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North American University

Education Department
M.Ed. in Educational Leadership / M.Ed. in Curriculum and Instruction
EDUC 5324 Integrating Technology into Education
Name:__Omer DOGAN________

Date: ____06/04/2016_______________

Cite the reviewed article in APA format: Waxman, H., Boriack, A., Yuan-Hsuan, L., &
MacNeil, A. (2013). Principals' Perceptions of the Importance of Technology in
Schools. Contemporary Educational Technology, 4(3), 187-196
Research Questions (if research questions are not specifically mentioned, what is the
theoretical background or overarching theme):
(1) What are principals perceptions of the importance of technology?
(2) Do principals perceptions of technology differ by years of experience and gender?
Purpose of the research: The todays study builds on the prior research and includes an
open-ended, cognitive interview question that allows for the examination of principals
perspectives and orientations toward technology. Furthermore, while other studies have
explored differences by type of school, the present study focuses on principal
characteristics such as years of experience and gender. There have been relatively few
studies that have examined the influence of gender and experience on principals use of
computers (Serhan, 2009).

What is the methodology for the research or approach used to understand the issue?
Provide information regarding the following:
Participants: A convenience sample of 310 principals from a large metropolitan area in
the southwest region of the United States responded to a cognitive interview
questionnaire that asked principals about their perceptions regarding the importance of
technology for their schools. The sample consisted of 126 males and 184 females. A
range of years of experience was present with 104 participants having 0-3 years of
experience, 82 participants having 4-7 years, 55 participants having 8-11 years, 32
participants having 12-15 years, and 31 participants having greater than 15 years of

Procedures: The questionnaire was administered by graduate students in the Educational

Leadership program at a major, urban doctoral-granting university located in the south
central region of the U.S. As part of the principals certification course requirements,
students were trained on how to administer the instrument and required to interview a
specific number of current public school principals. The survey instrument was designed
specifically for this purpose and included both qualitative and quantitative questions.

Data Collection Methods/Data Source: As previously discussed, principals cognitions

and perceptions have been found to be valid and reliable and the use of cognitive
interviewing further improves the validity of the data (Desimonte & Le Floch, 2004). For
this study, only the data from the interviews was used. The interview questions were Has
technology had an impact in your school?" and "If so, in what specific ways has it made a


Data Analysis: Analysis of the interview data began with a process of data reduction. The
participants responses were read several times to become familiar with the data. The data
was then coded into meaningful categories. Once the categories were established, another
researcher independently coded a 10% sample of responses to determine the consistency
of the coding. The inter-coder reliability results revealed a high level of agreement
(Cohens kappa = .94).
Findings or Results (or main points of the article): The principals responses for the
major functions of technology were grouped into six categories. About one-third (35%)
of the principals indicated that technology was used as a primary communication tool.
Over one-quarter (28%) of principals responded that technology was integrated in
teachers classroom instruction. The third category was using technology for data sharing
and management (14%). Category four was using technology as a resource to find
information (15%). Technology was also used for administrative tasks, such as taking
attendance (10%). Finally, technology was used for student learning (10%). The research
also focuses on that principal perceptions of technology differ by gender and years of

Conclusions/Implications (for your profession): The technology is getting better and
useful each day. I do not have right to tell all technology tools are good or bad. People are

still arguing this issue in everywhere. Some people think that we need technology in our
education field and the others think that it is useless. I am an AP Biology instructor and
also Pre-AP biology teacher in a high school. And I love using technology in my classes
all the time. Our principal is supporting us all the time when we need some technology
tools. When I say technology, I do not mean only machines I mean everything. Websites,
software, media and the others are very important for education and all the principals
must support their teachers and also workers on this subject. I have a lot of technological
tools in my bio-lab. Laptops, Chromebooks, Cameras, Electronic balances, light house
for plants, a microscope with a camera in it, a microscope with a digital screen on it, and
the other things are some of them. Most of the bio-labs do not have the half of my lab.
Students Reflections (changes to your understanding; implications for your
school/work): There is no way such as old fashion teaching anymore. All the schools
must use technology to catch the age. Students are using the whole technology things in
their home and also for their social life. So why not we do not use the same tools to
walk with them in their education life. If I were a principal I would be very careful when
I hire a teacher for my school. My majority would be the use of technology. I would ask
the teacher candidates if they are ok to use new technology and open mind to new things.
Sharratt, L. (1999). Technology implementation: Lessons for school and district leaders. Orbit,
30, 36-39.
Ritchie, D. C. (1996). The administrative role in the integration of technology. NASSP Bulletin,
80(582), 42-52.
Waxman, H. C., MacNeil, A., & Lee, Y. H. (2006, November). Principals perceptions of
successful school leadership. Paper presented at the annual convention of the University Council

of Educational Administration, San Antonio, TX.