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Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Scheme
for Solar Photovoltaic System
Ahteshamul Haque

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for Solar Photovoltaic System

Ahteshamul Haque

To cite this article: Ahteshamul Haque (2014) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)

Scheme for Solar Photovoltaic System, Energy Technology & Policy, 1:1, 115-122, DOI:

10.1080/23317000.2014.979379

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23317000.2014.979379

Group, LLC Ahteshamul Haque

Published online: 01 Dec 2014.

http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=uetp20

Download by: [Universidad Autonoma De Bucaramanga]

Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

ISSN: 2331-7000 online

DOI: 10.1080/23317000.2014.979379

Photovoltaic System

AHTESHAMUL HAQUE*

Electrical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi, India

Abstract: Global energy demand is increasing exponentially. This increase in demand causes concern pertaining to the global energy

crisis and allied environmental threats. The solution of these issues is seen in renewable energy sources. Solar energy is considered one of

the major sources of renewable energy, available in abundance and also free of cost. Solar photovoltaic (PV) cells are used to convert solar

energy into unregulated electrical energy. These solar PV cells exhibit nonlinear characteristics and give very low efficiency. Therefore, it

becomes essential to extract maximum power from solar PV cells using maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Perturb and observe (P&O)

is one of such MPPT schemes. The behavior of MPPT schemes under continually changing atmospheric conditions is critical. It leads to two

conditions, i.e., rapid change in solar irradiation and partial shading due to clouds, etc. Also, the behavior of MPPT schemes under changed

load condition becomes significant to analyze. This article aims to address the issue of the conventional P&O MPPT scheme under increase

solar irradiation condition and its behavior under changed load condition. The modified MPPT scheme is implemented in the control circuit

of a DCDC converter. The simulation study is done using PSIM simulation software. A prototype unit is tested with artificial light setup on

a solar PV panel to simulate the changed solar irradiation condition. The results of the modified MPPT scheme are compared with existing

schemes. The modified MPPT scheme works fast and gives improved results under change of solar irradiation. Furthermore, the steady state

oscillations are also reduced.

Keywords: MPPT, photovoltaic, power electronics, perturb and observe, PSIM

1. Introduction

Global energy crisis and climate change threats are among the

major concerns faced by the present civilized world. The limited

reservoirs of fossil fuels and emission of greenhouse gases are

the major identified reasons for the above concern. Renewable

energy sources (RES) such as solar, wind, and tidal are considered the solution to overcome these concerns. Among these RES,

solar energy is considered one of the potential sources to solve

the crisis as it is available in abundance and free of cost.1

Solar photovoltaic (PV) cells are used to convert solar energy

into regulated electrical energy using power electronics converter.2 These solar PV cells exhibit nonlinear characteristics and

very low efficiency.3 The characteristic of solar cells become

more complex under changed atmospheric condition such as

partial shading.4 Due to these issues, it becomes essential to

Ahteshamul Haque

This is an Open Access article. Non-commercial re-use, distribution,

and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly attributed, cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in

any way, is permitted. The moral rights of the named author(s) have

been asserted.

*Address correspondence to: Ahteshamul Haque, Electrical

Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia University, M. M. Ali Jauhar

Marg, Okhla, New Delhi 110025, India. Email: ahaque@jmi.ac.in

variable atmospheric conditions. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme is used to extract maximum power from

solar PV cells. Various types of MPPT schemes are proposed by

researchers,514 namely open circuit, short circuit, perturb and

observe (P&O)/hill climbing, incremental conductance, and so

forth.

The P&O method is very popular among all these schemes.

It is further classified into various types of P&O MPPT schemes

and is adopted by the researchers. The nominal value of capacitors connected in parallel with solar PV is taken as a parameter

to monitor in extraction of power.5 However, Xiao and Dunford

have proposed an adaptive scheme to extract the power.6

The P&O method may give false results, i.e., when solar irradiation is increased, the conventional P&O algorithm moves in

the direction of high power. It fixes the operating point, which

is not maximum power point (MPP). Also, the other issue is

steady state oscillations due to the nature of the P&O MPPT

scheme. The limitation of the P&O method has been highlighted

under increased solar irradiation condition.8 However, the MPPT

behavior with resistive load change has not been addressed

properly. These issues are addressed properly for other MPPT

schemes such as incremental conductance.13,15

The P&O method is evaluated and the duty cycle is decided

by the product of slope (dP/dV) with a constant gain.12

The drawback of this method is high steady state oscillations

116

A. Haque

condition.

In this article, the P&O MPPT scheme is modified considering increase in solar irradiation, steady state oscillations, and

load changing condition. The results of the modified scheme

are compared with the existing P&O MPPT scheme, and the

improvements are highlighted. The new MPPT scheme is implemented in the control circuit of a buck DCDC converter.

A prototype hardware model is made and tested in the lab. The

microcontroller is used to implement the proposed MPPT algorithm. The solar simulation and its changing irradiation condition

have been carried out with flooded artificial lighting on solar PV

panel. PSIM simulation software is used for simulation study.

MPP with

increase

in solar

irradiation

(PV) Cell

The basic element of a solar PV system is PV cells. These cells

are connected to form modules. It is further expanded in the form

of arrays as per the power requirement. These PV cells exhibit

nonlinear characteristic. The output of the PV cell varies with

solar irradiation and the ambient temperature. The characteristic

equations of PV cell are given in Equations 1, 2, and 3.3

I = Iph Ios {exp [(q/AKT) (V + IRs )] 1} (V + I Rs )/Rp

(1)

Ios = Ior exp [qEGO /Bk ((1/Tr ) (1/T))] [T/Tr ]3

Iph = S [Isc + KI (T 25)] /100

(2)

(3)

Where I is the PV cell output current; V, the PV cell output voltage; Rp , the parallel resistor; and Rs , the series resistor. Ios , is

the PV module reversal saturation current. A and B are ideality

factors; T, the temperature ( C); k, the boltzmanns constant;

Iph , the light-generated current; q, the electronic charge; and KI ,

the short-circuit current temperature coefficient at ISC . S is solar

irradiation (W/m2 ); ISC , the short-circuit current at 25 C and

1000 W/m2 , EGO , the band gap energy for silicon; Tr , reference temperature and Ior , the saturation current at temperature Tr .

Figure 1 shows that the power varies nonlinearly with the variation in solar irradiation, and maximum power point (MPP) varies,

too. However, the modeling of solar PV under partial shading

condition gives the results differently.4 The MPP point varies

with ambient conditions. It is the task of researchers to make

this moving point as the operating point to extract the maximum

power.

MPPT Scheme

The other name of the P&O method is hill climbing method.

In fact, the hill climbing and P&O methods are different ways

to achieve the MPP. Hill climbing MPPT is achieved by perturbing the duty cycle of the power converter. In the P&O method,

the perturbation is applied either in the reference voltage or in the

level.

reference current signal of the solar PV. The flow chart of the conventional P&O method is shown in Figure 2. In this flow chart, Y

is shown as the reference signal. It could be either solar PV voltage or current. The main aim is to achieve the MPP. To achieve

it, the system operating point is changed by applying a small

perturbation (Y) in solar PV reference signal. After each perturbation, the power output is measured. If the value of power

measured is more than the previous value, then the perturbation

in reference signal is continued in the same direction. At any

point, if the new value of solar PV power is measured less than

the previous one, then the perturbation is applied in the opposite

direction. This process is continued till MPP is achieved.8

Scheme

The main issue with the conventional P&O MPPT scheme is

its failure to give the correct MPP under fast changing atmospheric conditions as shown in Figure 3 and is also discussed

in Esram and Chapman.8 Figure 3 shows that the operating point

A under one atmospheric condition; a perturbation in reference

signal (which is voltage in the figure) brings the operating point

at B. This algorithm is reversed back to operating point A due to

the decrease in power. However, if the solar irradiation changes,

the power curve shifted from P2 to P1 in one sampling period.

The operating point will move from A to C. It is to be noted

that C is not the MPP of power curve P1. But the power at C

is more than the power at A; however, the perturbation is kept

same. Consequently, this phenomenon of divergence from MPP

is continued, if solar irradiation increases continuously.

The high ripple content in the power at steady state is the other

issue, which may be due to the nature of the P&O method as

evaluated.12

The P&O MPPT technique depends on the change in power supplied by solar PV. This supplied power level depends on solar

117

Start

Yes

No

Compare

P(t) P(t1)>0

V.

Yes

Yes

Compare

Y(t) Y(t1)>0

Compare

Y(t) Y(t1)>0

No

No

Y(t+1) = Y(t) Y

Y(t+1) = Y(t) + Y

Y(t+1) = Y(t) Y

Y(t+1) = Y(t) + Y

Return

Perturbation

Positive

Positive

Negative

Negative

Change in power

Next perturbation

Positive

Negative

Positive

Negative

Positive

Negative

Negative

Positive

irradiation and load resistance.

Cause

Solar irradiation

Load resistance

Fig. 3. Issue in P&O MPPT scheme under changing atmospheric

condition.

irradiation, ambient temperature, and resistive load. The reference signal is either incremented or decremented periodically,

comparing the power obtained in the present cycle. The reference

signal is considered as PV voltage in this work. Table 1 presents

the summary of the P&O MPPT method, and Table 2 describes

the change in power with the change in solar irradiation and load

resistance.

Once the solar irradiation is increased, the PV power is

increased, and if it decreases, the power is decreased. The PV

power varies differently with resistive load.

Change

Power

Voltage

Increase

Decrease

Increase

Decrease

Increase

Decrease

Decrease

Increase

Increase

Decrease

Increase

Decrease

Figure 4. The perturbation in the reference is dependent on the

slope dP/dV. The slope dP/dV is measured, and the threshold

value is shown in Equation 4.

dP

= 0.05

(4)

dV

During the stage, when the slope is high, the perturbation step is

more, and when the slope is less, the perturbation step is small.

The change in PV current along with PV voltage is also measured. The slope calculation gives the improved and fast MPP,

118

A. Haque

dV= V(t) V(t1)

dI = I(t) I(t1)

dP = P(t) P(t1)

= 0.005

= 0.08

Start

No

Yes

dP>0

Yes

No

dV > 0

dV > 0

No

Yes

Yes

No

dI > 0

dI > 0

No

dP

< 0.05

dV

No

Yes

V(t+1) =

V(t) .V(t)

V(t+1) =

V(t) .V(t)

dP

< 0.05

dV

Yes

dP

< 0.05

dV

dP

< 0.05

dV

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

V(t+1) =

V(t) +.V(t)

V(t+1) =

V(t) +.V(t)

V(t+1) =

V(t) +.V(t)

V(t+1) =

V(t) +.V(t)

V(t+1) =

V(t) .V(t)

V(t+1) =

V(t) .V(t)

Update

V(t) = V(t+1)

I(t) = I(t+1)

Return

earlier work is done by multiplying slope with constant gain

throughout the operation.12 Also, the load change is another area

where the proposed algorithm gives reliable results.

Zone

The MPPT operating zone for solar PV is dependent on DC

DC converter topology and restricts the value of resistive load

for which MPPT become effective. The MPPT scheme is

Rin

DC DC

Converter

Ro

the duty cycle. The basic principle of adjusting the duty cycle is

to match load impedance with input impedance seen by the DC

DC converter, i.e., impedance of solar PV as shown in Figure 5.

Rin (the input impedance seen by the converter) and Ro (the

output impedance connected with converter) are related with

119

DCDC converter topologies, which are summarized in Figure 6.

Figures 6 and 7 show the operating and non-operating zone of

MPPT. The MPPT is working in the entire range of characteristic

curve in the case of Buck-Boost and SEPIC (single-ended primary inductor converter) DCDC converter. Since these converters are complex, they exhibit more cost in comparison to buck or

boost converters.

Ro

Rin

Rin

Ro

Rin = Ro/D2

Rin = Ro(1D)2

D Duty Cycle

Rin

D Duty Cycle

Ro

Rin

Ro

Rin = (1D)2*Ro/D2

Rin = (1D)2*Ro/D2

D Duty Cycle

D Duty Cycle

Rin vs Duty Cycle

RLoad = RMPP

B

DC DC

CONVERTER TYPE

BUCK

BOOST

BUCK-BOOST

SEPIC

MPP ZONE

WORKING ZONE

A-B

B-C

A-B, B-C

A-B, B-C

NO WORKING ZONE

B-C

A-B

NONE

NONE

120

A. Haque

Table 3. Parameters of DCDC buck converter.

+

Lbuck

S. No.

Name of the

Parameter

Values

MOSFET

Vin

DIODE

Cbuck

Vo/p

Parameters

(5)

the input voltage of buck converter. The parameters of buck

converter are calculated for the design work (Table 3). The

parameters of solar PV model: ELDORA40 poly crystalline is

listed in Table 4.

The block diagram of experimental setup for testing of the modified MPPT algorithm is shown in Figure 9. The solar PV panel in

the lab is flooded with artificial light (halogen lamp). The intensity of artificial light is controlled to simulate the fast-changing

solar irradiation. The solar PV is connected with the buck DC

DC converter. The DC load is connected at the output of the buck

Flooded

with

Artificial

Lights

Vin

2

3

4

5

6

MOSFET

DIODE

Lbuck

Cbuck

Vo

7

8

Frequency

Power Output

Vcell in NO MPP Zone

20A, 600V

20A, 1000V, Fast Recovery

1mH, 15A Saturation

1000 uF

d VMPP

d Vcell

20 kHz

35W

The DCDC buck converter is used to implement the modified MPPT scheme (Fig. 8). The input voltage of DCDC buck

converter is the output voltage of solar PV. Equation 5 gives the

relationship between input and output voltage of buck converter.2

Vo = d.Vin

S. No.

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

PV Type

No. of Cells: Connected in series

Rated Maximum Power: PMPP

Open Circuit Voltage: VOC

Short Circuit Current: ISC

Voltage at MPP: VMPP

Current at MPP: IMPP

Values

Vikram Solar

Model: ELDORA40

PolyCrystalline

36

40W

21.9 V

2.45 A

17.4 V

2.3 A

and given as input to the microcontroller [Model: PIC- 16F887].

The microcontroller processes the proposed MPPT and gives output as pulse width modulated [PWM] signal to the gate of buck

converter. The opto-coupler driver IC [TLP-250] is used to drive

the power Mosfet of the converter. The data logger is connected

to record the solar PV power, current, and voltage. The gate signal is monitored using digital CRO. A voltmeter and an ammeter

are connected at the load end.

DCDC Buck

Converter

LOAD

Voltmeter

Solar PV

Digital CRO

Voltage Sensor

Current Sensor

Microcontroller

(PIC-16F887)

MPPT Controller

DATA LOGGER

PWM

121

The rating of solar PV used is 40W @ 1000 w/m2 solar irradiation. The simulated Power-Vcell characteristic is shown in

Figure 10. Since the PV is flooded with artificial lighting, therefore, power generated is not 40Wrather, it is around 67 Watts.

But the purpose to test the effectiveness of MPPT scheme is

achieved. The Power-Vcell curve of solar PV from the experimental setup with artificial light source, i.e., 1000 W/m2 , is

shown in Figure 11.

Figure 12 shows the experimental results under changed solar

irradiation levels. Figure 13 presents the experimental results

obtained under similar conditions to that of simulation. It can be

seen that the time taken to reach MPP is approximately 0.21 sec,

and even if the solar irradiation is changed, the MPP scheme

is not giving false results. Also, the experimental and simulation results are almost similar, except the steady state oscillation

load conditions.

much less.

Figure 14 shows the experimental results under different load

conditions. It is evident that if RLoad is less than RMPP , the MPP

works and restores the power to MPP level. The moment RLoad

is greater than RMPP , the proposed MPP fails, which is obviously

expected. Figures 15 and 16 shows the experimental results for

variable duty cycle.

Table 5 presents a comparison of the result between the gain

method and the proposed method. It is evident that time to reach

MPP, peak to peak steady state oscillations, and step load change

response time is improved.

122

A. Haque

Appendix: Nomenclature

MPPT Maximum power point tracker

PV Photovoltaic

Rp Parallel resistor

Ios PV module reversal saturation current

T Temperature in degree Celsius

Isc Short circuit current

RES Renewable energy sources

P&O Perturb and observe

Rs Series resistor

A, B Ideality factor

k Boltzmanns constant

S Solar irradiation

References

S. No.

1

2

3

Time to reach MPP from zero

Peak to peak steady state

oscillation

Step load change - response

time

Gain

method

Proposed

method

0.4 sec

2.0 watt

0.192 sec

0.500 watt

2.5 sec

1.800 sec

9. Conclusions

The correct and fast tracking of MPP under change solar irradiation and change load conditions are challenging tasks for

researchers. The proposed MPPT scheme provides a solution

to improve the existing methods. The proposed scheme may

help in achieving accurate and fast response in standalone and

grid-connected solar PV energy conversion systema. It can be

applied in fast-changing solar irradiation areas where solar PV

is used. The limitation of the proposed method is that it is not

evaluated under partial shading conditions.

and Applications, New Delhi, PHI, 2012.

2. Erickson, R. W.; Maksimovic, D. Fundamentals of Power Electronics;

Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.

3. Villalva, M. G.; Gazoli, J. R.; Filho, E.R. Comprehensive Approach to

Modelling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Arrays. IEEE Trans. Power

Elec. 2009, 5, 11981208.

4. Seyedmahmoudian, M.; Mekhilef, S.; Rahmani, R.; Yusof, R.; Renani,

E. T. Analytical Modelling of Partially Shaded Photovoltaic Systems.

MDPI J. Energ. 2013, 6, 128144.

5. Kasa, N.; Lida, T.; Iwamoto, H. Maximum Power Point Tracking with

Capacitor Identifier for Photovoltaic Power System. Proc. of Eighth

International Conference on Power Electronics, variable speed drives.

2000, 147, 13035.

6. Xiao, W.; Dunford, W. G. A Modified Adaptive Hill Climbing MPPT

method for photovoltaic power systems. Proceedings of 35th Annual

IEEE Power Electronics Specific Conference: 195763. 2004.

7. Cavalcanti, M.C.; Oliveira, K.C.; Azevedo, G.M.S.; Neves, F.A.S.

Comparative Study of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for

Photovoltaic Systems. Electron Potencia 2007, 12, 163171.

8. Esram, T.; Chapman, L. P. Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum

Power Point Tracking Techniques. IEEE Trans. Energy Conv. 2007, 22,

439449.

9. Safari, A.; Mekhilef, S. Simulation and Hardware Implementation of

Incremental Conductance MPPT with Direct Control Method Using

Cuk Converter. IEEE Trans. Ind. Elec. 2011, 58, 11541161.

10. Yang Chih-Yu; Hsieh Chun-Yu; Feng Fu-Kuei; Chen Ke-Horng. Highly

Efficient Analog Maximum Power Point Tracking (AMPPT) in a

Photovoltaic System. IEEE Transaction on Circuits and Systems-1,

2012, 59.

11. Sayed Khairy; Abdel-Salam Mazen; Ahmed Adel; Ahmed Mahmoud.

New High Voltage Gain Dual-boost DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic

Power Systems. Int. J. Elec. Power Comp. Sys. 2012, 40, 711728.

12. De Brito, M.; Gomes, A.; Galotto, L.; Poltronieri, L.; Melo Guilherme

de Azevedo e Melo, E.; Canesin, C. A. Evaluation of the Main MPPT

Techniques for Photovoltaic Applications. IEEE Trans. Ind. Elec. 2013,

60, 11561167.

13. Tey Kok Soon; Saad Mekhilef; Azadeh Safari. Simple and Low Cost

Incremental Conductance Maximum Power Point Tracking Using BuckBoost Converter. J. Renew. Sustain. Energ. 2013, 5, 023106.

14. Houssam Issam; Locment Fabrice; Sechilariu Manuela. Experimental

Analysis of Impact of MPPT Methods on Energy Efficiency for

Photovoltaic Power System. J. Elec. Power Energy Syst. 2013, 46,

98107.

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