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REVIEW IN

VISUAL AND
AUDITORY
PROBLEMS

EYES

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY


External fibrous
tissue
Cornea
Sclera

Middle vascular
tissue/ visual tract
Choroid
Ciliary body
Iris

Innermost nervous
tissue
Retina

REFRACTIVE MEDIA OF THE EYES


Cornea
Aqueous humor
Lens
Vitreous humor
Optic nerve
Retina
Optic nerve

CATARACT

C: aging
Opthalmoscopy
Sx: gradual, painless, central
blurring of vision; decreased color
perception
Mgt: cataract extraction

CATARACT EXTRACTION
Ambulatory
ECCE
ICCE
Supine/semi-Fowlers
Monitor for cx

X inc. IOP activity


X special diet
Assist in
ambulation

Warning signals

GLAUCOMA
Frequent changing of
IOP = 8-21
mmHg
Closed-angle
Open-angle

glasses
Foggy vision
Decreasing peripheral
vision
Halos
Difficulty adjusting in
darkness

MANAGEMENT

Drug therapy

Absolute
blindness
preventable
with early dx
and tx
Prevent further
loss of vision

Miotic
Beta-blockers

Filtering procedure
Iridectomy
Trabeculotomy, -ectomy,
-plasty

Laser

RETINAL DETACHMENT

Sensory portion
separated from
epithelial layer
Aging, cx from cataract
extraction, eye injury
Sx:
Floating black spots
Flashes of light
Presence of curtain
covering eyes

Mgt
Bilateral eye
patching
BR on dependent
position
Scleral buckling

EARS

HEARING LOSS
Conductive
Problems with
external/middle ear
Faint sound
Know, remove,
treat cause

Receptive
Loud
Inner ear
Presbycusis

MENIERES DSS

Inner ear; overproduction of


endolymph
Endolymphatic hydrops
Triad of sx
Vertigo, tinnitus, unilateral
sensorineural HL
Preceding sx

GOAL OF CARE
Position flat/reclined
Kidney basin with wipes
Avoid jarring movt. Close eyes.
Low Na
Motion sickness drugs
Mellow music

RECURRENCE
Endolymphatic shunt
Labyrinthectomy