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Saving High Quality Acous3c Habitat Iden%fying areas of rela%ve natural quiet Jim Cummings , Execu3ve

Saving High Quality Acous3c Habitat

Iden%fying areas of rela%ve natural quiet

Acous3c Habitat Iden%fying areas of rela%ve natural quiet Jim Cummings , Execu3ve Director

Jim Cummings , Execu3ve Director

cummings@acous3cecology.org

AEInews.org Acous3cEcology.org

Soundscape monitoring and modeling

Con%nental-scale modeling

Anthropogenic noise — increase above natural ambient
Anthropogenic noise — increase above natural ambient

MenniA , K Fristrup , K Sherrill, L Nelson. (2013) Mapping sound pressure levels on a con3nental scale using a geospa3al sound model. Internoise 2013.

Soundscape monitoring and modeling

Ocean-basin scale noise monitoring

North Atlan%c: Maine to Georgia
North Atlan%c: Maine to Georgia

Rice, et al. Varia3on of ocean acous3c environments along the western North Atlan3c coast: A case study in context of the right whale migra3on route. Ecological Informa3cs 21 (2014) 89-99

Soundscape monitoring and modeling

Listening in remote waters

SOHN Southern Ocean Hydrophone Network
SOHN
Southern Ocean Hydrophone Network

Bowhead whale acous%c world

One year, six research teams 2300km transect, 20 sites

Van Opzeeland , I., Samaran , F., Stafford, K. M., Findlay, K., Gedamke, J., Harris, D., & Miller, B. S. (2014). Towards collec3ve circum-antarc3c passive acous3c monitoring: the southern ocean hydrophone network (SOHN). Polarforschung, 83(2), 47-61

Clark, Berchok, Blackwell, Hannay, Jones, Ponirakis , Stafford. A year in the acous3c world of bowhead whales in the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Progress in Oceanography 136 (2015) 223-240

Emerging noise sources

Changing Arc%c soundscape

Icebreaking as dominant new noise source in expanding “marginal ice zone”

new noise source in expanding “marginal ice zone” “Ship cavita3on caused by heavy icebreaking is the

“Ship cavita3on caused by heavy icebreaking is the dominant source, increasing the NL by more than 10dB below 1000Hz and 28dB at 15Hz . The cavita3on noise during the 2013 experiment dominates at distances as large as 100km from the icebreaker. This implies that

this type of noise may change the Arc%c soundscape significantly.”

2016 paper, Fram Strait, between Greenland and Svalbard

F Geyer, H Sagen , G Hope, M Babiker, P Worcester. Iden3fica3on and quan3fica3on of soundscape components in the Marginal Ice Zone. J. Acous. Soc. Am. 139 (4), April 2016, 1873-1885

Emerging noise sources

Subsea oil and gas processing

Emerging noise sources Subsea oil and gas processing Considered key to deep-water and arc%c development “some

Considered key to deep-water and arc%c development “some real screamers” (exceeds ambient to 20-25km at 500Hz+ )

Currently just star%ng to be deployed; no regulatory oversight

20-year lifespan, opera%ng con%nuously

Emerging noise sources

Many more, on land and sea

Seafloor mining Backcountry access Vehicles of all kinds
Seafloor mining
Backcountry access
Vehicles of all kinds

New shipping ports Cau3on, vigilance needed in areas that are rela%vely pris%ne OR approaching acous%c satura%on

How can ecoacous%cs help?

Promising research direc%ons

We’ve started with basic soundscape characteriza%on

Poten3al value for ecosystem-health assessment

Next: asking the “so what” ques%ons

Species-specific listening area analyses / func%onal consequences

Consider key listening frequencies, call source levels, real-world communica3on/listening ranges, innate adapta3ons to noise

Especially useful for land managers, policy planners: Combine noise maps with popula%on data and cri%cal
Especially useful for land managers, policy planners:
Combine noise maps with popula%on data and cri%cal habitats
Iden3fy rela3vely healthy acous3c habitats
Aim to help minimize new anthropogenic impacts

Promising research direc%ons

Oil and gas development

Promising research direc%ons Oil and gas development BLM 20-yr reasonable foreseeable development Orange: low end 5%

BLM 20-yr reasonable foreseeable development Orange: low end 5% of region

(based on past Resource Management Plans)

Red: poten%al 10% of region

(historic densi3es were 3x earlier RMP es3mates; leases in place on 81% of federal lands with development poten3al) Map is overlaid on Sage Grouse Core Areas

Copeland HE, Doherty KE, Naugle DE, Pocewicz A, Kiesecker JM (2009) Mapping Oil and Gas Development Poten3al in the US Intermountain West and Es3ma3ng Impacts to Species. PLoS ONE 4(10): e7400. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007400

Promising research direc%ons

ACCOBAMS “noise hotspots” mapping

Number of noise sources Sources include seismic, shipping, harbor traffic, offshore energy sites, Naval exercises
Number of noise sources
Sources include seismic, shipping,
harbor traffic, offshore energy sites,
Naval exercises
(data incomplete in some areas)

Note cetacean habitat areas (hatched) with 1 or 2 noise sources Conserva3on poten3al, especially if source is transient

A Maglio , G Pavan , M Castellote, S Frey. Overview of the Noise Hotspots in the ACCOBAMS Area, Part I - Mediterranean Sea. ACCOBAMS Technical report, January 2016. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2574.8560/1

Promising research direc%ons

Species-specific communica%on space analyses

“Acous%c quality” of habitats 5 frequency bands Varying call types & source levels Fin whales:
“Acous%c quality” of habitats
5 frequency bands
Varying call types &
source levels
Fin whales: least impact
Orcas: most impact
Humpbacks: mixed
Williams, Clark,Ponirakas , Ashe. Acous3c quality of cri3cal habitats for three
threatened whale popula3ons. Animal Conserva3on (2013)

Erbe, MacGillivray, Williams. Mapping cumula3ve noise from shipping to inform marine spa3al planning. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132 (5), November 2012

Promising research direc%ons

Iden%fying areas with predominantly natural soundscapes “Opportunity sites”

popula3on density species-weighted shipping noise RISK OPPORTUNITY
popula3on
density
species-weighted
shipping noise
RISK
OPPORTUNITY

“If two places are equally important to whales, with one being noisy and the other being quiet, it would be helpful to iden3fy those areas The noisy area may require mi3ga3on, whereas the quiet area may make a more a`rac%ve or convenient candidate for cri%cal habitat protec%on , either because it represents higher quality habitat to the animals or because it imposes lower economic costs to society to mi3gate anthropogenic threats.”

Rob Williams, Chris3ne Erbe, Erin Ashe, Christopher Clark. Quiet( er) marine protected areas. Marine Pollu3on Bulle3n (2015), hAp:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.marpolbul.2015.09.012

Promising research direc%ons

Iden%fying areas with predominantly natural soundscapes

“The quietest sites in our study (primarily mainland inlets) have substan%al periods of quiet that are quieter than any recorded off the US east coast (Hatch et al ., 2012). As researchers consider experimental approaches to beAer quan3fy ecosystem-level effects of noise (Boyd et al ., 2011), unusually quiet places like BC’s mainland inlets may present opportuni%es for conduc%ng ocean noise or quie%ng experiments, or to consider novel conserva%on mechanisms to preserve acous%c wilderness sites.

The quietest noise measurements in our study match those reported by Urick (1983). This means that there are places and %mes today where once-normal windows of quiet s%ll exist . For marine mammals and fishes, these are the levels in which natural and sexual selec%on occurred, and these are the condi3ons under which the ‘acous3c arms race’ between predator and prey evolved (Tyack & Clark, 2000). Today, throughout the Northern Hemisphere, those once-normal levels are becoming the excep%on rather than the rule.”

Williams, Clark,Ponirakas , Ashe. Acous3c quality of cri3cal habitats for three threatened whale popula3ons. Animal Conserva3on (2013)

Toward acous%c refuges

Lots of talk, li`le ac%on, in MPA and Marine Sanctuary realm 2009 policy joining NPS in managing noise

Sanctuary realm 2009 policy joining NPS in managing noise “The Na3onal Marine Sanctuary will use the

“The Na3onal Marine Sanctuary will use the tools and authori3es at its disposal to prevent and/or mi%gate human-induced acous%c impacts on sanctuary resources As feasible and as necessary, consider regula%on to mi%gate or eliminate ac%vi%es that generate human-induced acous3c impacts to sanctuary resources.”

“In the marine realm, emerging noise management prac3ces (and) the broad mandate of the NMSA provides a unique opportunity to create noise management prac%ces and regula%ons that represent today’s best available science.

Leila Hatch, NOAA, Stellwagen Bank Na=onal Marine Sanctuary Kurt Fristrup, Na=onal Park Service, Natural Sounds Program Center

Policy Guidance, Office of Na3onal Marine Sanctuaries. Human-induced acous3c impacts on marine life. March 2009. Daniel J. Bastra , Director. Leila T Hatch, Kurt M Fristrup . No barrier at the boundaries: implemen3ng regional frameworks for noise management in protected natural areas. Mar Ecol Prog Ser Vol. 395: 223-244, 2009.

Toward acous%c refuges

Lots of talk, li`le ac%on, in MPA and Marine Sanctuary realm

North American Intergovernmental Commi`ee on Protec%on for Wilderness and Protected Area Conserva%on

on Protec%on for Wilderness and Protected Area Conserva%on 2011 Consensus Statement on Marine Wilderness

2011 Consensus Statement on Marine Wilderness

“Establishing marine wilderness protected areas should be considered a NAWPA objec%ve achievable over the long These can serve as clear examples of marine areas with ecologically intact ecosystems that have management goals which preserve the wild character and nature of these special places.”

Protec3ng spawning habitat, reproduc3on areas, foraging grounds, migratory stopover habitat Limi%ng human ac%vi%es in some areas including transporta%on, energy extrac%on and explora%on, and military opera%ons

CONSERVING MARINE WILDERNESS , Marine Wilderness Working Group Consensus Version, 2011, 2013. Jim Cummings. Sound/Noise and Marine Life: Why assessing, monitoring, and perhaps regula3ng sound in MPAs could be helpful. Marine Wilderness 10+10 Workshop, February 2015.

Global effort underway to expand MPAs

We need to add sound considera%ons to the discussion

UN, Rome, 2016

10x20 Project 10% of oceans by 2020

Global Ocean Refuge System (GLORES)

30% each biogeographic region by 2030 Some “fully protected”

Marine Wilderness 10+10

2015, Project Wild, NAWPA gov’t agencies Build local cons3tuency for experiments in wilderness within 20 MPAs

10+10 2015, Project Wild, NAWPA gov’t agencies Build local cons3tuency for experiments in wilderness within 20
10+10 2015, Project Wild, NAWPA gov’t agencies Build local cons3tuency for experiments in wilderness within 20
10+10 2015, Project Wild, NAWPA gov’t agencies Build local cons3tuency for experiments in wilderness within 20
10+10 2015, Project Wild, NAWPA gov’t agencies Build local cons3tuency for experiments in wilderness within 20

Terrestrial wildlands : good news?

85% of protected lands have rela%vely modest noise impacts

US protected lands of all kinds (federal, state, local, private) 3dB+ human impact: 15% of
US protected lands of all kinds (federal, state, local, private)
3dB+ human impact: 15% of protected area (yellow, red)
But: 56% of units! (3ny speckles, preserves in red)

R Buxton, MF McKenna, E Brown, D Mennit, K Fristrup , K Crooks, L Angeloni, G WiAemyer. Noise pollu3on in US protected areas. AAAS Poster.

Terrestrial wildlands : bad news!

Remnants of natural quiet shrinking rapidly

: bad news! Remnants of natural quiet shrinking rapidly 12% of con%guous US 1.4dB human impact

12% of con%guous US

1.4dB human impact or less

a near-ubiquitous transforma3on of the acous3cal environment1

“The quan3ty of land with a rela3vely low level of impact is the loca3ons of the areas that are let suggest that ecological systems are heavily fragmented .” 2

1 Clinton D. Francis. Vocal traits and diet explain avian sensi3vi3es to

anthropogenic noise. Global Change Biology, 2015. Doi : 10.1111/gcb.12862

2 D MenniA , K Fristrup , K Sherrill, L Nelson. (2013) Mapping sound pressure

levels on a con3nental scale using a geospa3al sound model. Internoise 2013.

3 The Last Remaining Quiet Places in the Con3nental United States. Map by Noise Pollu3on Clearinghouse, Stone Environmental, using ESRI data.

Making a difference

Federal land management — difficult to get trac%on

NPS doing great science Pushing forward into tougher ques=ons

Difficult to implement policy changes to reduce noise GCNP air tours, 20-yr process NPS proposed flight-free %mes around sunrise and sunset (fantas;c idea!)

Rare Senate bipar%sanship:

Reid/McCain scu`led the plan

24%: audible > 2 / 3 of day (RED) 49%: audible > 1 / 4
24%: audible > 2 / 3 of day (RED)
49%: audible > 1 / 4 of day
37%: audible <5% of day (DK BLUE)

Drat Environmental Impact Statement Special Flight Rules Area in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon Na3onal Park McCain, Reid succeed in quest to stop Grand Canyon overflight rules, AEInews , 7/2/12 hAp://aeinews.org/archives/1998.

Making a difference

Federal land management — difficult to get trac%on

2015: FAA rebuffed NPS input on new Bay Area airports flight pa`erns New corridor over
2015: FAA rebuffed NPS input
on new Bay Area airports flight pa`erns
New corridor over a rela=vely quiet part of Point Reyes;
con=nued heavy impact on Yosemite

We have a long history of [the FAA] not agreeing with us. We feel we’re obligated to get this noise off of the wilderness areas; we’re just trying to do our job, and they’re just ignoring us.”

trying to do our job, and they’re just ignoring us.” Judy Rocchio , NPS Pacific West
trying to do our job, and they’re just ignoring us.” Judy Rocchio , NPS Pacific West

Judy Rocchio , NPS Pacific West Region “A lot of high-al%tude jets … get funneled over Yosemite. It’s just constant. Vicki Ward, NPS overflights program manager

FAA spurns opportunity for quiet area protec3on in traffic paAern updates. AEInews , 6/30/15. hAp://aeinews.org/archives/2809 Denver FAA revision just beginning! hAp:// www.metroplexenvironmental.com/ denver_metroplex / denver_introduc3on.html

Making a difference

Local and regional conserva%on — more poten%al for success?

Iden%fy areas with conserva%on value for acous%c habitat and quiet recrea%on (find pockets near ci=es!)
Iden%fy areas with
conserva%on value for
acous%c habitat
and quiet recrea%on
(find pockets near ci=es!)
Tucson

MenniA , K Fristrup , K Sherrill, L Nelson. (2013) Mapping sound pressure levels on a con3nental scale using a geospa3al sound model. Internoise 2013.

Making a difference

Local and regional conserva%on — more poten%al for success?

and regional conserva%on — more poten%al for success? All levels of rela%ve natural quiet have conserva%on

All levels of rela%ve natural quiet have conserva%on value

“Good enough” for local recrea%on

No extreme noise (airports, highways)

Chronic local traffic noise is faint

High value recrea%on/conserva%on Opportuni3es for extended noise-free periods

Na3onal Park Service model (above)

Predominantly free of noise

Noise Pollu3on Clearinghouse model (below)

The Last Remaining Quiet Places in the Con3nental United States. Map by Noise Pollu3on Clearinghouse, Stone Environmental, using ESRI data. MenniA , K Fristrup , K Sherrill, L Nelson. (2013) Mapping sound pressure levels on a con3nental scale using a geospa3al sound model. Internoise 2013. F Turina , E Lynch, K Fristrup . Recommended Indicators and Thresholds of Acous3c Resource Quality. NPS State of the Park Reports. Interim Guidance, 2013.

Making a difference

Local and regional conserva%on — more poten%al for success?

and regional conserva%on — more poten%al for success? Bay of Fundy: Soundscape study by regional conserva%on

Bay of Fundy: Soundscape study by regional conserva%on group Iden3fied possible “acous3c refuge” Lower noise / higher biodiversity

closer to shipping than some others—but tucked behind shorelines

Eric Brunsdon, Donald Killorn . The Coastal Soundscape Study of the Outer Bay of Fundy. Eastern CharloAe Waterways, 2016.

Terrestrial, marine collabora%on

Unifying marine and terrestrial management objec%ves

Unifying marine and terrestrial management objec%ves Interna%onal Quiet Ocean Experiment Ini%al scien%fic
Unifying marine and terrestrial management objec%ves Interna%onal Quiet Ocean Experiment Ini%al scien%fic

Interna%onal Quiet Ocean Experiment

Ini%al scien%fic commi`ee mee%ng, March 2016 7-year research project One year of intensive acous%cs studies worldwide

VERY interested in collabora%on with terrestrial ecoacous%cs

IQOE.org

One year of intensive acous%cs studies worldwide VERY interested in collabora%on with terrestrial ecoacous%cs IQOE.org

Final thoughts

Protec%ng rela%ve natural quiet

Les Blomberg, NPC:

So far, protec%on of quiet “isn’t a policy decision. It is an accident of geography and economics.”

decision. It is an accident of geography and economics.” Kurt Fristrup , NPS: We’re losing the

Kurt Fristrup , NPS:

We’re losing the ability to “appreciate expansive listening opportuni%es” “This giy that we are born with – to reach out and hear things hundreds of meters away, all these incredible sounds – is in danger of being lost through a genera%onal amnesia.”

Public Outreach Workshop: Noise in Communi3es and Natural Areas, Denver, August 27, 2013. NAE, NPS, AQuieterFuture.org hAps://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/feb /17/noise-pollu3on-is-making-us-oblivious-to-the-sound-of-nature-says-researcher

Acous%cEcology.org AEInews.org Resources/informa3on on all manner of sound-related environmental issues and science

Acous%cEcology.org

AEInews.org

Resources/informa3on on all manner of sound-related environmental issues and science

science summaries special reports

news updates

Thanks to Stuart and cohorts for making this event happen!

Jim Cummings , Execu3ve Director

jim@acous3cecology.org

Soundscape monitoring and modeling

Recent explosion of interest in sound

See hAp://cetsound.noaa.gov
See hAp://cetsound.noaa.gov

P Tyack, G Frisk, I Boyd, E Urban, S Seeyave, Editors. Interna3onal Quiet Ocean Experiment Science Plan. 2015. Interna3onal Council for Science, Scien3fic CommiAee on Oceanic Research; Partnership for Observa3on of the Global Oceans.

Soundscape monitoring and modeling

Sources of sound

Soundscape monitoring and modeling Sources of sound Biophony , geophony , technophony Kanai Na3onal Wildlife Refuge

Biophony , geophony , technophony Kanai Na3onal Wildlife Refuge

TC Mullet, SH Gage, JM Morton, F HueAmann . Temporal and spa3al varia3on of a winter soundscape in south-central Alaska. Landscape Ecol , 2015. DOI 10.1007/210980-015-0323-0

Soundscape monitoring and modeling

Sound budgets — seasonal

Soundscape monitoring and modeling Sound budgets — seasonal Parks, Miklos -Olds, Denes. Assessing marine acous3c

Parks, Miklos -Olds, Denes. Assessing marine acous3c diversity across ocean basins. Ecological Informa3cs 21 (2014) 81–88 SEE ALSO: Sirovic, Wiggins, Oleson . Ocean noise in the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134 (4), October 2013

Soundscape monitoring and modeling

Listening in busy waters

Soundscape monitoring and modeling Listening in busy waters NEPAN ONC / IOOS LIDO

NEPAN

ONC / IOOS

LIDO

Some surprises

Seismic survey sounds in remote polar Atlan%c

Increases to ambient:

Airguns 5-10dB, up to 20dB

Some3mes greater than other major noise sources (winter storms & whales, both 10dB)

noise sources (winter storms & whales, both 10dB) Klink et al, Seasonal presence of cetaceans and

Klink et al, Seasonal presence of cetaceans and ambient noise levels in polar waters of the North Atlan3c. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132 (3), September 2012

Some surprises

Shipping noise not rising in all areas

North Pacific 1960s-1990s 3dB/decade trends have changed

Indian Ocean S3ll increasing

South Atlan%c Equatorial Pacific Signs of recent leveling, but likely higher than 80s

Signs of recent leveling, but likely higher than 80s JL Miklos -Olds, SM Nichols. Is low

JL Miklos -Olds, SM Nichols. Is low frequency ocean sound increasing globally? J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 139 (1), January 2016, 501-511 Andrew, R. K., Howe, B. M., and Mercer, J. A. (2011). “Long-3me trends in ship traffic noise for four sites off the North American West Coast,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 642–651. Miksis -Olds, J. L., Bradley, D. L., and Niu , X. M. (2013). “Decadal trends in Indian Ocean ambient sound,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 3464–3475. Miksis -Olds, J. L., Bradley, D. L., and Niu , X. M. (2014). “Erratum: Decadal trends in Indian Ocean ambient sound [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(5), 3464–3475 (2013)],” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135, 1642.

Making a difference

Chicago-region “resource protec%on areas”

a difference Chicago-region “resource protec%on areas” Liam Heneghan et al. Lessons Learned from Chicago

Liam Heneghan et al. Lessons Learned from Chicago Wilderness— Implemen3ng and Sustaining Conserva3on Management in an Urban Se}ng. Diversity 2012, 4(1), 74-93; doi:10.3390/d4010074

Not designed as sound-related

Seeking linkages (light green) between exis3ng public open spaces (dark green)

Could readily be combined with regional detail from the NPS con3nental-scale noise map featured earlier to focus on areas of rela3vely lower human noise.

(but good luck; this ain’t no Tucson!)

Increasing acous%c concerns

Animal effects more widespread than earlier believed

Eels: more vulnerable to predators Shellfish: less successful larval development Crabs: reduced foraging, slower responses to predators Fish: reduced nest digging and vigilance

Fish near bridge pilings?

Birds around oil and gas installa;ons?

24 Right whales: 84% Fin whales: 33%

Eels: hAp://aeinews.org/archives/2662; Crabs: hAp://aeinews.org/archives/2438 Fish and road noise: hAp://aeinews.org/archives/2757 Shellfish larvae: hAp://aeinews.org/archives/2514

Emerging noise sources

Increased Arc%c shipping

Arc3c Council very focused on this 8 Arc3c countries 6 regional indigenous councils
Arc3c Council
very focused on this
8
Arc3c countries
6
regional indigenous councils

Canadian Northwest Passage 2016: first large cruise ship Cargo mostly on ends, so far 300-350 voyages/year

Russian Northern Sea Route 30-70 full transits/year

Russian Northern Sea Route 30-70 full transits/year

hAp://pame.is/images/03_Projects/AMSA/AMSA_Documents/Progress_Reports/AMSArecommenda3ons2015_Web.pdf

Emerging noise sources

Increased Arc%c shipping

Pressing need for designated shipping corridors

shipping Pressing need for designated shipping corridors 2016 Pew report: The Integrated Arc%c Corridors Framework

2016 Pew report:

The Integrated Arc%c Corridors Framework

Canadian Coast Guard proposed voluntary plan allows transits of 45% of biologically and socially significant areas

Pew framework limits this to 25%

hAp:// www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2016/04/the-integrated-arc3c-corridors-framework

Emerging noise sources

Antarc%c tourism

Emerging noise sources Antarc%c tourism “The governance system doesn’t really have an idea how [tourism] trends

“The governance system doesn’t really have an idea how [tourism] trends should look in 10, 20, 30 years. Antarc%ca is a special place, it is set aside, and we don’t want it to look like anywhere else.” Claire Chris=an, Antarc=c and Southern Ocean Coali=on

48 companies, 55 vessels 40,000 people/year So far, safety limita3ons are concentra3ng the impact:

77% of visitors on under 500 acres

Improving popula%on distribu%on data

The other half of the equa%on

popula%on distribu%on data The other half of the equa%on Duke: OBIS-SEAMAP Combines 100’s of data sets

Duke:

OBIS-SEAMAP

Combines 100’s of data sets

Seasonal

distribu%ons

(Monthly for some) Marine mammals Seabirds Sharks Rays, turtles Even some amphibians

Habitat-based Cetacean Density Models For The U.S. Atlan3c And Gulf Of Mexico (2015 Version). Developed By Marine Geospa3al Ecology Laboratory, Duke University

Improving popula%on distribu%on data

The other half of the equa%on

popula%on distribu%on data The other half of the equa%on NOAA’s Cetacean Density & Distribu%on Mapping (CetMap)

NOAA’s Cetacean Density & Distribu%on Mapping (CetMap) Working Group

Special issue of Aqua=c Mammals, 2015:

Biologically Important Areas for Cetaceans Within US Waters

7 regional reviews of best current data

Next:

Overlay sound data and/or models

Terrestrial, marine collabora%on

Unifying marine and terrestrial cri%cal-area designa%ons

Unifying marine and terrestrial cri%cal-area designa%ons IUCN Beginning to integrate Important Marine Mammal Areas

IUCN

Beginning to integrate Important Marine Mammal Areas with their terrestrial Key Biodiversity Areas

“the complete alignment of the two processes is desirable.”

Joint Statement by the The IUCN WCPA-SSC Joint Task Force on Biodiversity and Protected Areas and the IUCN WCPA-SSC Joint Task Force on Marine Mammal Protected Areas. 4 November 2015