corporate residence of the
The territory under the jurisdiction or the
United States is within the United
United States includes the land areas under its
States. 11 It is, for some purposes, 22 al dominion and control; the 110rts, harbors, bay~,
though not others,23 treated as a "person."
and other euclosed 1trms of the sea qlong the
When the United States enters into comcoast; and a marginal belt or the sea extending
mercial business, it abandons its sovervut ihree mUcs.
eign capacity and is to be treated like any
The territory subject to the jurisdiction
other corporation. 24
the United States includes the land arof
B. TERRITORIAL EXTENT,
eas
under its dominion and control.1 Also
BOUNDARIES, AND
included are the ports, harbors, bays, and
JURISDICTION
other enclosed arms of the sea along the
Research Referencel!l
coast.2 Additionally, a marginal belt of the
sea extending from the coastline outward
A.L.R. Library
a marine league, or three geographical
A.L.R. Index, Federal Government
West's A.L.R. Digest, United States

~2

16
U.S.- Tcxas v, White, 74 U.S . 700, 19 L. Ed.
227, 1868 WL 11083 (1868) (overruled in part on
other grounds by, Morgan v. U.S., 20 Ct. Cl. 533,
113 U.S. 476, 5 :::>. Ct. 588, 28 L. Ed. 1044 l1885)).
17
U.S.- Clafiin v. Houseman, 93 U.S. 130, 23
L. Ed. 833, 1876 WL 19239 (1876).
As to r elation of states to United States, gen
erally, see C.J.S., States 38 to 41.
18
Conn.-McLaughlin v. Poucher, 127 Conn.
441, 17 A.2d 767 (1941).
1
SU.S.-U. S. ex rel. Marcus v. Hess, 317 U .S.
537, 63 S. Ct. 379, 87 L. Ed. 443 (1943).
20
U.S.-State ofRussia v. National City Bank
of Now York, 69 F .2d 44 (C.C.A. 2d Cir. 1934).
N.D.-Harding v. City of Dickinson, 76 N.D.
71, 33 N.W.2d 626 (1948).

Public or quasi corporation


U.S.-Dugan v. U.S., 16 U.S. 172,4 L. Ed. 362,
1818 WT, 2418 (1818).
21
U.S.-I-Ielvering v. British-American Tobacco
Co. , 69 F.2d 528 (C. C.A. 2d Cir . 1934), affd, 293
U.S. 95, 55 S. Ct. 55, 79 L. Ed. ~18 (1934).
:12Pa.-Baker v. Kirschnek, :n7 P a. 225 , 176
A. 489 (1935).
23
U.S.- U.S. v. Fox, 94 U.S . 315 , 24 L. Ed. 192,
1876 WL l 9533 (1876).
24
U.S.-The No . 34, 11 F'. 2d 287 CD. Mass.
1925).
Hl

[Section 3]
1
U.S .- Cunard S.S. Co. v . Mellon, 262 U.S.
100, 43 S. Ct. 504, 67 L. Ed. 894, 27 A.L.R. 1306
(1923); Matter of Arawak Trust Co. (Cayman) LLd.,
489 F'. Supp. 162 (E.D. N.Y. 1980).
As to territorial extent and jurisdiction
therein, generally, see C.J.S., international Law
10 to 21.
2
U.S.- Lam Mow v. Nagle, 24 F.2d 316 (C.C.A.
9th Cir. 1928).
Proof of acquiescence in claimed territorial sovereignty inadequate
U.S.- U.S. v. Alaska, 422 U.S. 184, 95 S. Ct.
2240, 45 L . Ed. 2d 109 (1975).
Inland Water Line
The ''Inland Water Line,'' established in aid of
navigation, is not treated by United States as territorial boundary of iLs inland waters.
U.S.-U.S. v. Louisiana, 394 U.S. 11, 89 S . Ct.
773, 22 L. Ed . 2d 4-4 (1969), decision s upplemented
on othtlr grounds, 394. U.S. 836, 89 S. Ct. 1614, 23
L. Ed . 2d 22(1969), decision supplemented on other
grounds, G25 U.S. 1, 119 S. Ct. :~13, 142 L. Ed. 2d 1
(1998).
St. Lawrence River
1'he St. Lawrence River on the UniLed Sta Les
!!ide of the inLernational boundary is water over
which Congress has jurisdiction.
U.S.- Lake Ontario Land Development and

UNT'l'F.D STA1'ES

miles, is included.a Accordingly 1 for most


purposes, the nation's territorial limits
are set at a point three miles distant from
the low waterline on the coast. 4 It does
not include the high seas, which are the
common propArty of all nations. 5
The Supreme Court ofthe United States
is not free to adopt varying definitions of
inland waters for different portions of the
United States coast. 6 A legislative declaration of jurisdiction over claimed inland
waters, without evidence of fUrther active
and continuous assertion of dominion over
such waters, is not sufficient to establish
a claim that such waters are historic
bays. 7
Even where the United States lacks
dominion and control, as on the high seas
or in a foreign country, it is not debarred
from governin.g the conduct of its own
citizens when the rights of other nations
or their nationals are not infringed. 8 In
the absence of some official license or
other governmental authority, acts of a
Beach Protection Ass'n v. Federal Power Commission, 212 F.2d 227 (D.C. Cir. 1954).
~.S.-Cunard S.S . Co. v. Mellon, 262 U .S.
100, 43 S. CL. 504, 67 L. Ed . 894, 27 A.L .R. 1306
(1923); U.S. v. Marino-Garcia, 679 F.2d 1373, 7::l
A.L.R. Fnd. 144 (11th Cir. 1982).
Coral reefs held part of continental shell
under statute
U.S.-U.S. v. Ray, 294 F. Supp. 532 (S.D. Fla.
1969), judgment aff'd in part, rev'd in part on other
grounds, 423 F.2d 16 (5th Cir. 1970), order clarified, 1970 A.M.C. 2393 (5th Cir. 1970) and aff'd in
part, rov'd in part on other grounds, 1970 A.M.C.
2893 (5th Cir. 1970).
4

Alaska- State v. Bundrant, 546 P.2d 530


(Alaaka 1976).
SU.S .-Treasure Salvors, Inc. v. Abandon l'l rl
Sailing Vessel Believed to Be Nuestra Senora De
Atocha, 408 F. Supp. 907 (S.D. F la. 1976), judgment
aff'd on other grounds and modified on other
grounds, 569 F .2d 330 (5th Cir. 1978).
6

U.S.- U.S. v. Louisiana, 394 U.S. 11, 89 S.


Ct . 773 , 22 L . Ed . 2d 44 (1969) , decision
supplemented on other grounds, 394 U.S. 836, 89
S. Ct. 1614, 23 L . Ed . 2d 22 (1969), decis ion
supplemented on other grounds, 525 U.S. l, 119 S.
Ct. 313, 142 L. Ed. 2d 1 ( 1998).

private citizen cannot be considered representative of a government's position as


regards claims of sovereignty to land or
water. 0
A consulate building, even when not
owned by the United States, is nevertheless a part of the territory of the United
States of America.10
American vessel.q,
An American vessel is part of the territory of the United States.11 However, this
is true only fo:r certain purposes and in a
limited sense. 12 A merchant vessel flying
the American flag is not a part of the
United States within the immigration
laws. 13 Accordingly, a person born on such
a vessel on the high seas is not born ''in
the United States" with respect to

U.S.- U.S. v. State of Cal., 381 U.S. 139, 85


S. Ct. 1401, 14 L. Ed. 2d 296 (1965), supplemented
on other gl'OW1rls, R82 U.S. 448, 86 S . Ct. 607, 15 L.
Ed . 2d 517 (1966), opinion supplemen ted on other
gJ'ounds, 432 U.S. 40, 97 S. Ct. 2915, 53 L. Ed. 2d
94 (1977).
8
U.S.-Skiriotes v. State of Florida, 313 U.S.
69, 61 S. Ct. 924, 85 L. Ed. 1193 (1941); U .S. v.
Bowman, 260 U.S, 94, 43 S. Ct. 39, 67 L. Ed. 119
(1922).
As to extraterritorial rights and jurisdicLion
of nations, generally, see C.J.S., International Law
18, 19.
Retrieving shipwrecked vessel
U.S.-Treas ure Salvors, Inc. v . Unidentified
Wrecked and Abandoned SaiHng Vessel, 569 F.2d
330 (5th Cir. 1978).
'U.S.- U.S. v. Alaska, 422 U.S. 184, 95 S. Ct.
2240, 45 L. Ed. 2d 109 (1975).
10
U.S.- U.S. v. Archer, 61 F . Supp. 708 (S.D.
Cal. 1943).
11
U.S. -Ex parLe Kogi Saito, 18 F.2d 116 (W.D.
Wash. 1927).
12
U.S.-United States v. Flores, 289 U.S. 137,
53 S. Ct. 580, 77 L. Ed. 1086 (1933).
13
U.S.- Scharrenberg v. DollarS S Co, 229 F.
970 (C.C.A. 9th Cir. 1916), atfd, 245 U .S. 122, 38
S. ct. 28, 62 L. Ed. 189 (191 7).
19