opttimization of reinforced concrete

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opttimization of reinforced concrete

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Flexural Effect According to ACI 318

GEBRAIL BEKDAS, SINAN MELIH NIGDELI

Department of Civil Engineering

Istanbul University

34320 Avcilar Istanbul

TURKEY

bekdas@istanbul.edu.tr melihnig@istanbul.edu.tr

Abstract: - This study proposes an iterative cost optimization methodology for T-shaped beams under flexural

effects. Under a defined flexural moment, the optimum beam cost was investigated by considering the crosssection dimensions and amount of the reinforcement steel bars. Harmony search (HS) algorithm is employed

for the optimization process and combined with the reinforced concrete analyses according to ACI 318Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. Optimum cross-section dimensions, the amount of the

reinforcement steel bars in comparisons and tensile sections are found for several solution ranges and objective

flexural moment. The HS approach is effective on finding the optimum design immediately.

Key-Words: Flexural Effect, Harmony Search, Reinforced Concrete Beams, Cost Optimization, ACI 318, Tshaped Beams.

considered to find the solution with the optimum

cost [8]. Also, Govindaraj and Ramasamy studied

on the optimization of RC frames by using GA [9].

The optimum height and area of the

reinforcement bars was investigated for RC beams

by Barros et. al. [10].

In this study, T-shaped RC beam elements under

flexural effect were optimized for the best cost.

Harmony search (HS) algorithm was employed for

the optimization process. Optimum design of the

beam height and web width for the concrete and

diameter and number for reinforcement steel both at

compressive and tensile sections were searched

according to the modified methodology of HS for

RC design procedure according to ACI 318Building Code Requirements for Structural

Concrete [11].

1 Introduction

Optimization is a process in which an objective

function is maximized or minimized. In engineering

design, especially in civil engineering, the security

measures and cost must be taken into account

together. Thus, the optimization is one of the vital

issues in civil engineering.

In several studies, the optimum cost design of the

reinforced concrete (RC) elements has been

investigated.

By using a search technique employing genetic

algorithm (GA), Coello et. al. optimized RC beams

[1]. Also, genetic algorithm was employed to find

the optimum design of reinforced concrete biaxial

columns [2].

The shape optimization of RC flexural members

by using GA to optimize the diameter and number

of main reinforcement bars was studied by Rath et.

al [3].

GA was used in order to find the optimum cost

of RC flexural frames [4]. Ferreira et. al. studied on

the optimal design of T-shaped RC beams according

to various design codes [5].

The simulated annealing algorithm was also

employed to find optimum values of continuous

steel reinforced beams [6].

Cost optimization of singly and doubly RC

beams was investigated by Barros et. al. [7].

Govindaraj and Ramasamy studied on the

detailed optimum design of RC continuous beams

using GA. Different groups of reinforcements were

ISBN: 978-1-61804-137-1

beams

Metaheuristic methods have a significant

importance on the optimization because of easy

implementability to the problem and robustness of

results without dealing with complex expressions.

HS algorithm is a music inspired algorithm

developed by Geem et. al. [12].

HS algorithm is inspired from three possible

options of the musician. These options are to play

any famous part of music, to play something similar

122

notes [13].

A program was developed for the HS

optimization process and the RC design. The

flowchart of the program can be seen in Fig. 1.

First, data of the problem must be entered to the

program. These data contain the objective flexural

moment, width of the compressive face, thickness of

the slab, clear cover of reinforcement, the biggest

aggregate diameter, the range of the web width and

height of the beam, specified compressive strength

of concrete, specified yield strength of

reinforcement, the diameter of stirrup, the diameter

range of the main reinforcement bars and cost of the

materials. Also, special HS parameters must be

entered in this stage.

Then, initial Harmony Memory (HM) matrix is

generated by the vectors as many as Harmony

Memory Size (HMS). This vector contains random

values of the web width and height of the beam,

diameters of the reinforcement bars in tensile and

compressive sections with two lines placement and

the number of reinforcement bars. These values are

chosen according to defined range, ACI318 and

reinforcement bar layout.

The flexural moment capacity and the cost of the

beam are calculated according the corresponding

flexural moment capacity, reinforcement layout and

ACI318, are eliminated and a vector is generated

until all conditions are satisfied.

After the generation of the initial HM matrix, a

new vector according to the rules of the HS is

generated. This vector can be generated from the

whole range or around the existing vector in HM.

The program assigns a value around the existing

vectors with the possibility of Harmony Memory

Considering Rate (HMCR).

Pitch Adjusting Rate (PAR) is the ratio between

the ranges around the existing values and whole

solution domain. The program assigns web width

and height with the values divisible to 50 mm for

suitable application in the construction yard.

The generated new vector is added to HM matrix

and the worst one with the highest cost is

eliminated. This process is continuing until the

stopping criteria are satisfied.

For the stopping criteria, the difference of the

web width and height for the different vectors in

HM matrix must be smaller or equal to 50 mm.

Also, the differences between resultant flexural

moments must be lower than 1%.

When the stopping criteria are satisfied, the

results with the lowest cost are output.

START

Read Data

Generate initial HM

matrix according to

ACI318

STOP

Output the

results

Yes

Check

stopping

criteria

No

vector according to

ACI318

others and eliminate the

vector with the highest

cost

ISBN: 978-1-61804-137-1

123

doubly RC beams may be needed.

The usage of smaller dimension limits is not

economical for big flexural moments. For example,

the costs of the beam are 14.27$/m and 13.83$/m

for the cases 1 and 3, respectively when the

objective flexural moment is 300 kNm. For the big

flexural moments, the usage of big cross-sections is

more suitable. But, it must be noted that the increase

of the weight may increase the cost of the

foundation and other structural members with the

increase of the axial and earthquake forces. In

addition to that, the usage of big cross-sections is

not esthetics in architecture and may prevent the

successful service of the building. The results are

nearly same for different cases under small flexural

moments. The cost of the beam is 7.48$/m under 30

kNm flexural moment for all cases. All web width

values are 250 mm for all cases and flexural

moments. The program finds the optimum web

width in minimal limits because the depth of

equivalent rectangular stress block is generally

smaller than the thickness of the slab. The program

increases the height of the cross-section in order to

increase the moment capacity.

As seen in the Table 2, the moment capacities of

the optimum results are bigger than the objective

moments. According to ACI318, the objective

moment (Mn) is divided to strength reduction factor

(=0.9). For all optimum reinforcement layouts,

steel bars in tensile section are positioned in two

lines with different diameter size. The area of the

different bars in diameter size may be more suitable

in order to find the exact required reinforcement

steel area. Also, the two line layout is needed for the

placement rules to obtain adherence and

serviceability.

The clear spacing between reinforcement bars

must be longer than the diameter of the bars and 25

mm. In addition to that, the maximum size of coarse

aggregate shall be not larger than 3/4 of the

minimum clear spacing between steel bars. The

upper bound for spacing of the bars is taken as 300

mm. For example, 330 is the maximum steel area

allowed for the placement in a 250 mm web width

in a single line. For that reason, the optimum results

contain two line designs for the steel bars.

3 Numerical Example

b=1000 mm

n33

n44

hf =100 mm

beam with 100 mm slab thickness (hf) and 1000 mm

width of compressive face of the beam (b). The

cross-section of the beam can be seen in Fig. 2.

n22

n11

bw

Optimization process is repeated for the

objective flexural moments between 30 kNm and

300 kNm. The clear cover of reinforcement,

maximum size of aggregate diameter, specified

compressive strength of concrete, specified yield

strength of reinforcement and diameter of stirrup

were taken as 35 mm, 16 mm, 20 MPa, 420 MPa

and 10 mm, respectively. The diameter range of the

main reinforcement bars is 10-30 m. The cost of the

concrete and reinforcement bars were taken as

40$/m3 and 400$/ton, respectively. These prices can

be entered by the user according the location of the

construction. The HS parameters were taken as 5,

0.5 and 0.2, respectively. The different range cases

for the web width (bw) and height (h) of the beam

under different flexural moment objectives were

investigated (Table 1).

CASE 1

CASE 2

CASE 3

CASE 4

bw (mm)

h (mm)

Min

Max

Min

Max

250

350

350

500

250

500

350

650

250

600

350

800

250

1000

350

1000

flexural moments are given in Table 2 including the

moment capacity and the cost of the designs.

According to the results, singly reinforced concrete

beams are optimum for all objective flexural

moments. Because of the 1000 mm width in the

compressive section, the usage of steel bars is not

needed according to results. If the design of the RC

ISBN: 978-1-61804-137-1

4 Conclusion

In this study, T-shaped beams under flexural

moments are optimized by using HS algorithm

according to rules of ACI318. In the numerical

example, the optimum values are investigated under

different flexural moment objectives.

124

CASE 4

CASE 3

CASE 2

CASE 1

Objective Flexural

Moment (kNm)

h (mm)

bw (mm)

1 (mm)

3 (mm)

n1

n3

2 (mm)

4 (mm)

n2

n4

Mu (kNm)

Cost ($/m)

h (mm)

bw (mm)

1 (mm)

3 (mm)

n1

n3

2 (mm)

4 (mm)

n2

n4

Mu (kNm)

Cost ($/m)

h (mm)

bw (mm)

1 (mm)

3 (mm)

n1

n3

2 (mm)

4 (mm)

n2

n4

Mu (kNm)

Cost ($/m)

h (mm)

bw (mm)

1 (mm)

3 (mm)

n1

n3

2 (mm)

4 (mm)

n2

n4

Mu (kNm)

Cost ($/m)

ISBN: 978-1-61804-137-1

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

350

250

10

30

2

0

10

22

2

0

36.76

7.48

350

250

10

22

2

0

10

24

2

0

36.76

7.48

350

250

10

18

2

0

10

10

2

0

36.76

7.48

350

250

10

22

2

0

10

28

2

0

36.76

7.48

350

250

12

26

3

0

10

24

3

0

66.92

8.28

350

250

12

12

3

0

10

28

3

0

66.92

8.28

350

250

12

30

3

0

10

24

3

0

66.92

8.28

350

250

12

16

3

0

10

14

3

0

66.92

8.28

350

250

12

22

5

0

14

22

2

0

100.81

9.21

350

250

12

20

5

0

10

28

4

0

101.70

9.23

350

250

12

28

5

0

14

30

2

0

100.81

9.21

350

250

12

10

5

0

14

28

2

0

100.81

9.21

400

250

22

28

2

0

12

10

2

0

133.48

10.06

400

250

18

16

3

0

12

20

2

0

134.93

10.07

400

250

18

30

3

0

10

20

3

0

136.14

10.10

400

250

18

26

3

0

12

14

2

0

134.93

10.07

450

250

18

18

3

0

14

10

2

0

166.92

10.83

450

250

18

20

3

0

14

26

2

0

166.92

10.83

450

250

18

16

3

0

14

10

2

0

166.92

10.83

450

250

18

30

3

0

14

18

2

0

166.92

10.83

450

250

22

24

3

0

10

28

2

0

203.27

11.53

500

250

22

22

2

0

10

18

5

0

201.35

11.58

450

250

22

16

3

0

12

24

2

0

212.46

11.74

500

250

16

30

4

0

12

10

3

0

202.35

11.55

500

250

18

22

4

0

10

16

4

0

235.17

12.13

500

250

22

24

2

0

16

26

3

0

233.46

12.23

500

250

18

26

3

0

16

22

3

0

235.66

12.24

500

250

18

18

4

0

10

14

4

0

235.17

12.13

500

250

24

24

3

0

10

24

2

0

267.07

12.70

550

250

18

26

3

0

14

22

4

0

266.83

12.78

550

250

18

16

4

0

12

18

3

0

267.47

12.71

550

250

18

18

4

0

12

12

3

0

267.47

12.71

500

250

30

12

2

0

12

30

3

0

300.74

13.44

600

250

26

16

2

0

12

30

3

0

302.36

13.35

550

250

28

30

2

0

10

30

4

0

300.15

13.30

600

250

22

22

3

0

10

22

3

0

300.51

13.27

500

250

20

12

4

0

18

12

3

0

342.27

14.27

550

250

20

18

4

0

14

26

3

0

333.80

13.83

550

250

20

14

4

0

14

22

3

0

333.80

13.83

550

250

30

20

2

0

10

20

4

0

333.51

13.86

125

algorithms in optimal design and detailing of

reinforced concrete biaxial columns supported

by a declarative approach for capacity

checking, Computers and Structures, Vol. 69,

1998, pp. 443-457.

[3] D. P. Rath, A. S. Ahlawat, A. Ramaswamy,

Shape Optimization of RC Flexural Members,

Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 125,

1999, pp-1439-1446.

[4] C. V. Camp, S. Pezeshk, H. Hansson, H.,

Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete

Frames Using a Genetic Algorithm, Journal of

Structural Engineering, Vol. 129, 2003, pp105-11.

[5] C. C. Ferreira, M. H. F. M. Barros, A. F. M.

Barros, Optimal design of reinforced concrete

T-sections in bending, Engineering Structures,

Vol. 25, 2003, pp. 951-964.

[6] M. Leps, M. Sejnoha, New approach to

optimization of reinforced concrete beams,

Computers and Structures, Vol.81, 2003, pp19571966.

[7] M. H. F. M. Barros, R. A. F. Martins, A. F. M.

Barros, Cost optimization of singly and doubly

reinforced concrete beams with EC2-2001,

Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization,

Vol. 30, 2005, pp-236242.

[8] V. Govindaraj, J. V. Ramasamy, Optimum

detailed design of reinforced concrete

continuous beams using Genetic Algorithms,

Computers and Structures, Vol. 84, 2005, pp3448.

[9] V. Govindaraj, J. V. Ramasamy, Optimum

detailed design of reinforced concrete frames

using

genetic

algorithms,

Engineering

Optimization, Vol. 39 No.4, 2007, pp- 471

494.

[10] A. F. M. Barros, M. H. F. M. Barros, C. C.

Ferreira, Optimal design of rectangular RC

sections for ultimate bending strength,

Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization,

Vol. 45, 2012, pp-845860.

[11] ACI 318M-05, Building code requirements for

structural concrete and commentary, American

Concrete Institute, 2005.

[12] Z. W. Geem, J. H. Kim, G. V. Loganathan, A

new heuristic optimization algorithm: harmony

search, Simulation, Vol. 76, 2001, pp. 6068.

[13] X.-S. Yang, Engineering Optimization: An

Introduction with metaheuristic Applications,

John Wiley and Sons Inc., New Jersey, 2010.

capable to find the optimum cost level between

concrete and steel, different limitation cases for the

beam dimensions were studied. According to the

results, the program is capable to find the optimum

values when doubly reinforcement is necessary or

not.

The results show that the usage of bigger

dimensions limits is more economical. Under 300

kNm objective flexural moment, the costs of the

beams are 3.08%, 3.08% and 2.87% lower of the

case 1 for the cases 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

According to this information, the maximum cost

reduction is between cases 1 and 2. The cases 3 and

4 may not be suitable for architectural esthetics and

design of other structural members because of

heaviness. In that situation, the dimension limit used

for case 2 is suitable for a standard RC building.

The main handicap of the optimization programs is

long processing time. For the present approach, the

processing time of the computer during of

optimization is nearly one second for a computer

with i7-2600K processer. This duration makes the

approach stronger for the practical applications in

future.

5 Appendix

: Strength Reduction Factor

i : Diameter of Reinforcement Bars in ith Line

ACI 318 : American Concrete Institute Building

Code Requirements for Structural Concrete

b : Width of Compressive Face of The Beam

bw : Web Width of The Beam

GA : Genetic Algorithm

h : Height of The Beam

hf : Slab Thickness

HM : Harmony Memory

HMCR : Harmony Memory Considering Rate

HMS : Harmony Memory Size

HS : Harmony Search

Mn : The Objective Moment

Mu : The Moment Capacity of The Beam

ni : Number of Reinforcement Bars in ith Line

RC : Reinforced Concrete

PAR : Pitch Adjusting Rate

References:

[1] C. C. Coello, F. S. Hernandez, F. A. Farrera,

Optimal Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Using Genetic Algorithms, Expert Systems with

Applications, Vol. 12, 1997, pp. 101-108.

ISBN: 978-1-61804-137-1

126

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