188 views

Uploaded by Shahab Khaled

Trench Stability

- Pile Capacity as Per IRC-78
- Sheet Pile Design_manual
- Paper 8- Road Construction on Peat Soil May 2014(Rev)
- 04_planning SI and interpretation of results.pdf
- Retaining Wall Design Manual
- Survey and geotechnical slope monitoring.pdf
- Diaphragm Wall Design
- Deep Excavation A Practical Manual.pdf
- PLAXIS-powerpoint presentation
- SABP-A-074.pdf
- Introduction to Directional Drilling 5572381
- Structural Slurry Wall Manual
- Reliability Based Design and Quality Control of Driven Piles
- book name
- Peck 1969 Observational Method Advantages and Limitations
- Timber Foundation Pilng-Graham
- 12618584_Rahull
- Lid Appendix f Geotechnical Considerations
- 141021 GTL SoftSoils Bandung FindingSuitableModel
- Geotech3 LS7 Bearing Capacity

You are on page 1of 6

K. Gorska1

Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland

ABSTRACT

Trench is connected to very narrow and deep excavation filled with bentonite suspension. This paper presents estimation of its

stability in cohesive soil. The stability is assessed by two calculation methods. The first involves the equilibrium of forces acting

on the rigid wedge. The second one includes numerical calculations conducted in Plaxis 3D Foundations. A few examples

having different dimensions (length and depth) are analyzed in uniform soil conditions. Graphs defining the dependence of

length, depth and factor of safety are presented. It is found that for long trenches (L6m) the soil kinematics at failure coincides

with the literature data. Short trenches are under a large influence of the arching effect and cohesive forces. The limit

equilibrium method can be used under the condition of employing a factor, which reduces the value of the earth pressure.

Keywords: retaining wall, trench, safety, stability, numerical analysis, arching, failure.

INTRODUCTION

works. It is performed as the first stage

of construction for diaphragm walls, barrettes or

slurry walls [3, 12]. A deep vertical cut in the

ground is excavated under a slurry suspension.

The first application of diaphragm walls was in

the early sixties [10] and now they are

continually used successfully supporting the

construction of deep excavations or deep

foundations. Walls made from concrete and steel

work well against high values of internal forces

and permit the transfer of loads from leaning

slabs. Another advantage is water resistance that

is only provided by a proper execution of panel

joints. Van Tol presents four cases of leakage

through the diaphragm walls at stop end joints in

deep excavations, which led to very serious

1

variations in construction phases result in a huge

range of implementation possibilities, e.g. slurry

walls in which a suspension is mixed with

cement that hardens [2].

The first stage of construction is critical for

the construction process. In the following phases,

the stability of the surrounding soil is easier to

maintain. During the concreting process pressure

inside the trench increases (slurry is being

continuously replaced by concrete) as does the

exerted force on the faces and the toe of the

trench.

There is a widespread belief among

geoengineers that if the slurry level exceeds the

water level by more than 1 m and the slurry unit

weight is greater than 10.5 kN/m3 trench stability

is guaranteed; although in this case the safety

margin is unknown. The primary question is in

what situations special care or preparations

Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 51-692 Wroclaw. karolina.gorska@pwr.wroc.pl

Usually, major problems are not related to the

trenching process, but are connected to human

error.

There are several theories for calculating

trench stability that have been implemented in

practice. The first group of theories concerns 2D

cases with long trenches. The wedge is triangular

and the slip surface is inclined by the angle

cr = /4 + /2, as in the Coulomb criterion,

where is friction angle. Initially only

homogeneous, perfectly cohesive soil conditions

without groundwater were analyzed by Nash and

Johns [5]. Later, other forces such as

groundwater pressure and a varying slurry level

were taken into consideration (Morgerstern and

AmirTahmasseb [4]). These solutions can be

assumed for shallower rather than longer

trenches (trenches with dimensions of L<2H).

If 3D working conditions are considered, the

forces acting on the sides - shear forces and

cohesion forces - must be analyzed. This

represents the simplest transition from 2D to 3D

analysis and was proposed by Prater [7]. Another

modification is the inclination of the sides into

the interior of the wedge. The inclination angle

= /4+/2 proposed by Washbourne [11] seems

to have a too small value according to numerical

calculations conducted by the author. This

angular wedge shape is easily described, but it

differs from the shape observed in the numerical

calculations.

The first solution with a curved failure surface

was presented by Piaskowski & Kowalewski in

1965 [6]. This solution uses a vertical elliptic

cylinder cut by a critical plane. The latest 3D

solutions by Tsai and Chang employ a more

realistic smooth and convex shear surface [9].

This method uses vertical columns as a

generalization for standard 2D slices.

This paper presents two further methods of

analysis for trench stability.

stability of a slope with an infinite length [1].

The shape of the wedge is a prism with triangular

sides (see Figure 1a). Acting forces on the wedge

are (see Figure 1b): the bulk weight of the wedge

W, the resultant force on the slip surface R,

cohesion force on the slip surface CR, the earth

pressure Ph and the hydrostatic slurry pressure

Ps. To simulate spatial working conditions, shear

forces Ss and cohesion forces C on the wedge

sides are applied. This method provides a very

quick and accurate estimation for engineering

purposes.

acting forces in the plane of symmetry.

specific case the stability of cohesive soil Ph and

Ps must have equal values. This statement leads

to the determination of the failure surface

inclination. For the 2D case it is cr = /4 + /2.

Ph is determined from the projection of all acting

forces in the horizontal and vertical directions.

The equilibrium equations are as follows:

Fz = 0 Ph + 2 S sz + 2 C z + C Rz = R z

Fy = 0 W = R y + C Ry + 2 S sy + 2C y

where:

W = 0.5 H 2 ctg L

Rz = Ry tg ( )

forces acting on the rigid wedge and comes from

S n = K ctg H 3 / 6

S s = Sn tg

S sx = S s cos

S sz = S s sin

(1)

C = 0.5 ctg H 2 c

Cx = C cos

Cz = C sin

CR = L H c / sin

depends on which point is observed. Points near

the toe have larger displacements. FS values for

displacements greater than 8 cm are constant. In

addition, in examining the FS/step curve a point

of deflection is observed at the same step and the

same displacement.

calculations conducted in Plaxis 3D Foundations.

This program uses a finiteelement method.

During numerical calculations, displacements

and stress in the surrounding soil are determined.

This enables estimating the shape and range of

the wedge and to establish if the arching effect

occurs.

The trench excavation process in a block of

soil is taken into consideration and the advantage

of two axes of symmetry is used. On vertical

surfaces of the resulting solid boundary

conditions allowing only vertical movement. On

the basis of body movement is blocked in all

directions. Surface area remains free. At first the

sensitivity of the size of the modeled area in

relation to the mesh size was tested. Within three

blocks different in size eventually a block sizes

14 16 20m was adopted, as to eliminate the

effect of the impact of sides, and at the same

time not unduly magnifying the size of the task.

Adopted regions of different mesh size reduce

computation time without significantly affecting

the accuracy of the results.

The excavation process is modeled as the

removal of 2 m thick layers of soil and the

application of slurry pressure. For simplification,

the hydrostatic slurry pressure is assumed as

external stabilizing load. It increases linearly

with depth and is applied to all faces of the

trench, including the toe. The slurry level is kept

unchanged at the ground surface.

To determine the shape of the wedge, the

standard procedure of tan/c reduction is used.

Since no limit state i.e. no failure is observed,

the interpretation of the FS/displacement curve is

made. The FS/displacement curve indicates a

rapid change in the inclination. The factor of

safety increases until soil displacements reach

EXAMPLES

(length and depth) are analyzed in uniform soil

conditions. Graphs defining the dependence of

length, depth and factor of safety are presented.

4.1

Soil conditions

the Coulomb criterion are analyzed. The material

parameters are presented in Table 1. No water

level is considered. The unit slurry weight is 10.5

kN/m3. No filtration or improvement of the soil

conditions in the surrounding layer is considered.

Table 1. Parameters of the homogeneous soil.

kN/m3

Clay

4.2

20

Ka

0,66

12

c

kPa

15

E

MPa

28

0.35

Trench dimensions

conducted for the following dimensions: length L

3 to 10 m, width B 1.0 m and depth H 8 to

15 m.

4.3

Results

pressures acting on the trench sides are in

equilibrium. No change in the stresses around the

trench is observed. At the toe of the trench, the

force exerted by the slurry causes a reduction of

the stress in the soil. This is also influenced by

the smaller unit weight of the suspension

compared to the soil. Figure 2 presents the total

displacements after excavation with the largest

values of 5.5 mm occurring at the center of the

toe. This is typical for the rebound connected

80

- inclination of failure surface

case, the exerted pressure decreases.

75

70

8

10

12

15

2D

65

60

55

50

3

L - length of trench

H of the trench simplified calculations.

FS =

tan

c

=

tan red cred

(2)

reached in calculation step assumed as a failure.

The limit equilibrium Ph = Ps must be reached

for red. This definition does not reveal any local

areas of instability and it only has a global

character.

4

3,5

8

10

12

2,5

15

2

1,5

3

L - length of trench

of the trench limit equilibrium method.

4,5

FS - finite element method

conditions. For every trench depth the inclination

of the failure surface decreases with the increase

in its length. This is caused by the different share

of forces acting on the trench sides and the

wedge weight in the Ph value. The following rule

applies: a longer trench leads to a smaller share

of acting forces. For very long trenches the

inclination angle is the same as the 2D Coulomb

solution and is equal to cr = /4 + /2 (dotted

line). Due to cohesion forces, the inclination

angle is greater than for cohessionless soil [1].

For comparing the results of the simplified

calculation method and the numerical

calculations, the factor of safety is defined as

follows:

4,5

excavation finite element method.

4

3,5

8

10

12

2,5

15

2

1,5

3

L - length of trench

of the trench finite element method.

with an increase in length for the same depth of

trench is fulfilled (Figures 3, 4 and 5). For the

limit equilibrium method a surprising

phenomenon occurs, i.e. the tendency of higher

FS values for very short trenches of the same

depth (Figure 4 and Table 2). This is not

observed for the finite element method (Figure 5

and Table 3) and is caused by the formulation of

method solutions. Very short trenches shear and

cohesion forces have a determinant influence on

the earth pressure value. This is also a result of

the arching effect. If the trench length increases,

acting forces decrease and the arching effect

disappears.

Table 2. FS values limit equilibrium method.

H depth of

the trench

8

10

12

15

10

2.13

2.00

1.96

1.93

6

5

4

2.58

2.84

3.16

2.51

2.76

3.13

2.50

2.77

3.19

2.53

2.85

3.32

failure finite element method.

3

3.75

3.81

3.95

4.25

H depth of

the trench

8

10

12

15

6

2.32

2.18

2.09

2.04

5

4

2.52

2.71

2.36

2.56

2.29

2.47

2.21

2.41

3

3.00

2.83

2.73

2.65

displacement maps. In figure 6, the shape of the

wedge is easily recognized. It can be assumed

that the prism approximation used in the limit

equilibrium method is acceptable. The shape and

the inclination of the failure surface ( = 65) is

close to the simplified calculations. Washbourne

assumption [11] for sides inclination angle is

highly underestimated. If the length of the trench

decreases, the displacements at the higher part

increase very slowly during excavation progress

after it reaches 6m (see Figure 7). For a 3 m long

trench, no wedge is observed.

4,5

4

8

10

12

3,5

3

15

2,5

2

2

2,5

3,5

4,5

failure finite element method.

equilibrium method for the same geoengineering data.

presented in Figure 8. Each concentration of

results represents different lengths of the trench.

The bottom points represent a 6 m long trench

while the top points represent a 3 m trench. The

limit equilibrium method produces higher factor

of safety values than the finite element method.

In the figure, the dashed line shows a perfect

correlation of results.

Although the limit equilibrium method gives

results in a very short time, one should take into

consideration the overestimated values of FS.

Another advantage of this method is that a

specialized computation program is not

necessary.

For engineering purposes, the results obtained

from the limit equilibrium method can be taken

into consideration only when employing a factor,

which would reduce the value of the earth

pressure. This kind of factor is used by

Piaskowski and Kowalewski [6] and it is a

function of the length, the depth and the friction

angle.

5

CONCLUSIONS

large influence of the arching effect and cohesive

forces. The wedge is not observed in the finite

element method. In the limit equilibrium method

factors of safety are greater for deeper trenches.

Curves on the graph intersect.

The failure surface inclination decreases with

the length of the trench. The Coulomb criterion

is the lower bound estimation.

FS values are between 2.5 and 4.5 and are

much higher than expected to fulfill the stability

conditions.

The limit equilibrium method can be used

under the condition of employing a factor which

reduces the value of the earth pressure. This kind

of factor is used by Piaskowski and Kowalewski

[6] and it is a function of the length, the depth

and the friction angle.

REFERENCES

[1]

trenches, Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica XXX

No.12 (2008), 199206.

[2] G.M. Filz, T. Adams, R.R. Davidson, Stability of long

trenches in sand supported by bentonitewater slurry,

Journal of Geotechnical and Goenviromental

Engineering 130(9) (2006), 915921

[3] I. Hanjal, J. Marton, Z. Regele, Construction of slurry

walls, Akad.Kiado, Budapest, 1984.

[4] N.R. Morgenstern, J. Amir-Tahmasseb, The stability of

a slurry trench in cohesionless soils, Geotechnique

15(4) (1965), 387395.

[5] J.K.T. Nash, G.K. Jones, The support of trenches using

fluid mud, Grouts and Drilling Muds in Engineering

Practice (1963), 177180.

[6] A. Piaskowski, Z. Kowalewski, Application of

tixotropic clay suspensions for stability of vertical sides

of deep trenches without strutting, 6th Int.Conf.SMFE

Montreal Vol.III (1965), 526529.

[7] E.G Prater, Die Gewlbewirkung der Schlitzwnde,

Bauingenieur 48 (1973), 125131

[8] A.F. van Tol, V. Veenbergen, J. Maertens, Diaphragm

walls, a reliable solution for deep excavations in urban

areas?. In s.n. (Ed.) DFI and EFFC, London, Deep

Foundation Institute, (2010), 1-9.

[9] J.S. Tsai, J.C. Chang, Threedimensional stability

analysis for slurry trench wall in cohesionless soil,

Canadian Geotechnical Journal 33 (1996), 798808.

[10] C. Veder, Excavation of trenches in the presence of

bentonite suspension for the construction of

impermeable

and

loadbearing

diaphragms.

Proceedings of Symposium on Grouts and Drilling

Muds in Engineering Practic,. London, (1963), 181

188.

[11] J. Washbourne, The three dimensional stability analysis

of diaphragm wall excavation, Ground Engineering

17(4) (1984), 2429.

[12] P.P. Xanthakos, Slurry wall as structural system,

McGrawHill, New York, 1979.

- Pile Capacity as Per IRC-78Uploaded byMahadev Sastry
- Sheet Pile Design_manualUploaded byekaprata
- Paper 8- Road Construction on Peat Soil May 2014(Rev)Uploaded byRoziman Hj Hajon
- 04_planning SI and interpretation of results.pdfUploaded byDaniel Yong
- Retaining Wall Design ManualUploaded byjakes47
- Survey and geotechnical slope monitoring.pdfUploaded byncr
- Diaphragm Wall DesignUploaded byJosé Chávez
- Deep Excavation A Practical Manual.pdfUploaded bytrack0026
- PLAXIS-powerpoint presentationUploaded byjs kalyana rama
- SABP-A-074.pdfUploaded byWalid Megahed
- Introduction to Directional Drilling 5572381Uploaded byCristopher Ortiz
- Structural Slurry Wall ManualUploaded byBenny Lin
- Reliability Based Design and Quality Control of Driven PilesUploaded byZaher J. Yazeji
- book nameUploaded byLogeswaran Raji
- Peck 1969 Observational Method Advantages and LimitationsUploaded byIyata Rogers
- Timber Foundation Pilng-GrahamUploaded bySankar Cdm
- 12618584_RahullUploaded bysofronije2005
- Lid Appendix f Geotechnical ConsiderationsUploaded bySharif
- 141021 GTL SoftSoils Bandung FindingSuitableModelUploaded bylimara65
- Geotech3 LS7 Bearing CapacityUploaded byTirana Novitri
- (Developments in Geotechnical Engineering 75) Sven Hansbo (Eds.)-Foundation Engineering-Academic Press, Elsevier (1994).pdfUploaded byপ্রিয়দীপ প্রিয়ম
- StrataBlock Case Study - Surat BharuchUploaded byweb6009
- er56Uploaded byAnonymous 37PvyXC
- Comparison Between 2d and 3d Behaviour of Sheet Piles by Finite Element MethodUploaded bytavialim
- Getting Started With OneDriveUploaded byLakmal Jayashantha
- Settlement of Shallow Foundations on SandUploaded byAhmed Esmail Sarie-Eldin
- CEU313_CT2 (1)Uploaded byKrishna Prasad E
- landoverlaysoilordinanceUploaded byapi-219456971
- 2006 JAPP GarchyUploaded byBagus Bayu Prabowo
- ICE 2006 Foundation Design of a Large Arch BridgeUploaded byDave Thompson

- Equivalent Head-down Load vs. Movement Relationships Evaluated From Bi-directional Pile Load TestsUploaded byShahab Khaled
- 2D Numerical Simulations of Soil Nail WallsUploaded byShahab Khaled
- Benoit Latapie - Foundations for Infrastructure Projects in MENA (1)Uploaded bySam Jandali
- livercheckguide.compressed.pdfUploaded byShahab Khaled
- geo_5_user_guide_enUploaded byShahab Khaled
- Light SoWUploaded byShahab Khaled
- catalog.pdfUploaded byAndy Vunhen
- FHWA - Subsurface InvestigationUploaded byGeorge Chris
- Application of Bi-directional Static Loading Test to Deep FoundationsUploaded byhugojameswood
- Cold_Formed_Sheet_Piles_2013.pdfUploaded byShahab Khaled
- Post Tension Ing Manual Index 6thedUploaded byGuzalg
- vertica loaded single pileUploaded bybekmen
- Barrettes Construction in Soft ClayUploaded byShahab Khaled
- Deep Excavation ExampleUploaded byShahab Khaled
- NTU Seminar Actions Wanted Deador Live Euro CodeUploaded byShahab Khaled
- Seismic zoning of eastern arabiaUploaded bybennorth84
- P MultipilersUploaded byShahab Khaled
- Code of Practice for Railway ProtectionUploaded byWilliam
- Retaining Walls and Geotechnical Design to Eurocode 7Uploaded byjosif

- metale in urmeUploaded byAdriana Elena Culea
- 01-02 Introduction to ThermodynamicsUploaded byslag12309
- 1228-1729-1-PBUploaded byGeraldo Eky
- Iem Library BooklistUploaded byLau Meng Yong
- Meshfree Chapter 6Uploaded byZenPhi
- Omnisens.comUploaded bymedesarrollo
- SRME2dUploaded byEdward Hendra
- Digital Attendance Calculation System using Support Vector Machine & Image ProcessingUploaded byIJSRP ORG
- Linko - Biodegradable Products by Lipase BiocatalysisUploaded bygigisa
- Crude OilUploaded byOscar Ramirez
- Dosage LabUploaded byYenna Deliman
- Sources Last Hanna Pls Omg SorryUploaded bylorenzo_zarate
- Vibrations-Phonons3.pptUploaded byKartik Dutta
- Mechanical Working of Metals (Rolling and Forging)Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- How to Analyze Houses in Vedic Astrology Birth ChartUploaded bymo
- EGC Graphite Pressure Seal TestUploaded byMeanRat
- Senocac - Evaluations of Cavitation Models for Navier-Stokes ComputationsUploaded bysaba135
- MillsJR 0314 PeUploaded byEmmanuel
- Calculus 04-Extrem ValueUploaded bybudi_umm
- Mysteries Magazine U890Uploaded byolav4407
- Soil Mech - 1 (1)Uploaded byKester Ray de Vera
- projectile motion lab syeed hasanUploaded byapi-130453141
- DocumentUploaded byDrizzle Ventura
- Matt DamonUploaded byАбхисар Банерее
- Dr Anifowose gemstone Lecture noteUploaded byAkinnubi Abiola Sylvester
- Sap2000 BeamUploaded byRicardo Rabelo
- Chapter 5Uploaded byOnkar Terkar
- CentrexUploaded byLL
- MERC Inorganic Reagents 2014Uploaded byRaluca Georgiana Rusu
- Equipartition of Energy and Local Isotropy in Turbulent FlowsUploaded byDamiano Baccarella