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# PROBLEM 13.

1
A 400-kg satellite is placed in a circular orbit 6394 km above the surface
of the earth. At this elevation the acceleration of gravity is 4.09 m/s .
Knowing that its orbital speed is 20 000 km/h, determine the kinetic
energy of the satellite.

SOLUTION
m = 400 kg

## Given: Mass of satellite,

Speed of satellite,

## Find: Kinetic energy, T

v = ( 20.0 x 103 km/h)^~ ~ (1000 m/km)
= 5555 m/s
T = ~ m v 2 = |( 4 0 0 kg)(5.555 x 103m /s'f
T = 6.17 x 109 N-m
Note: Acceleration of gravity has no effect on the mass of the satellite.
T = 6.17 GJ <

PROBLEM 13.2
A 1000-lb satellite is placed in a circular orbit 3000 mi above the surface
o f the earth. At this elevation the acceleration o f gravity is 8.03 ft/s2.
Knowing that its orbital speed is 14,000 mi/h, determine the kinetic
energy o f the satellite.

SOLUTION
Given: Weight of satellite,
Speed of satellite,

W = 1000 lb
v = 14,000 mi/h

## Find: Kinetic energy, T

v = (14,000 mi/h)(5280 ft/mi)

"

'

v3600 s

= 20,533 fit/s

(32.2 ft/s2 j

## T = ^ m v 2 = ^(31.0559)(20,533)2 = 6.5466 x 109 lb-ft

T = 6.55 x 109 lb-ft
Note: Acceleration of gravity has no effect on the mass of the satellite.
T = 6.55 x 109 lb-ft <

PROBLEM 13.3
An 8-lb stone is dropped from a height h and strikes the ground with a
velocity of 85 ft/s. (a) Find the kinetic energy of the stone as it strikes the
ground and the height h from which it was dropped. (b) Solve part a,
assuming that the same stone is dropped on the moon. (Acceleration of
gravity on the moon = 5.31 ft/s").

SOLUTION
W - 8 lb

## Given: Weight of stone,

Velocity of stone,

v = 85 ft/s
g, = 5.31 ft/s2

## Acceleration of gravity on the Moon,

Find: (a) Kinetic energy, T
Height h, from which stone was dropped
(b) T and h on the Moon
(a) On the earth

## T = 1 mv2 = 1 f 8 lb , 1(85 ft/s)2 = 897.52 lb-ft

2
2 V32.2 ft/s2 J V

7j + t /,_2 = T2

## Wh = T2, h - 897-521b' ft = H2.190ft

2
8 1b
h = 112.2 ft <
(b) On the moon
Mass is unchanged.
T - 898 lb-ft <

Thus T is unchanged.
Weight on the moon is:
tVm = m g m = (8 lb \ (5.31 ft/s2)
m
m (32.2 ft/s2) 1
1
Wm = 1.31925 lb
T2

(897.52 ft)

(1.31925 1b)
hm = 680 ft <

PROBLEM 13.4
A 2-kg stone is dropped from a height h and strikes the ground with a
velocity of 24 m/s. (a) Find the kinetic energy of the stone as it strikes the
ground and the height h from which it was dropped. (b) Solve part a,
assuming that the same stone is dropped on the moon. (Acceleration of
gravity on the moon = 1.62 m/s2 ).

SOLUTION
Given: Mass of stone,

m = 2 kg

Velocity of stone,

v = 24 m/s
g m = 1.62 m/s2

## Acceleration of gravity on the moon,

Find:
(a) Kinetic energy, T
Height h, from which the stone was dropped
(b) T and h on the Moon

T - 576 J A

## W = mg = (2 kg)(9.81 m/s2) = 19.62 N

Tx = u x_2 = T2
Wh = T2
2

Ti = o

U,_2 = Wh

T2 = 576 J

T,
(576 N-m )
h m = A---------- 4- = 29.36 m
W
(19.62 N)
h - 29.4 m <

## (b) On the Moon

m - 2 kg

Mass is unchanged.

T = 576 J -4

Thus T is unchanged.
Weight on the moon is,

## wm = m8m = ( 2 kg)(l-62 m/s2)

Wm = 3.24 N
T
(576 N-m )
,_ D
hm ------ - -------------- = 177.8 m
m Wm
3.24 N
hm - 177.8 m <

PROBLEM 13.5
An automobile weighing 4250 lb starts from rest at point A on a 6
incline and coasts through a distance of 500 ft to point B. The brakes are
then applied, causing the automobile to come to a stop at point C, 70 ft
from B. Knowing that slipping is impending during the braking period
and neglecting air resistance and rolling resistance, determine (a) the
speed of the automobile at point B, (b) the coefficient o f static friction
between the tires and the road.

SOLUTION
Given: Automobile weight,

W = 4250 lb

Initial velocity at A,

vA = 0 ft/s
a = 6

Incline angle,
Vehicle coasts 500 ft from^f to B

## Vehicle brakes at impending slip for 70 ft from B to C.

vc = 0
Find: Speed of automobile at point B, vB
Coefficient of static friction, //
(a)

## UA_,B = WhA^ B = (4250 lb)(500 ft)(sin 6)

= 22.212 x 104 lb-ft
UA_>B=TB - T A =-mv2 - 0

2 (32.2 ft/s2)
Vo = 58.0 ft/s <
(b)

Ua

*c

a -* c

FdB-+c ~ Tc

= 70 ft

1a

F = juN

## where fi = coefficient of static friction

UA_ C = (4250 lb)(sin6)(570 ft) - F (7 0 ft)
F = //(42501b) cos 6
(4250 lb )(sin 6)(570 ft) = -//(4 2 5 0 lb)(cos6)(70 ft) = 0
570
a = tan 6 = 0.856
70
H - 0.856 M

PROBLEM 13.6
500 ft

## An automobile weighing 4250 lb starts from rest at point A on a

6 incline and coasts through a distance of 500 ft to point B. The brakes
are then fully applied, causing the automobile to skid to a stop at point C,
70 ft from B. Knowing that the coefficient of dynamic friction between
the tires and the road is 0.75, determine the work done on the automobile
by the combined effects of air resistance and rolling resistance between
points A and C.

SOLUTION
W

## Given: Automobile weight,

W = 4250 lb

Initial Velocity at A,

vA - 0 ft/s
a = 6

Incline angle,
Vehicle coasts 500 ft from A to B
Vehicle skids 70 ft from B to C
Dynamic friction coefficient,

// = 0.75

## Find: Work done on automobile by air resistance and rolling resistance

between points A and C.
= Ur +

- ^ (7 0 ft) = Tc - Ta = 0

F = p N = 0.75(4250 lb)cos6
UR = Resistance work
= 0.75(4250 lb)cos6(70 Ft) - (4250 lb)sin6(570 ft)
UR = -31.3 x 103 ft l b s ^

PROBLEM13.7
Skid marks on a drag race track indicate that the rear (drive) wheels of a
car skid for the first 18 m and roll with slipping impending during the
remaining 382 m. The front wheels of the car are just off the ground for
the first 18 m, and for the remainder of the race 75 percent o f the weight
of the car is on the rear wheels. Knowing that the speed of the car is
58 km/h at the end of the first 18 m and that the coefficient of kinetic
friction is 80 percent of the coefficient of static friction, determine the
speed of the car at the end of the 400-m track. Ignore air resistance and
rolling resistance.

SOLUTION
First 18 m: Since all the cars weight is on the rear wheels which skid, the
force on the car is
F = MkN = ( Mk)lV
v!g = (58 km/h)(1000 m/km)f
= 16.1 m/s
71 = 0

T
T-,
-

2

18

Vg)

## u i-2 = ( / r )( 18m ) = ^ ( ^ ) ( > 8 m)

7; + 1/,_2 = t2
0 + 18n kW = (129.6)
129.6
= 0.73395
(18)(9.81)
For 400 m: Force moving the car is for the first 18 m,
/r = (/rt )(JT) = (0.73395)lf
For the remaining 382 m, with 75% of weight on rear drive wheels and
impending sliding,
F2 = ( v s ){0J5)lV

## n s = Hk (0.80) = (0.73395)(0.80) = 0.91744

F2 = (0.91744)(0.75)(M') = 0.68808
T. = 0

T2 = -

7 l(W

## PROBLEM 13.7 CONTINUED

Ux_2 = F ,( l8 m) + F2(382m )
= (0.73395)(fF)(l8 m) + (0.68808)(fF)(328 m)
= 13.2W + 262.8W = 276.01JF
7j + U^_2 = T2

If

W\ v
0 + 276.01JF = -
2 /

400

\2
)

v4
200 = (2^)276.01 = (2)(9.81 m/s2) (276.01)
v400 = 5415.3

## v400 = 73.6 m/s

v400 = 265 km/h A

PROBLEM13.8
In an automobile drag race, the rear drive wheels of a car skid for the first
25 m and roll with slipping impending during the remaining 375 m. The
front wheels of the car are just off the ground for the first 25 m, and for
the remainder of the race 80 percent of the weight is on the rear wheels.
(a) What is the required coefficient of static friction if, starting from rest,
the car is to reach a peak speed of 275 km/h at the end of the 400-m
track? Assume that the coefficient of kinetic friction is 75 percent of the
coefficient of static friction and ignore air resistance and rolling
resistance, (b) How fast is the car going at the end o f the first 25 m?

SOLUTION
Given: 400 m drag race track, car starts from rest front wheels off the
ground, and rear wheels skid for first 25 m. Wheels roll with slipping
impending for remaining 375 m, with 80% of the weight on the rear drive
wheels peak. Speed at end of the race, = 275 km/h
//* = 0.75//,
Find: (a) Coefficient of static friction, //,
(b) Speed at the end of the first 25 m
(a) Force moving the car for the first 25 m, with allthe weight on the
rear drive wheels and the wheels skidding.
//* = 0.75//,

Fx = n kN = n kW = (0.75)(//, )mg

Force moving the car for remaining 375 m with 80% of the weight
on the rear (drive) wheels and slipping impending.
F2 = //, (0.80) IF = (0.80)//,mg
7] = 0, v400 = (275 km/h)f 1000m /lan"| =76 389 ^
1
400 V
\ 3600 s/h )
1
T2 = i m v 2 = m( 76.389 )2 = 2917.64m
= F](25 m) + F,(375 m) = (0.75//,mg)(25) + (0.8//,mg)(375)
= 318.75 //,2mg
7] + (/,_2 = T2 = 318.75//,m (9.8l) = 2917.64 m

Fs =

2917.64
(318.75)(9.81)

= 0.93306

Ms = 0.933 <

## PROBLEM 13.8 CONTINUED

(b) For the first 25 m
juk = 0.75 Fs = 0.69979
Fx = fikN = (0.69979) mg
7] = 0, T2 = im ( v 25)2

## Ux_2 = (0.69979)(mg)(25 m) = 17.4949mg

0 + (17.4949) mg = ~ mv25
v| 5 = (2)(17.4949)(9.81) = 343.25
v25 = 18.527 m/s
v25 = 66.7 km/h 4

PROBLEM13.9
The 16-lb block A is released from rest in the position shown. Neglecting
the effect o f friction and the masses of the pulleys, determine the velocity
of the block after it has moved 2 ft up the incline.

SOLUTION
Given: Block A is released from rest and moves up incline 2 ft.
L J

___

## Friction and other masses are neglected.

Find: Velocity of the block after 2 ft, v
From Law of Cosines
d 2 = (4 )2 + (22) - 2 (4 )(2 )co sl5
d 2 = 4.5452 ft2
d = 2.1319 ft
C/30 =

## (distance pulley C is lowered)

= 30 lb 1 ( 4 - 2 .1 3 1 9 )

ft = +28.021 ft lb

## Ulb = -16 lb(sinl5(2 ft) = -8.2822 ft-lb

U = T2 - T l = U 30- 1/ 16
1 w
4. |V" - 0 = L/jo - t/ 16
2 ^. 8
161b
132.2 ft/s2

## v2 = (28.021 -8.2822) ft-lb

v = 79.449
v = 8.9134
v = 8.91 ft/s <

PROBLEM13.10
The 16-lb block A is released in the position shown with a velocity of
3 ft/s up the incline. Knowing that the velocity of the block is 9 ft/s after
it has moved 2 ft up the incline, determine the work done by the friction
force exerted on the block. Neglect the masses of the pulleys.

SOLUTION
Given: Block A is released at the position shown at a velocity of 3 ft/s up.
After moving 2 ft the velocity is 9 ft/s.
Find: Work done by friction force on the block, v, ft lb
From Law of Cosines
dr = (4): + (2): - 2 (4 )(2 )(co sl5 )
d 2 = 4.5452 ft2
d = 2.131944 ft
UM = 30 lb 1 ( 4 - 2 .1 3 1 9 ) ft = +28.0208 ft lb

## Uib = - 16 lb(sinl5)(2 ft) = -8.282209 ft lb

i i is r
V>0 + C /,6 - C/frjction = h

~ T, = - ^ [ v , 2 - V2 ]

16 lb

\32.2 ft/s"

## C/friction = -28.0208 + 8.282209 + 17.88820

= -1.8504 ft -lb
C/fric,io = 1.850 ft-lb<

PROBLEM 13.11
Boxes are transported by a conveyor belt with a velocity v() to a fixed
incline at A where they slide and eventually fall off at B. Knowing that
/jk = 0.40, determine the velocity of the conveyor belt if the boxes leave
the incline at B with a velocity of 2 m/s.

SOLUTION
Given: At A,
\

A .V

v = v0

For AB,

nk = 0.40

At B,

v - 2 m/s

Find: v0

ta = ^ mvo

TB = 2 m
N

## UA_B =(IVsin 15 - nk N )(6

\S F = 0

N-

m)

fFcos 15 = 0

N = IFcos 15
UA_B = FF(sin 15 -

0.40cosl5)(6 m)

TA

+ U A -B

= TB

## j/nvo - 0.7653 \mg = 2 m

v02 = (2)(2 + (0.76531)(9.81 m/s: ))
vj; = 19.0154
v0 = 4.36 m/s A

PROBLEM 13.12
Boxes are transported by a conveyor belt with a velocity v0 to a fixed
incline at A where they slide and eventually fall off at B. Knowing that
Hk = 0.40, determine the velocity of the conveyor belt if the boxes are to
have a zero velocity at B.

SOLUTION
v = v
V= 0
Hk = 0.40

ta

= 2 OTVo

Tb = 0

UA_B = ( f f s i n l 5 - ^ ) ( 6 m )
\IF

N - ffcosl5 = 0

=0

N =

cos 15

Ua-b = ^ (s in l5 -0 .4 0 c o s l5 )(6 m )
UA_B = -(0 .7 6 5 3 l)ff = -0.7653 lwg
Ta

TJA _ B

Tb

## mvs - 0.7653 Img = 0

vs = (2)(0.76531)(9.81 m/s2)
vs = 15.015
v0 = 3.87 m/s ^
Down to the left.

PROBLEM 13.13
A

"x

V* I "

T"

8L
'"

## In an ore-mining operation, a bucket full of ore is suspended from a

traveling crane which moves slowly along a stationary bridge. The bucket
is to swing no more that 12 ft horizontally when the crane is brought to a
sudden stop. Determine the maximum allowable horizontal speed v of the
crane.

30l

SOLUTION
Given: Crane moves at velocity, v and stops suddenly.

I
A

T~ I

## Bucket is to swing no more than 12 ft horizontally.

Find: Maximum allowable velocity v
v, = v
t

v2 = 0
*

U\_2 = -mgh

d = 12 ft

## AB2 = (30 ft)2 = d 2 + y 2 = (12 ft)2 + y 2

y 2 = 900 - 144 = 756

y = V756

h = 30 - y = 30 - J l5 6 = 2.5045 ft
T \+ Ui_2 = T 2
^ m v 2 - mg(2.5045) - 0
v2 = 2g(2.5045) = 2(32.2)(2.5045)
v2 = 161.289
v = 12.6999
v = 12.70 ft/s <

PROBLEM 13.14
In an ore-mining operation, a bucket full of ore is suspended from a
traveling crane which moves slowly along a stationary bridge. The crane
is traveling at a speed of 10 ft/s when it is brought to a sudden stop.
Determine the maximum horizontal distance through which the bucket
will swing.

SOLUTION
Given: Crane moves at velocity, v = 10 ft/s and stops suddenly.
Find: Maximum horizontal distance, d moved by the bucket.
N I,
1 I il

## Refer to Problem 13.13 free body.

i
t
T,

1 w (10
tin AV2
ft) = 5ca0
= 1 m v 2 = ------2 g

' 2

T, = 0
7] + u x 2 = r ,

f/,_ 2= -Wh
50 - Wh = 0
g

h = = = 1.55279 ft
g
32.2
AB~ = (30)2 = d 2 + y 2 = d 2 + (30 - 1.55279)2
d 2 = 90.7562

d = 9.5266
d = 9.53 ft <

PROBLEM 13.15
10 m/s

## Car B is towing car A with a 5-m cable at a constant speed of 10 m/s on

an uphill grade when the brakes of car B are fully applied causing it to
skid to a stop. Car A, whose driver had not observed that car B was
slowing down, then strikes the rear of car B. Neglecting air resistance
and rolling resistance and assuming a coefficient of kinetic friction of 0.9,
determine the speed of car A just before the collision.

SOLUTION
Given: Car B towing car A uphill at a constant speed of 10 m/s

Car B:

p k = 0 .9

## Car A strikes rear of car B.

Find: Speed o f car A before collision, vA
Let d = Distance traveled by car B after braking.
VTlCj 0 5*

^ 1 - 2 = T2 - 7j

= (-m g sin 5 - F ) d

Car .4:
d =

d =

## pig sin5 + to.9pigcos5

50
9.81 (sin 5 + 0.9cos5)

50
(9.8l)(0.9837)

d = 5.181m traveled by B
For car A, travel to contact
t/,1 - C

= T A ~ T\ =

1 2 1
2 * 2

-Z m V A -

{-p ig s m 5 )(d + 5) = ^ p i v 2A - ~ p f ( l 0 ) 2
L v 2 a- 50 = (-9.81sin5)(5.181 + 5)
~ v 2 = 41.295

2 A

vA = 9.087
v . = 9.09 m/s M

PROBLEM 13.16
10 m s

in ,nfS_

## Car B is towing car A at a constant speed of 10 m/s on an uphill grade

when the brakes o f car A are fully applied causing all four wheels to skid.
The driver o f car B does not change the throttle setting or change gears.
The masses o f the cars A and B are 1400 kg and 1200 kg, respectively,
and the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.8. Neglecting air resistance and
rolling resistance, determine (a) the distance traveled by the cars before
they come to a stop, (b) the tension in the cable.

SOLUTION
Given: Car B tows car A at 10 m/s uphill.
Car A brakes for 4 wheels skid,

n k = 0 .8

## Car B continues in same gear and throttle setting.

Find: (a) Distance, d, traveled to stop
(b) Tension in cable
(a)

## Fj = traction force (from equilibrium)

Fl = (I400g)sin5 + (I200g)sin5
= 2600(9.8l)sin5

F = 0.8N a

For system: A + B
Ux_2 = [(Fj - 1400gsin5 - 1200gsin5) - F~\d
= T2 - T x = 0 - ~ m A+Bv2 = -1 (2 6 0 0 )(1 0 )2
Since

## (Fj - 1400gsin5 - 1200gsin5) = 0

- F d = -0.8 [1400 (9.81) cos 5]d = -130,000 N m
d = 11.88 m -^

## (b) Cable tension, T

Ux_2 = [ T - 0 .8 ^ ](1 1 .8 8 ) = T2 - 7 i
(T - 0.8(l400)(9.8l)cos5)ll.88 = - ^ ^ ( l 0 ) :
(F - 10945) = -5892
= 5.053 kN
T = 5.05 kN <

PROBLEM 13.17
fiomtfh

## A trailer truck has a 4400-lb cab and an 18,000-lb trailer. It is traveling

on level ground at 60 mi/h and must slow down to a stop in 3000 ft.
Determine (a) the average braking force that must be supplied, (b) the
average force in the coupling if 60 percent o f the braking force is
supplied by the trailer and 40 percent by the cab.

SOLUTION
Given: 4400 lb cab, 18,000 lb trailer on level ground.
Truck comes to a stop in 3000 ft.
Wt

|W ,

## 60% o f braking force from trailer.

40% o f braking force from cab.
Find: (a) Average braking force
(b) Average force in the coupling
(a) Trailer and cab together

5280 ft

V] = (60 mi/h)
I

mi

f lh 1
J 1,3600 s j

V, = 88 ft/s
T \+ U x_2 = T2
1
32.2 ft/s2

88 ft/s

v2 = 0

Tx = ^ ( m T + mc )(v1)2

T2 = 0
7j + Ux_2 = T2

Fb = 897.86

Fb = 898 lb <

## (b) Cab considered separately

Tx = 2 g (Wc )(v i)
O M O

2(32.2)(4400)(88)2
= 0.52909 xlO 6 ft-lb

T2 = 0

Fb = 897.86

7] + Ux_2 - T2
0.52909 x 106 + 3.000FC - 0.40(897.86)(3000) = 0
Fc = 182.780 lb

Fc = 182.8 lb <

PROBLEM 13.18

'q M H I U
oo

A trailer truck has a 4400-lb cab and an 18,000-lb trailer. Knowing that it
is traveling on level ground at 60 mi/h and that an average braking force
of 680 lb is applied, determine (a) how far the trailer truck will travel
before coming to a stop, (b) the average force in the coupling between the
cab and the trailer if the brakes on the trailer fail and all of the braking
force is supplied by the cab.

SOLUTION
Given: 4400 lb cab, 18,000 lb trailer.
Average braking force, 680 lb on level ground.
.W ,

## Find: (a) Distance X, to come to a stop.

(6) Force in coupling, Fc if the trailer brakes fail.
(a) Trailer and cab
v, = 88 ft/s
7] = 2.6936 x 106 ft-lb (From Problem 13.17)

Fe

T2 = 0

U,_2 = FhX

T{ + t/,_2 = T2

X = 3960 ft <

## ^ S < v' )! = I ( 3 W ,8000><88:

= 2.1645 x 10h ft-lb
T2 = 0
Tx + U x_2 = T2

m S DmM S0S0E
m

## With X = 3960 ft,

2.1645 x 106 = 3960FC

F ,

Fc = 546.45
Fc = 546 lb 4

PROBLEM 13.19
The system shown, consisting of a 20-kg collar A and a 10-kg
counterweight B, is at rest when a constant 500-N force is applied to
collar A. (o) Determine the velocity of A just before it hits the support at
C. (b) Solve part a assuming that the counterweight B is replaced by a
98.1-N downward force. Ignore friction and the mass of the pulleys.

SOLUTION
Given: System at rest when 500 N force is applied to collar A. No
friction. Ignore pulleys mass.
Find: (a) Velocity, vA of A just before it hits C.
*6
IQfej

## (b) vA If counter weight B is replaced by a 98.1 N

downward force.
Kinematics
X. =2X,
vH = 2vA
(a) Blocks A and B
7j = 0

2 = ~ m H VH + ~ m A VA

72 = i ( l 0 k g ) ( 2 v /1)2 + i ( 2 0 k g ) ( v /12)

T2 = (30 kg)(v4)2
Ux_2 = (500)*.., + {WA) { X A) - [WB) ( X B)
Ux_2 = (500 N)(0.6 m) + (20 kg x 9.81 m/s2)(0.6 m)
- (lO kg x 9.81 m/s: )(l.2 m)
/,_2 = 300 + 117.72 - 117.72 = 300 J

7j + Ux_2 = T2

## 0 + 300 J = (30 kg)v^

VA = 10

vA = 3.16 m/s A
(b) Since the 10 kg mass at B is replaced by a 98.1 N force, kinetic
energy at is,
T 2 = \ m A = ^ { 2 0 k gy A

71=0

U{_2 = 300 J
71 + t/,_2 = T2

## 0 + 300 J = (10 kg)v^

va

= 30
Va = 5.48 m/s M

PROBLEM 13.20
The 10-kg block A and the 4-kg block B are both at a height h = 0.5 m
above the ground when the system is released from rest. After A hits the
ground without rebound it is observed that B reaches a maximum height
of 1.18 m. Determine (a) the speed o f A just before impact, (b) the
amount of energy dissipated by axle friction in the pulley.

rh
L
SOLUTION

Given:

@
l

## Block A hits the ground without rebound.

Block B reaches a height of 1.18 m.
a !

i B
I___

## Find: (a) vA just before block A hits the ground.

(b) Energy, Er , dissipated by the pulley friction.

I 0 ,1? Y*
(a)

## vB at = vA at just before impact,

from to ; Block B
h=

T2 = j i n bvb = ^ ( 4) vl = 2 vb

## Tension in the cord is zero, thus

U2_3 = - ( 4 kg)(9.81 m/s2j(0.18 m) = -7.0632 J
T, + U2_3 = Tj;

2v| = 7.0632;

v2 = v2 = 3.5316

v | = 3.5316

vB = vA = 1.8793

T\ = 0

T2

## Just before impact

1
v, = v = v , = 1.793 m/s

T2 = - ( 1 0 + 4)(1.8793)2 = 24.722 J
^/,-2 = WA (0.5) - fVB (0.5) - EP\

## EP = Energy dissipated by pulley

f/|_2 = [(9.81 m/s2)(lO - 4)kgJ(0.5 m) - EP = 29.43 - EP
7j + t/,_2 = T2\

0 + 29.43 - EP = 24.722

EP = 4.708

= 4.71 J 4

PROBLEM 13.21
The two blocks shown are released from rest. Neglecting the masses of
the pulleys and the effect of friction in the pulleys and between the blocks
and the incline, determine (a) the velocity of block A after it has moved
0.5 m, (b) the tension in the cable.

SOLUTION
fy

Given: Blocks A, B released from rest and friction and masses of pulleys
neglected.
Find: (a) Velocity of Block A, vA, after moving down d A = 0.5 m.
(b) The tension T in the cable.
(a) Constraint:

vA + 3vs = 0

l
v = - v .

30

Also,

d u = -zdA
U\_2 = WA(sin30)dA -

(sin 30)dH

( 05^
= 10(9.8l)(sin30)(0.5) - 8(9.8l)(sin30)
\ 3 )
= 17.985 N m
T\ = 0, r 2 = - m 4vA + i / n sv |

= ^ ( 10K
U , 2 - T2 - 7j;

+ { ( 8) ( y |

= 5.4444

17.985 = 5.4444

vA = 1.8175
vA = 1.818 m/s

## (b) For A alone

t/ ,- 2 = WA{*m 3tr)dA - T { d A) = m A(vA)2
10(9.81)(0.5)(0.5) - f(0 .5 ) = |(1 0 )(1 .8 1 8 )2 = 16.517
T = 16.016 N

T = 16.02 N A

PROBLEM 13.22
The two blocks shown are released from rest. Neglecting the masses of
the pulleys and the effect of friction in the pulleys and knowing that the
coefficients of friction between both blocks and the incline are fis = 0.25
and n k = 0.20, determine (a) the velocity of block A after it has moved
0.5 m, (b) the tension in the cable.

SOLUTDION

103

## Given: Same initial conditions as Problem 13.21.

New condition of friction between blocks and the incline
Hs = 0.25
Find: (a) vA After Block
(b)

fik = 0.20

## Check the static friction required for equilibrium.

T - m*g(sin30o) + //Jm_4g(cos30) = 0
3T - mg(sin30) - /usmBg [ cos30) = 0
T - (10)(9.81)(0.5) + Ms (10)(9.81)(0.866) = 0
3T - (8)(9.81)(0.5) - Ms (8)(9.8l)(0.866) = 0
Ms = 0.334 > 0.25
Constraint:
(a )

## The blocks move.

vA + 3vs = 0

U \_ 2 = mAg ( s i n 3 0 ) ( d A) - mAg (c o s 3 0 ) M k { d A)

- mBg ( s in 3 0 ) f ^ - ] - mBg(cos30)//ife
V J J
\

= 10(9.81)(0.5)(0.5) - 10(9.81)(0.866)(0.2)(0.5)
- 8(9.81)(0.5)[ ~

| - 8(9.81)(0.866)(0.2)

## = 17.985-10.761 = 7.224 N-m

(Gravity) (Friction)

^0.5^1

## PROBLEM 13.22 CONTINUED

T\ = > T2 = j m Av2A +

= \ [ W ) v 2 a+

= 5.444v> = Ux_2
vA = 1.152 m/s
vA = 1.152 m/s

-4

(b) A alone:
u i - 2 = w^ ( s i n 3 0 ) ( ^ ) - M Ag(cos30o){ik (d A) - T ( d A)

=^ M {

va )2

## Ux_2 = 10(9.81)(0.5)(0.5) - 10(9.81)(0.866)(0.2)(0.5) - T(0.5)

= ^(10)(1.152)2 = 6.6348
T = 18.789 N
T = 18.79 N ^

PROBLEM 13.23
Four 3-kg packages are held in place by friction on a conveyor which is
disengaged from its drive motor. When the system is released from rest,
package 1 leaves the belt at A just as package 4 comes onto the inclined
portion of the belt at B. Determine (a) the velocity of package 2 as it
leaves the belt at A, (b) the velocity of package 3 as it leaves the belt at A.
Neglect the mass of the belt and rollers.

SOLUTION
Given: Conveyor is disengaged, packages held by friction and system is released from rest. Neglect mass of
belt and rollers. Package 1 leaves the belt as package 4 comes onto the belt.
Find: (a) Velocity of package 2 as it leaves the belt at A.
(b) Velocity of package 3 as it leaves the belt at A.
(a) Package 1 falls off the belt, and 2, 3, 4 move down.

= 0.8 m
3
T2 = 3

H ]

T2 = 2 (3 ks ) v2
T> = 4.5v;
Ux_2 = (3)(1F)(0.8) = (3)(3 kg) x 9.81 m/s2(0.8)
t/,_2 = 70.632 J
7] + (/,_ 2 = T2

0 + 70.632 = 4.5v|

v | = 15.696
v2 = 3.9618

Vt = 3.96 m/s A

## PROBLEM 13.23 CONTINUED

(b) Package 2 falls off the belt and its energy is lost to the system, and 3 and 4 move down 2 ft.
t b 'i

n = ( 2)

-m v .

T{ = (3 kg)(l5.696)
7| = 47.088 J
1 2
T3 = (2) -m v ,
2 3

(3 k g )(v f)

r 3 = 3v|
U2- 3 = 2 (F )(0 .8 ) = (2)(3 kg X 9.81 m/s2)(0.8 m)
U2_3 = 47.088 J
2| + U2_3 = r 3 = 47.088 + 47.088 = 3v32
v3 = 31.392
v3 = 5.6029
v3 = 5.60 m/s ^

PROBLEM 13.24
Two blocks A and B, of mass 8 kg and 10 kg, respectively, are connected
by a cord which passes over pulleys as shown. A 6-kg collar C is placed
on block A and the system is released from rest. After the blocks move
1.8 m, collar C is removed and blocks A and B continue to move.
Determine the speed of block A just before it strikes the ground.

SOLUTION
Given:

mA = 8 kg;

mB = 10 kg;

mc = 6 kg

## System released from rest.

Collar C removed after blocks move 1.8 m.
Find: vA, just before it strikes the ground.
Position 1 to position 2
V| = 0

7j = 0

## At 2, before C is removed from the system

0-6

T2 =

I .*2.

Ti = ~ (2 4 kg)v; = \2vj

r- u .
Bi

s u m

mB + mc ) v2

u \-2 = (mA + mc ~ a ) * ( L 8 m)

## t/,_2 = (8 + 6 - 10)g(l.8 m) = 70.632 J

Tx + t/,_ 2 = T2;

0 + 70.632 = 12v,2

vf = 5.886
Position 2 to position 3
1
1ft
n = ~ { m A + mBy 2 = (5.886) = 52.974

## T3 = ^ (mA + Wfl)V3 = 9v3

Ur _3 = (mA - mB) g ( 2 - 0.6) = ( -2 kg)(9.81 m/s2)(l.4 m)
U2._3 = -27.468 J
T; + U2._3 = T3 = 52.974 - 27.468 = 9vj
v32 = 2.834

v3 = 1.68345

vA = 1.683 m/s 4

PROBLEM 13.25
A 0.7-lb block rests on top of a 0.5-lb block supported by but not attached
to a spring o f constant 9 lb/ft. The upper block is suddenly removed.
Determine (a) the maximum velocity reached by the 0.5-lb block, (b) the
maximum height reached by the 0.5-lb block.

0.71b

0.51b

SOLUTION
Given: A 0.7 lb block rests on a 0.5 lb block which is not attached to a
spring of constant 9 lb/ft; upper block is suddenly removed.
Find: (a) vmax of 0.5 lb block
(b) maximum height reached by the 0.5 lb block
(a)

At the initial position (1), the force in the spring equals the weight of both
blocks, i.e., 1.2 lb.

Jk

VvJ 0

## Thus at a distance .v, the force in the spring is,

Fs = 1.2- k x
D 5 - ^ _ a

T
0 -5 U,

Fs = 1.2 - 9 *

%
|

Max velocity of the 0.5 lb block occurs while the spring is still in contact
with the block.
05

7; = o

2 0.25 2
v =
v

g )

CD

9 ,
t/|_2 = ( l. 2 - 9 x ) < i r - 0 . 5 j t = 0 . 7 j c - - X
// 2 = 7,
t
i x
7, +. U]
= f0\.7

^ x 2 = 0.25 v2
2
g

v = 4 g 0.7x - - x 2
2

## when = 0 = 0.7 - 9x => x = 0.077778 ft

dx
^max

0.7(0.077778) - -(0.077778)2
v -^ = 3.5063
vmax = 1.87249
vmax = 1.872 f t/s ^

## PROBLEM 13.25 CONTINUED

Cb)

x0 = Initial compression

l_ 0-S4fa

Xn =

1.21b
9 lb/ft

0.133333 ft

Fs = \ . 2 - 9 x
1

I f.
O .S J t

t x = o, r = o
t /,_3 = Fsdx - 0.5F
I/,_3 = (l.2 -9 x ) fc -0 .5 A
9 9
= 1.2x0 - jc0 - 0.5A

## = 1.2(0.133333) - |(0 .1 3 3 3 3 3 )2 - 0.5h

= 0.08 - 0.5/i
7; + (/l 3 = r 3: 0 + (0.08 - 0.5/*) = 0
h = 0.16 ft
h = 1.920 in. 4

PROBLEM 13.26
Solve Prob. 13.25, assuming that the 4-lb block is attached to the spring.

SOLUTION
vmax = 1-872 ft/s <

(b)

7J = 0

r3 = 0

## Since the spring remains attached to the 0.5 lb block,

the integration must be carried out for the total distance,

7j + C/1_3 = r 3

h.

0 + O.lh - |/?2 = 0

h =[

2
(0.7 lb) - 0.155556 ft
V9 lb/ft

h =1.86667 in.
h =1.867 in. <

PROBLEM 13.27
A 4-kg collar C slides on a horizontal rod between springs A and B. If the
collar is pushed to the right until spring B is compressed 50 mm and
released, determine the distance through which the collar will travel,
assuming (a) no friction between the collar and the rod, (b) a coefficient
of friction n k = 0.35.

SOLUTION
kB = 2000 N/m

(<>

k . = 3000 N/m
JbThii

ISO TT)V\

## Since the collar C leaves the spring at B and there is no friction, it

must engage the spring at A.
=0

Ta

U A -B =

Ua

Tg = 0

% *** -

% k Ax d x

j 2 0 0 0 N H ( 0 0 5 m ) 2 _ (3 0 0 0 N A n )M 2

Ta + UA. B = Tg

0 + 2.5 - 1500_y2 = 0

y = 0.0408 m - 40.8 mm
Total distance = (50 mm) + (400 mm)
- [(150 mm) - (40.8 mm)] = 340.8 mm
Total distance = 341 mm A
(b) Assume that C does not reach the spring at B because of friction.
N = IV = 4 kg x 9.81 m/s2 = 39.24 N

D
m

I-

/
's o w o
\o 6 rtft

Ta

Ua- d = f V

= o

Tg = 0

## - Ff ( y ) = ( 20 Q2N /m ](0-05 m )2 - (13-734 N ) y

UA_D = 2.5 - 13.734_y

## PROBLEM 13.27 CONTINUED

T\

u a- d

= TD

0 + 2 . 5 - 13.734y = 0

y = 0.18203 m = 182.0 mm
The collar must travel 400 -1 5 0 + 50 = 300 mm before it engages the
spring at B. Since y = 182.0 mm, it stops before engaging the spring at B.
Total distance = 182.0 mm 4

PROBLEM 13.28

I
ISOiiini

<=2 N/iiim

## A 3-kg collar C slides on a ffictionless vertical rod. It is pushed up into

the position shown, compressing the upper spring by 50 mm and
released. Determine (a) the maximum deflection of the lower spring.
(b) the maximum velocity of the collar.

41
II
i- y

SOLUTION
(a) Spring constants

## 3 N/mm = 3000 N/m

2 N/mm = 2000 N/m

;> 3

## Max deflection at 2 when velocity of C = 0

V, = 0,

5b mm

5 0 o rrn

^ YJC

r ii

c'rl

rl-

a N /tn m

v2 = 0,

F, = 0

U l-2 = U e+ U g

VJC

L- J

7] = 0,

<p ^

c/,-2 = m

^ i Fe)2d x + ^ ( - 3 + y * )

t / [ _ 2 = (3000N /m ) ( 0 0 5 m ) 2 _ (2 0 0 0 N /m )(^ )2

77777

## +(3 kg)(9.81 m/s2)(0.3 + y m)

= 3.750 - 1000(ym)2 + 8.829 + 29.43(ym)
T\ + U\ _2 = T2: 0 - 1000(ym)2 + 29.43(ym) + 12.579 = 0
y m = 0.12783 m

y m = 127.8 mm 4

distance y
7j =0;
T\ + c/,-2 = z2;
Substitute
chr
=0
dy

## T2 = I m (.v2 = i ( 3 kg)v2 = (l.5)v2

0 - (1000) ( / ) 2 + 2 9 .4 3 (/) + 12.579 = (l.5)v2
/ = 0.014715 m

-2 0 0 0 (y ) + 29.43 = 0;

y = 0.014715 m

## -0.0002165 + 0.43306 + 12.579 = 1.5v2

v2 = 2.9452 m/s

v = 2.95 m/s 4

PROBLEM 13.29
A 20-lb block is attached to spring A and connected to spring B by a cord
and pulley. The block is held in the position shown with both springs
unstretched when the support is removed and the block is released with
no initial velocity. Knowing that the constant of each spring is 12 lb/in.,
determine (a) the velocity of the block after it has moved down 2 in.,
(b) the maximum velocity achieved by the block.

PROBLEM 13.30

; k 12 Mil.

## A 20-lb block is attached to spring A and connected to spring B by a cord

and pulley. The block is held in the position shown with spring A
stretched l in. and spring B unstretched when the support is removed and
the block is released with no initial velocity. Knowing that the constant of
each spring is 12 lb/in., determine (a) the velocity of the block after it has
moved down 1 in., (b) the maximum velocity achieved by the block.

## PROBLEM 13.30 CONTINUED

(b) Let x = Distance moved down by the 20 lb block
For x > ft
12

(/,-2 = Wx + - k A ' j

_ f

i f

- k A

,1 2 ,

\2
UU2 = 20* + -(1 4 4 )

12

2 ( 14 4 )

12

a jc ^ 2

2 (1 4 4 )

32.2

cbc

Uv

32.2

= 20 - (144) ( X
I

## 1 'I -1 4 4 ' x '

127
J ,

---------

- 20 - 144* + 12 - 36*
x = = 0.177778 ft(= 2.1333 in.)
180
v
'
For

* = 0.177778 ft
U!_2 = 20(0.177778) + 0.5 - 72(0.094444)2 - 0.56889

20
2 32.2

## 3.5556 + 0.5 - 0.64222 - 0.56889 = -

vmax = 3-0264
vmax = 3.03 ft/s <

PROBLEM 13.31
An uncontrolled automobile traveling at 100 km/h strikes squarely a
highway crash cushion of the type shown in which the automobile is
" brought to rest by successively crushing steel barrels. The magnitude F of
the force required to crush the barrels is shown as a function of the distance
x the automobile has moved into the cushion. Knowing that the automobile
has a mass of 1000 kg and neglecting the effect of friction, determine
(a) the distance the automobile will move into the cushion before it comes
to rest, (b) the maximum deceleration of the automobile.

SOLUTION
(a)

Fdops)

14

r (ft)

v, = 27.778 m/s

## T{ = i m v ,2 = -^(1000 kg)(27.778 m/s)2

= 385809 J = 385.81 kJ
T2 = 0

v2 = 0

## U,_2 = (8 0 k N )(l.5 m ) + (l2 0 k N )(rf-1 .5 ) = 120 + 120</-180 = 120</-15

7] + [ / ,_ 2 = r 2

385.81 = 120c/ - 15

d = 3.3401 m
d = 3.340 m <

## Assumption that d < 4 m is O.K.

(b) Maximum deceleration occurs when F is largest.
For

thus

## (120,000 N) = (1000 kg)(aD)

an = 120.0 m/s2 A

PROBLEM 13.32
A piston of mass m and cross-sectional area A is in equilibrium under the
pressure p at the center of a cylinder closed at both ends. Assuming that the
piston is moved to the left a distance a/2 and released, and knowing that the
pressure on each side of the piston varies inversely with the volume,
determine the velocity of the piston as it again reaches the center of the
cylinder. Neglect friction between the piston and the cylinder and express

SOLUTION
Pressures vary inversely as the volume

I I
i

L _

a.

^ = Aa
P
P

Ax

Aa
A ( l a - x)

Pa
(2a - x)

Initially at

v= 0

x =

A t ,

x = a, T2 = mv
i-2 = Jl{PL - P R) A d x = ^ P a A
2

2a - x

dx

## Wj. 2 = paA lnx + In(2a - x) fa

i-2 = PaA ln a + ln a - In

, 5a
In

2
3a2
Mj_2 = paA ln a - In----- = paA In f 4 l
4
v3 ,
f 4\

T\ + C/j_2 = T2

0 + paA\n.

2paA\n
m

1mv 2

0.5754

paA
m

v = 0.759 . 1 ^ - <
m

PROBLEM 13.33
Express the acceleration of gravity gh at an altitude h above the surface
of the earth in terms of the acceleration of gravity g0 at the surface of the
earth, the altitude h, and the radius R of the earth. Determine the percent
error if the weight that an object has on the surface o f the earth is used as
its weight at an altitude of (a) 0.625 mi, (b) 625 mi.

PROBLEM 13.34
A rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the moon with a velocity
v0. Derive a formula for the ratio hn/hu of heights reached with a
velocity v, if Newtons law of gravitation is used to calculate hn and a
in terms of the acceleration of gravity gm on the surface of the moon, the
radius Rm of the moon, and the velocities v and v0.

PROBLEM 13.35
A meteor starts from rest at a very great distance from the earth. Knowing
that the radius of the earth is 6370 km and neglecting all forces except the
gravitational attraction of the earth, determine the speed of the meteor
(a) when it enters the ionosphere at an altitude of 1000 km, (b) when it
enters the stratosphere at an altitude of 50 km, (c) when it strikes the
earths surface.

PROBLEM13.36
During a flyby of the earth, the velocity of a spacecraft is 10.4 km/s as it
reaches its minimum altitude of 990 km above the surface at point O. At
point B the spacecraft is observed to have an altitude of 8350 km.
Assuming that the trajectory of the spacecraft is parabolic, determine its
speed at (a) point A, (b) point B

6370 km

090 km

BT
y;

## rR = 6370 km + 8350 km = 14720 km

Parabola:

y = Kx2
r0 = Krjj

7,360,000 m = K ( 1,472,000 m )2
K = 33.967(10)

At A:

## xA = r , (sin 45), y A = Kx\ = r0 - r.,(cos45)

r0 - r.,(cos450) = Krj (sin 45)
Kx A
2 +XA ~ r0 =
xA = [-1 + yjl + 4Kr0] =
A 2a:L
v

2k

## x . = 6097 km, r . = 8623 km

(a)

U,0-*A

GMpi
GMyri
1
> 1
2
---------------------= - jr f v A - -jrfvo

GM = 9.81(6,370,000)2,

= v02 +

vA = (10,400)2 + 2GM

1000 8623

2GM

1000

1
7360

vA = 9.6082 km/s
(b)

n = vo +

## v., = 9.61 km/s A

2GM J

1_

1000 rB

r0

Vg = (10,400 )2 + 2GM

1000

## vtt = 7.3536 km/s

1
14720

1
7360
vB = 7.35 km/s A

PROBLEM 13.37
A 0.75-lb brass (nonmagnetic) block A and an 0.5-lb steel magnet B are
in equilibrium in a brass tube under the magnetic repelling force of
another steel magnet C located at a distance jc = 0 .15 in. from B. The
force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between B
and C. If block A is suddenly removed, determine (a) the maximum
velocity of B, (b) the maximum acceleration of B. Assume that air
resistance and friction are negligible.

SOLUTION
(a)

For

x = 0.15 m = 0.0125 ft
F = -------- ----- T = 6400 k/ft2
(0.0125 ft)'
ZF = -WA - W B + F = 0
= -1.25 lb + 6400 k/ft2 = 0
k = 195.3 x 10' 6 lb -ft2
1
2 0.5 2 0.25 i

7] = 0, V, = 0, T2 = mBv = v =
v* lb-ft
2
2g
g

For max v,

d 0.25
v- = 0
dv\_ g

## PROBLEM 13.37 CONTINUED

x2

- 0 . 5 = 0, x 2 = = 2fl95.3 x 10"6)
00.55
V
I

x = 0.01976 ft
.01976( k
0125 ~~2
\X
- 0.5x
X

I
J
100,976
0.0125

0.25 2
Vmax
g
0.25 2
8

## Vmax = 4g (0.00211) = 0.2718

vmax = 0.5213 ft/s
vmax = 0.521 ft/s <
(b) Max acceleration at

x = 0.0125 ft
vI Fi t

^ -W
u rB = - a B
= mBa :
*
g

195.3 x 10' 6
=
(0.0125)

A_
0.5
0.5 =
aR
32.2

aB = 48.295 ft/s2
aB = 48.3 ft/s2 <

PROBLEM 13.38
In a brass tube a 180-g steel magnet B is in equilibrium under the
repelling force of another steel magnet C located at a distance x = 4 mm
from B. The force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance
between B and C. If a 270-g brass (nonmagnetic) block A is carefully
brought in contact with magnet B and released, determine (a) the
maximum velocity of A and B, (b) the maximum deflection of A and B.
Assume that air resistance and friction are negligible.

SOLUTION
(a)
o r

IT

^
I

f=

r J _

Calculate K
Equilibrium at (D
I F = -iy - W = 0
K = xfWB
x, = 4 mm = 0.004 m
K = (0.004 m )2(0.180 kg x 9.81 m/s2)
K = 28.25 x 10-6 N m 2
Ut = 0, 7j = 0, U2 = U

T2 = - ( m , + m ) 'v

## T2 = -(0 .4 5 kg)v2 = 0.225v2

^ - 2 = ^004 \ F - { W A +WBj\d x
7 1 + f/|.2 = 7

28.25 x 10'
004

-4 .4 1 4 dx = 0.225v2

## PROBLEM 13.38 CONTINUED

d ( 0.225v2)
For max v,

dx
28.25 x 106

At v

.00253

4.414 = 0

28.25 x 10 -6

f i 004

28.25 x 10"

=0
x = 2.53 mm

- 4.414 dx = 0.225v2

0.00253

= 0.225v2

- 4.414x
J 0.004

v2 = 0.01060
= 0.1030 m/s
vm = 0.1030 m/s 4
(b) Maximum deflection when v = 0
Tx = 0, T2 = 0
28.25 x 10-6

0+Jb,004

-28.25 x 10'

1
.x

1
0.004.

- 4.414 dx = 0

4.414x + 0.01766 - 0

x - 0.0016 m
Maximum deflection = 0.004 - 0.0016 = 0.0024 m
= 2.40 mm ^

PROBLEM 13.39
The sphere at A is given a downward velocity v0 and swings in a vertical
circle of radius I and center O. Determine the smallest velocity v0 for
which the sphere will reach point B as it swings about point O (a) if AO is
a rope, (b) if AO is a slender rod of negligible mass.

SOLUTION
T\ = 2 m v o

-vr

T2 = m v

t /|-2 = ~m8l

T\ + ^ 1-2 = T2

## ^ mV0 m8l = ^ mv2

= v2 + 2gl

Newtons law at
(a) For minimum v, tension in the cord must be zero.

Thus
M

v2 = gl
vH = v2 + 2gl = 3gl
V0 = >[*81 <

I =I

o r= o
=o

(b) Force in the rod can support the weight so that v can be zero.
Thus

Vq = 0 + 2 gl
v0 = sjig i <

PROBLEM 13.40
The sphere at A is given a downward velocity v0 of magnitude 16 ft/s and
swings in a vertical plane at the end of a rope of length / = 6 ft attached to
a support at O. Determine the angle 9 at which the rope will break,
knowing that it can withstand a maximum tension equal to twice the weight
of the sphere.

PROBLEM 13.41
A 3-lb block A rests on a 3-lb block B and is attached to a spring of
constant 12 lb/ft. The coefficients o f friction between the two blocks
are fis - 0.95 and p k = 0.90 and the coefficients of friction between block
B and the horizontal surface are //, = 0.15 and /uk = 0.10. Knowing that
the blocks are released from rest when the spring is stretched 4 in.,
determine (a) the velocity of block A as it reaches the position in which
the spring is unstretched, (b) the maximum velocity of block A.

SOLUTION
Assume the blocks move as one:

r, -

1 ( WA + W
g
61b
32.2 ft/s2

t;

^ 1 - 2 friction

## 2 = - ( l 21b /ft)f ft) - (6 lb)(0.l) ^ ft

12

V 12

v2 = 5.0089
Check assumption :at release,

v = 2.238 ft/s
41b > ^ , (6 lb) = 0.9 lb

## .'. slips at the horizontal surface.

At release

F. = 4 lb

= <l

a = 18.247 ft/s2

IS F

Ff = (0 .l)(6) = 0.61b
For A alone:
H lio

-------_ <
32.2

(18.247)

## Ff = 4.0 - 1.7000 = 2.3 lb < /25(3) = (0.95)(3) = 2.85 lb

A and B move as one, thus (a) v = 2.24 ft/s A
(b)

vmilx is max at a = 0,

## j v max = \ k \_X l ~ x 2 ] " F f ( x 0 ~ X )

,32.2

vLx = ^ ( 12)

0.6 - 0.05 I,
12

v = 2.27 ft/s A

PROBLEM 13.42
A 3-lb block A rests on a 3-lb block B and is attached to a spring of
constant 12 lb/ft. The coefficients of friction between the two blocks
are jts = 0.35 and fJk = 0.30 and the coefficients of friction between
block B and the horizontal surface are fis = 0.15 and /Jk = 0.10.
Knowing that the blocks are released from rest when the spring is
stretched 4 in., determine (a) the velocity of block A as it reaches the
position in which the spring is unstretched, (b) the maximum velocity of
block A.

SOLUTION
From Problem 13.41, assuming the blocks move together, a = 18.247 ft/s' at release

=( ^ ) (l8'247>

<*-

T>
Ff = 4.0 - 1.700 = 23 lb < //,(3 ) = 0.35(3) = 1.05 lb
.. Block A slides on block B.
A alone:
(a)

y2 = - J * * 2 - ^ 1 - 2 friction

'

31b

32.2 ft/s2

v2 = ~(12 lb/ft) ft
12

- (3 lb)(0.3)| ft

V = 7.8711

## v = 2.81 ft/s <

v = vmax at acceleration = 0,

(b)

Fs - Ff = 0 = kx - n kWA
\2x = ^0.30)(3) = 0.9, x = 0.075 ft
0
T2 - T\ = \ k [xo - x 2\ - w .\Fk [x - x ]

32.2

## v2 . = 0.6329 - 0.2325 = 0.4004

vmax = 2.93 ft/s <

PROBLEM 13.43
A section of track for a roller coaster consists o f two circular arcs AB and
CD joined by a straight portion BC. The radius of AB is 27 m and the
radius o f CD is 72 m. The car and its occupants, of total mass 250 kg,
reach point A with practically no velocity and then drop freely along the
track. Determine the normal force exerted by the track on the car as the
car reaches point B. Ignore air resistance and rolling resistance.

SOLUTION
va

=0

Ta

= 0

Tb =

i m v 2 = 1 (2 5 0 kg)v2 = 125v2

## W = (1250 kg) x (9.81 m/s2)

CO S 4 0 '
-40^
1/
UA_B = W(21){\ -c o s4 0 )
UA_ = (250 kg x 9.81 m/s2)(27 m)(0.234)
UA_B = 15495J
ta

+ u a. b =

ta

0 + 15495 =

\ 2 5 v -b

(15495J)
*

(125 kg)

vi = 124.0 m2/s2
Newtons Law at B

40'

S il W\
W

A j * ?.?/ Pi/s*

## + / N - Wcos 40 = - C L b. ; v| = 124.0 m2/s2

R
.
,v
(250 kg)(124.0 m2/s2)
N = (250 kg x 9.81 m/s" )(cos40)-------------v
D

27 m
N = 1879 - 1148 = 731 N

N = 731 N <4

PROBLEM 13.44
A section of track for a roller coaster consists o f two circular arcs AB and
CD joined by a straight portion BC. The radius of AB is 27 m and the
radius of CD is 72 m. The car and its occupants, of total mass 250 kg,
reach point A with practically no velocity and then drop freely along the
track. Determine the maximum and minimum values of the normal force
exerted by the track on the car as the car travels from A to D. Ignore air
resistance and rolling resistance.

SOLUTION
Normal force at B
N b = 731.0 N

## See solution to Problem 13.43,

Newtons Law
From B to C (car moves in a straight line)

c.

+ / N'B - fTcos40 = 0
N'b = (250 kg x 9.81 m/s2jcos40 = 1878.7 N
At C and D (car in the curve at C)
, \/ k /=

I S

-{15

f e- '
V = i x W

l/ s '

A a*

Vi-XHS2..51

R_
nnQ.w lrv>

A tC
W
+ / Nc - WcosG = ----- ^
8 R
/
2 \
Nc = (250 kg x 9.81 m/s2) cos# +
SR j
A ID

## PROBLEM 13.44 CONTINUED

v2 A

N d = (250 x 9.81) 1+ ^ gR
Since

vD > vc

and

va

= >

ta

Td = i

= 0

m vD
2 = \2 5 v p

## U a - d = w (21 + 18) = (25 kg)(9.81 m/s2)(45 m) = 110362.5

7a +

a- d

=
v 2d

N d = 250g 1+

72gJ

td

0 + 110362.5 = 125vq

= 882.90
= 250(9.81) 1+

882.90
72(9.81)

= 5518.1 N

## = b =731N ;iV max = AD = 5520 N 4

PROBLEM 13.45
A small block slides at a speed v = 3 m/s on a horizontal surface at a
height h = 1 m above the ground. Determine (a) the angle 9 at which it
will leave the cylindrical surface BCD, (b) the distance x at which it will
hit the ground. Neglect friction and air resistance.

SOLUTION
()

W Irvig

T
h

lo Cos e

4- J

S '
>v.4u

N=o

## Block leaves surface at C when the normal force N = 0

+ / mg cos 9 = man
vr
g c o s9 =

( 1)

v2 = gh cos 9 = gy
Work-energy principle
t b

= ^ mvc

UB-c =

y) = m g ( h - y c )

7# + U b- c - Tc
Use Equation (1)

## 4.5m + mg(h - y ) = ^/hv21

4.5 + g ( h - y ) = - g y c

(2 )

4.5 + gh = gyc
(4.5 + gh)
yc = ------------

(I")
(4.5 + (9 .8 |)(|)2)

y = 0.97248 m

(3)

yc = hcos9

cos# = =
h

1m

_ q 97248

9 = 13.47 A

(b)

vc =
A tC;

## (vc ) t = vc cos# = 3.0887cos 13.47

= 3.0037 m/s
(vc ) ( = -vr sin# = 3.0887 sin 13.47
= -0.71947 m/s
y = y c + (vc )) t - I g r = 0.97248 - 0.71947f - ^ ( 9 .8 l) /2

At E:

t = 0.37793 s

At E:

## x = /icos# + (vc )xt = l(sin 13.47) + 3.0037(0.37793)

= 0.23294 + 1.3519 = 1.3681m
x = 1.368 m A

PROBLEM 13.46
A small block slides at a speed V on a horizontal surface. Knowing that
h = 8 ft, determine the required speed of the block if it is to leave the
cylindrical surface BCD when 6 = 40.

SOLUTION
N = 0

## From Problem 13.45, block leaves the surface when

Vr
g cos# =
h
h = 8 ft, G = 40
vc = % c o s# = 8(32.2)(cos40) = 197.33

^ * B
I

0=40
T ^ tt-c o s

Work-energy principle

JF[Xc

1 2
=-

## rc = i i m = -im (l97.33) = 98.667m

U b - c = mgh{l ~ cosG)
+

U B -C ~ Tc

## jmv2 + mg/j(l - cosG) - ~^mvc

v 2c

= 197.33 - 2 g h ( \ - c o s G )
= 197.33 - 2(32.2)(8)(1 - cos40) = 76.796
vc = 8.76 ft/s <

PROBLEM 13.47
(a) A 60-kg woman rides a 7-kg bicycle up a 3 percent slope at a constant
speed of 2 m/s. How much power must be developed by the woman?
(b) A 90-kg man on a 9-kg bicycle starts down the same slope and
maintains a constant speed of 6 m/s by braking. How much power is
dissipated by the brakes? Ignore air resistance and rolling resistance.

SOLUTION
tan 9 = -----

100

t o o

9 = 1.718
W = Wg + Ww = (7 + 60) kg X 9.81 m/s2
W = 657.3 N
pw = iV v = (IF sin #)(v)
Pw = (657.3)(sinl.718)(2)
Pw = 39.41H^
Pw = 39.4 W <

ft)

6
M U

## W = WR + Wm = (9 + 90) kg x 9.81 m/s2

W = 971.2 N
Brake must dissipate the power generated by the bike and the man going
down the slope at 6 m/s.
pR = tv -v

= (lF sin#)(v)

PB = (971.2)(sinl.718)(6) = 174.701
PB = 174.7 W A

PROBLEM 13.48
A 70-kg sprinter starts from rest and accelerates uniformly for 5.4 s over a
distance of 35 m. Neglecting air resistance, determine the average power
developed by the sprinter.

SOLUTION
1 2
a = constant, v = at, x = at

Kinematics:

At

## F = constant = ma - (70 kg)( 2.401 m/s2}

v = 2.401/
Power - Fv = mav = 70(2.401 V t

Average power =

'Fvdt =

70(2.401)2

70(2.401)2

5.4

J?Atdt

_ 70(2,401)2 (5.4)2

5.4

5.4

-0

## Average power = 1089.14 W

Average power = 1.089 kW -4

PROBLEM 13.49
A power specification formula is to be derived for electric motors which
drive conveyor belts moving solid material at different rates to different
heights and distances. Denoting the efficiency o f the motors by 7, and
neglecting the power needed to drive the belt itself, derive a formula
(a) in the SI system o f units, for the power P in kW, in terms of the mass
flow rate m in kg/h, the height b and the horizontal distance / in meters
and (b) in US customary units, for the power in hp, in terms of the mass
flow rate m in tons/h, and the height b and horizontal distance / in feet.

SOLUTION
(a)

Thus,

## AU _ [i g (N /h )][6 (f)] = f mgb

At ~

(3600 s/h)

~ \ 3600

N-m/s

1000 N-m/s = lk w
Thus, including motor efficiency, 7
mg&(N-m/s)
1000 N-m/s
(3600)
( 7)
kw

P (kw ) =

(b)

AU

At

3600 s/h
m

1.8

With 7,

hp =

Wb

1.8

## ft -lb/s; Ihp = 550 ft-lb/s

(ft-lb/s)

lhp
550 ft-lb/s

hp

1.010 x IQ^Wb .
---------------------<

PROBLEM 13.50
It takes 16 s to raise a 2800-lb car and the supporting 650-lb hydraulic
car-lift platform to a height of 6.5 ft. Knowing that the overall conversion
efficiency from electric to mechanical power for the system is 82 percent,
determine (a) the average output power delivered by the hydraulic pump
to lift the system (b) the average electric power required.

SOLUTION
(a)

/ r A
v = s/t =
= 0.40625 ft/s
A
16s

## 1 hp = 550 ft lb/s, [Pr ) 4 = 2.548 hp

( /> ,) ^ = 2 .5 5 h p ^

(b)

(P \
' Ea

( Pp ) a
tj

2-55
0.82
(Ph )A = 3 .1 1 h p <

PROBLEM 13.51
The velocity of the lift of Prob. 13.50 increases uniformly from zero to its
maximum value in 8 s and then decreases uniformly to zero in 8 s.
Knowing that the peak power output of the hydraulic pump is 8 hp when
the velocity is maximum, determine the maximum lifting force provided
by the pump.

SOLUTION
N e w to n s la w

( 1)

+ | IF = F -3 4 5 0 =
g
Uniform acceleration (a = constant),
So F is constant from (1)
Peak power occurs when v is max at 8 s
v

a = -Jaa-

CL 0fyt>T^ K/r
P = 8 hp

^550 ft-lb/s N
= 4400 ft lb/s
1 hp

4400 = F (v max);

8s

a =

vmax =

4400

4400 _ 550
8F

~ F

( 2)

F - 3450 =

3450 550
g

I F )

## F 2 - 3450F - ^450( 550) _ Q

32.2
F 2 - 3450F - 58928.6 = 0
F = 3466.99
F = 3470 lb <

PROBLEM 13.52
A 1400-kg automobile starts from rest and travels 400 m during a
performance test. The motion of the automobile is defined by the relation
x = 4000 ln(cosh 0.03t), where x and ? are expressed in meters and
seconds, respectively. The magnitude of the aerodynamic drag is
D = 0.3 5v2, where D and v are expressed in newtons and m/s,
respectively. Determine the power dissipated by the aerodynamic drag
when (a) t - 10 s, (b) t = 15 s.

SOLUTION
Motion is determined as a function of time as
x - 4000ln (cosh 0.03?)

Velocity

r
1
'
V = = 4000
(sinh0.03?)(0.03)
dt
^cosh0.03t,
120 sinh 0.03?
cosh 0.03?
P = Dv = (0.35v2)v = 0.35v3

Power dissipated

P = 0.35 (120)3

sinh 0.03?
cosh 0.03?

e_0.03t - e-0.03?
- 604.8(10)3 7 0 * 7 7 0 0 *

(a) t = 10 s,

(b) l a 15s,

## p = 45.4(10)3 W = 45.4 kW <

PROBLEM 13.53
A 1400-kg automobile starts from rest and travels 400 m during a
performance test. The motion of the automobile is defined by the relation
a - 3.6e~'0005x, where a and x are expressed in m /s2 and meters,
respectively. The magnitude of the aerodynamic drag is D = 0.35v2,
where D and v are expressed in newtons and m/s, respectively. Determine
the power dissipated by the aerodynamic drag when (a) x = 200 m,
(b) x = 400 m.

SOLUTION
Motion is defined by the following function:

a = 3.6e~oomx - v

dx

## ?vdv = 3.6 f V 00005^ * = -3-6 r 0 0005xedu

0.0005

= -7 2 0 0 (e f0-0005* _ l)

v2 = 14400(l v = 12 o (l -

e-00005x)

e-omxf

## Power dissipated = P = Dv = 0.35v3

P
x = 200 m,
(b)

x = 400 m,

=604.8(l0)3[ l - e_00005jc]2
P = 1 7 .7 5 (l0 )3 W = 17.75 kW
P = 4 6 .7(10 ) V

<

- 46.7 kW A

PROBLEM 13.54
The elevator E has a weight of 6600 lb when fully loaded and is connected
as shown to a counterweight W of weight 2200 lb. Determine the power in
hp delivered by the motor (a) when the elevator is moving down at a
constant speed o f 1 ft/s, (b) when it has an upward velocity of 1 ft/s and a
deceleration of 0.18 ft/s2.

SOLUTION
(a)

Acceleration = 0
Counter weight

Elevator

tT w

Dt
i

Motor

|J V

^
'U vO

T
w e

VV ,
v v/

Mej J Tc T ^ - e
I p t/s

/ / S f s r?

+ | I F = 0: 2TC + Tw - 6600 = 0
Tw = 2200 lb
Kinematics:

Tc = 2200 lb
2x e =

xc ,

2xf = xc ,

vc

= 2 ve = 2

ft/s

## P = Tc -vc = (2200 lb)(2 ft/s) = 4400 lb-ft/s = 8.00 hp

P = 8.00 hp <
aE = 0.18 ft/s2 j , v- = 1 ft/s j

(6)
Counter weight

Elevator
n

W
\
a ^ u ^ O -lS
W -^ a o o ib

k /s a

Counterweight:

NWE=GfeO0 ^
w
+ | LF = Ma: Tw - W = (a,)
g

Tw = (2200 lb) +
V
'

## (2200 lb)(0.18 ft/s2)

/V- .----(32.2 ft/s2)

Tw = 2212 lb
Elevator
+ t I F = ma

W
2TC +Tw - W E = *-{aE)
\$

K

## (6600 lb)(0.18 ft/s2)

-j i-K
- -r----(32.2 ft/s2)

2Tc = 4351 1b
Tc = 2175.6 lb
vc = 2 ft/s (seepart(a))
p = Tc -vc = (2175.6 lb)(2 ft/s) = 4351.2 lb-ft/s
= 7.91 lh p
P = 7.91 hp 4

PROBLEM 13.55
A force P is slowly applied to a plate that is attached to two springs and
causes a deflection x0. In each of the two cases shown, derive an
expression for the constant ke, in terms of
and k2, o f the single
spring equivalent to the given system, that is, o f the single spring which
will undergo the same deflection x0 when subjected to the same force P.

SOLUTION
System is in equilibrium in deflected x0 position.
Case (a) Force in both springs is the same = P
L-i
JL

( A\A

x0 = X, + x2

W \A /S

=
K
X| =

Thus

X, =

L = L +L
ke
k{ k2

k,

kn
k., =

k\k2
k, + k-y

## Case (b) Deflection in both springs is the same = x0

P = Ar,x0 + *2*0
p = (k\+ k2)x0
P = kex0
Equating the two expressions for
p = (*i + *2)*o = V o
ke = k, + k-, 4

PROBLEM 13.56
fc.l

-v v w v v w
k*

V W W V vW W H

A 3-kg block can slide without friction in a slot and is attached as shown to
three springs of equal length, and of spring constants kx = 1 kN/m,
k2 = 2 kN/m, k2 = 4 kN/m. The springs are initially unstretched when
the block is pushed to the left 45 mm and released. Determine (a) the
maximum velocity of the block, (b) the velocity of the block when it is
18 mm from its initial position.

ip
3 kg

*1

vy-> '''vvvVvvVvVV'-]

SOLUTION
ke = kx + k2 + k3 (see Problem 13.5(b))

Equivalent

/VWvA

-A /W ^
/*
iVOiTl^L
coSrrtoN

-o .7 in

O N ST tercw eb
P o s it io n

t)5 ron\-

## (a) Maximum velocity occurs at 3 where the springs are unstretched

1
h = '"''max = l-5vmax 3

7] = 0

V, = 0

## 7000 N/m "\

Vx = U ex2 =

45 mm

1000mm/mJ

Vx = 7.088 J
7] + V, = T3 + y3;
_ (7.088 J)
1.5 kg
17

(b)

0 + 7.088 = l .S v ^ + 0

= 4.725 m2/ s 2

## = 2.17 m/s <

rrtv-y

1 , 2 7000 N/m ,
^2 = ikr
kex2 = ' ""-"-- '--(0.018 m)~
2
V2 = 1.134 J
T\ + V\ = T2 + V2
0 + 7.088 = 1.5v? + 1.134
,

v, =

(5.954 J)

- =
-

1.5 kg

3.9693 m2/ s 2

v, = 1.992 m/s -4

PROBLEM 13.57
t|
mm; T
wwwwvwww- 3it. j

A 3-lb block can slide without friction in a slot and is connected to two
springs of constants k{ = 80 lb/ft and k2 = 60 lb/ft. The springs are
initially unstretched when the block is pulled 2 in. to the right and released.
Determine (a) the maximum velocity of the block, (b) the velocity of the
block when it is 0.8 in. from its initial position.

SOLUTION
Use equivalent spring constant (see Problem 13.55). For springs in series,
* . = _ * I*2_
*, + k 2

* = (8
k,
v )/v( 6)' = 34.286 lb/ft
80 + 60

## (a) At spring deflection = 0

v\

a 7.
1 2 I
2
= 0. 7] = - v , = v, ;
2
g

v, = vmax

v33 -= v,
0, *3
T, = 0
1 , 2 34.286 2
F, = k.x~ = --------= 0.47619 lb-ft
3 2 1
2 U 2;
7; + F, = T, + F3;

0+

1.5 lb
32.2

v2

= 0 + 0.47619
ft/s2 max

## v L = 10.222, vmax = 3.1972

vmav = 3.20 ft/s <
t = -mv-,
1
2= ----1-5 2

(6)

y2 =
t2

= ^ ( 3 4 -2 8 6 ) ( i f )

+ f 2 = r 3 + F3:

L 5 -V 2

32.2

32.2 2

= 0076191 lb ft

+0.076191 = 0.47619

v\ = 8.5866, v2 = 2.9303
v, = 2.93 ft/s <

PROBLEM 13.58
A 3-lb collar is attached to a spring and slides without friction along a
circular rod in a horizontal plane. The spring has an undeformed length of
7 in. and a constant k = 1.5 lb/in. Knowing that the collar is in
equilibrium at A and is given a slight push to get it moving, determine the
velocity o f the collar (a) as it passes through B, (b) as it passes through C.

PROBLEM 13.59
- 200 mm

150 mm

A 2-kg collar can slide without friction along a horizontal rod and is in
equilibrium at A when it is pushed 25 mm to the right and released from
rest. The springs are undeformed when the collar is at A and the constant
of each spring is 500 kN/m. Determine the maximum velocity of the
collar.

PROBLEM 13.60
5 0 0 k N /m

11,11

*'

>s*'

A 2-kg collar can slide without friction along a horizontal rod and is
v "<; released from rest at A. The undeformed lengths of springs BA and CA
are 250 mm and 225 mm, respectively, and the constant o f each spring is
500 kN/m. Determine the velocity of the collar when it has moved 25 mm
to the right.

Tx = 0

Vi = ^ ( A /)2 = ^(5G0,000)(0.025)2
156.25 N m

o,\n\
= ^/(0.15)2 + (0.225)2 - 0.27042 m
5, = Stretch = 2.7042 - 0.25 = 0.020416 m

## I = ^(0.15)2 + (0.175)2 = 0.23049 m

S2 = Stretch = 0.23049 - 0.225 = 0.00549 m

T2 =

= | ( 2M = v:

V2 = (500,000)(s,2 + s f )

O .H 5 W

## 250,000 (0.020416)2 + (0.00549)2

111.738N-m
0
r 1 + n = ri + F2
156.25 = v22 + 111.738
6.67 m/s A

PROBLEM 13.61
A thin circular rod is supported in a vertical plane by a bracket at A.
Attached to the bracket and loosely wound around the rod is a spring of
constant k = 40 N/m and undeformed length equal to the arc o f circle
AB. A 200-g collar C, not attached to the spring, can slide without friction
along the rod. Knowing that the collar is released from rest when
6 - 30, determine (a) the maximum height above point B reached by
the collar, (b) the maximum velocity of the collar.

SOLUTION

l*
Point C
6
R = 0.3 m

## (p-c )^ = WR{ 1 - cos#) = (o.2 kg x 9.81 m/s2)(0.3 m )(l - cos30)

(Kc )g = 0.07886 J
(VE)e = 0

(spring is unattached)

## [yE)g = WH = (0.2 x 9.81)(//) = 1.962H ( j)

Tc + Vc = Te + Ve
0 + 0.4935 + 0.07886 = 0 + 0 + 1.962H
H = 0.292 m <

## PROBLEM 13.61 CONTINUED

(b) The maximum velocity is at B where the potential energy is
zero, vg = vmax
Tc = 0

## Vc = 0.4935 + 0.07886 = 0.5724 J

Tb = ^ mVB = ^ ( - 2 kg ) VLx
T R = ' l v max

V=0
TC +VC = TB + VB

0 + 0.5724 = (0 .1 )v L c

v max = 5 '7 2 m 2 /s 2

## vma = 2.39 m/s <

PROBLEM 13.62
A thin circular rod is supported in a vertical plane by a bracket at A.
Attached to the bracket and loosely wound around the rod is a spring of
constant k = 40 N/m and undeformed length equal to the arc of circle
AB. A 200-g collar C, not attached to the spring, can slide without friction
along the rod. Knowing that the collar is released from rest at an angle 0
with respect to the vertical, determine (a) the smallest value o f 6 for
which the collar will pass through D and reach point A, (b) the velocity
of the collar as it reaches point A.

SOLUTION
(a) Smallest angle 6 occurs when the velocity at D is close to
zero
vc ~ 0

vd = 0

Tr = 0

Tn = 0

V = Ve + Vg
V c= o

Point C
ALbc = (0.3 m )# = 0.3# m
(Kc )e = I * ( A LBCf

## W = (0.2 kg) x (9.81m/s2)

= 1.962 N

{Vc \ = 1.8#2

(Vc )g = f f 7 ? ( l- c o s # )
(Vc )g = (1.962 N)(0.3 m )(l - cos#)

## Vc = (Vc )c + ( Vc ) t = 1.8# 2 + 0.5886(1 - cos#)

Point D
(fc ) = 0

(spring is unattached)

## (K0 )x = W(2R) = ( 2)( 1.962 N)(0.3 m) = 1.1772 J

Tc + Vc = Tn + VD;

By trial

# = 43.1 A

## PROBLEM 13.62 CONTINUED

(b) Velocity at A
Point D
VD = 0

Tn = 0

## VD = 1.1772 J (see Part (a))

Point A
ta

= ^ m vA = | ( - 2 k g ) ^

Ta = 0 . 1 v 2

## VA = (VA) = fV(P) = (1.962 N )(0.3m ) = 0.5886 J

Ta + Va = Td + vd
O.lv^ +0.5886 = 0 + 1.1772
v \ = 5.886 m 2/s2
Va - 2.43 m/s 4

PROBLEM 13.63
A 6-lb collar can slide without friction on a vertical rod and is resting in
equilibrium on a spring. It is pushed down, compressing the spring 6 in.,
and released. Knowing that the spring constant is k = 15 lb/in.,
determine (a) the maximum height h reached by the collar above its
equilibrium position, (b) the maximum velocity of the collar.

.J
-lP

II

k - 15 lh/in.

SOLUTION
(a) Maximum height when

v2 = 0
7 ; = t2 =

V = VK + Ve
Position
r

'EQ O ii_t

ii-jJ P o s itio n
[ fc 1*1

ft),

- 0

!i

loul1

61b
+ 6 in. = 0.4 + 6 = 6.4 in.
15 lb/in.
(K \ = ^

= ^(I51b/in.)(6.4in.)2

## = 307.2 lb in. = 25.6 lb-ft

(^)-> ~

Position

+ ^ j = 6(0.5 + h )

(K )2 = 0
T\ + V \ - T 2 + V2 : K ) , + K ) , = W 2 +(K.)2

25.6 = 6(0.5 + h)
h = 3.767 ft

## (b) Maximum velocity occurs when acceleration is 0, equilibrium

position
71 =
3 2

= - ( )v,2 = 0.093167v,:
2^ 32.2 J

## ^ = f c ) , + ( K ) 3 = 6( 6) + \ k { x , - 6)2 = 36 + 7.5(6 4 - 6)2

= 37.2 lb in. = 3.1 lb-ft
7] + V, = 7;, + V3: 25.6 = 0.093167v32 +3.1
vma)( =15.54 ft/s 4

PROBLEM 13.64
A 6-lb collar can slide without friction on a vertical rod and is held so it
just touches an undeformed spring. Determine the maximum deflection of
the spring (a) if the collar is slowly released until it reaches an
equilibrium position, (b) if the collar is suddenly released.

k = 15 Ih/in.

SOLUTION
(a) Collar is in equilibrium.
+ | I F = (15 lb/in.)<5 - 6 lb

w -c

(15 lb/in.)
= 0.4 in. <
(b) Maximum compression occurs when velocity at is zero.

1L<
r2 =0

n --U
m

v2=

1 . 02

W = kS.
2(6 lb)
max " (15 lb/in.) ~

n'
^max = 0.8 in. M

PROBLEM 13.65
A= 20 lli/lt ^
..
n,

## Blocks /I and weigh 8 lb and 3 lb, respectively, and are connected by a

cord-and-pulley system and released from rest in the position shown with
the spring undeformed. Knowing that the constant of the spring is
20 lb/ft, determine (a) the velocity of block B after it has moved 6 in.,
(b) the maximum velocity of block B, (c) the maximum displacement of
block B. Ignore friction and the masses of the pulleys and spring.

SOLUTION
T\ = > v\e = v\g = 0

constraint: y B ( J )= 2xA ( )

31b
+ 32.2 ft/s' I 2 J
2 32.2 ft/s2 J B
8 lb

(a)

64.4

## y B = 0.5 ft, xA = 0.25 ft, V2e = ^ (2 0 lb/ft)(0.25 ft)2 = 0.625 ft-lb

V2 = -3 lb(0.5 ft) = -1.5 ft-lb
r ..
T. + V, = T, + V2: 0 =
+ 0.625 - 1.5
1 1 2
2
64.4

vB = 3.36 ft/s A
(b) Maximum velocity when acceleration = 0.

\ 3M>
310 -x

V O '5 F t J V

C'oJUo
0 -t f '

B
X s *

## v2g = -3(0.6 ft) = - 1.8

v * = ^ (2 0 )(0 .3 )2 = 0.9
5v
T. +V. = T2 + V2: 0 = - 5 - -0 .9 ,
1
1

64.4
(c)

T,= 0,

F2 = 0 = i ( 2 0 ) f ^ - j

- 3 yB

## y B = 1.2 ft = 14.4 in. A

PROBLEM 13.66
|

1.5 f t -1

An 8-lb collar A can slide without friction along a vertical rod and is
released from rest in the position shown with the springs undeformed.
Knowing that the constant of each spring is 20 lb/ft, determine the
velocity of the collar after it has moved (a) 4 in., (b) 7.6 in.

SOLUTION
(a) Calculate spring lengths after deflection.
Original spring length = 2.5 ft; Collar moved 4 in. = 0.333 ft

r, =

iL333f*

i .a i ft

a .77V f t

Vj = o,

r2 = -

^ 8 x
32.2

Is.*/3 Ft

## *2. = ^ ( 20)[(2-774 - 2-5)2 + (2-5 " 2-243)2

l.r p t
= 1.41113 ft-lb
7] + Vx = T2 + V2: 0 = 1
8 v2 -2 .6 6 7 + 1.4113
2 v 32.2
v = 3.18 ft/s M

v = 3.1794 ft/s
(b) Calculate spring lengths after deflection collar moved
7.6 in. = 0.633 ft
= -5.0667 ft-lb
1.5 Ft
2e

CU31 ft

1.3 6 7 f t

3.030S-a ft

2.0AU3 f t
1-ffPt

## = i(2 0 )[(3.03058 - 2.5)2 + (2.5 - 2.02923)2

= 5.0314 ft-lb

T\ + vi = T 2 + V2: 0 = 1

32.2

v = 0.53307 ft/s

v2 - 5.0667 + 5.0314
v = 0.533 ft/s <

PROBLEM 13.67
The system shown is in equilibrium when if) = 0. Knowing that initially
<f>= 90 and that block C is given a slight nudge when the system is in
that position, determine the velocity o f the block as it passes through the
equilibrium position <f>= 0. Neglect the mass of the rod.

10ICR

SOLUTION
Find unstretched length o f the spring
9 = tan"' f ^
0A )

G = 71.565

o ,l *
<t>=

## Lbd = yj( 0.3)2 + (0 .1 )2 = 0.3162i

- 0
*109

u |
.Cm

= length at equilibrium
Equilibrium:

C + 1M a = O.IFjSin# - 0.6(10 g) = 0
F, = 63.25 g

## Fs = kALBD: 63.25 g = (8000 N/m)(ALSD) => M BD = 0.07756 m

= LBD - ALBD = 0.3162 - 0.07756

Unstretched length

= 0.23864 m
Spring elongation, AL'BD when <f>= 90
M 'bd = (0.3 m + 0.1 m) - Zfl = 0.4 - 0.23864
= 0.16136 m

A t

V, = 0,

I = 90

T, = 0

datum

'i-W .+ W ,
( y ,l=

- ^ (0 .1 6 1 3 6 ) 2

= 104.15 N m
(K,)s = -10g(0.6) = -58.86 N m
V, = 104.15 -5 8 .8 6 = 45.29 N m

## PROBLEM 13.67 CONTINUED

A t

0 =0

(V2)e = ^ k ( A L BDf =

8000
v *

\
N/m (0.07756 m )2
/

= 24.06 N-m
Ty = - m v , =

j 10kg

vj = 5v22

## 7] + Fj = T2 + V2: 0 + 45.29 = 5v| + 24.06

vf = 4.246

v, - 2.06 m/s M

PROBLEM 13.68
A 1.2-kg collar can slide along the rod shown. It is attached to an elastic
cord anchored at F, which has an undeformed length of 300 mm and a
spring constant of 70 N/m. Knowing that the collar is released from rest
at A and neglecting friction, determine the speed of the collar (a) at B,
(b) at E.

SOLUTION
(a)

Laf =

a / ( 0 -5)2

+ (0.4)2 + (0.3)2

L af = 0.707 m
Lbf = J {0 A )2 + (0 3 )2
L bf = 0.5 m
L fe - a/(0-5)2 + (0.3)2
LFE = 0.5831 m
V = rVe ^+ 'Vg
(a) Speed at B

vA = 0,

{VA\ = \ k ( M AFf

TA = 0

at point A

## ALaf = Laf - L 0 = 0.707 - 0.3

AL af = 0.407 m

( ^ t ) e = ^ (7 0 N/m)(0.407 m )2
{VA)g = 5.7977 J
(VA)g = (if)(0 .4 m ) = (l.2kg)(9.81m /s2)(0.4m ) = 4.71 J
^ = ( ^ + ( ^
Point B,

Tb =

## = 5.80 + 4.71 = 10.511

= -^-(l.2kg)v| = 0.6v|

&Lbf

k BF - L0 = 0.5 m - 0.3 m

ALbf - 0.2 m
(^ s)e = ^-(70 N/m) (0.2 m )2 = 1.4J

## PROBLEM 13.68 CONTINUED

[yB) = (fT)(0.4) = (l.2kg)(9.81m /s2)(0.4m ) = 4.71 J
VB = (VB)e +(VB)g = 1.4 J + 4.71 J = 6.11J
+

v|

(0.6)

= 7.33 m 2/s2
vB = 2.71 m/s 4

(ib) Speed at E
Point A

Ta = 0,

## F^ = 10.51 J (from Part (a))

Point E
TTe = mv
21 i = ^ ( l - 2 k g )v l = 0.6v |

(VE)e = h ( A L FEf

ALfe = 0.2831 m

## ( vE)( = ^ (7 0 N/m)(0.2831 m )2 = 2.805 J

{VE)g = 0
Ta + Va = Te + Ve ;
v|

VE = 2.805 J
0 + 10.51 = 0.6v| + 2.805

= (7 J 9 6 ) = 12.9933 m 2/s2
( 0 .6 )
= 3.60 m/s 4

PROBLEM 13.69
A 500-g collar can slide without friction along the semicircular rod BCD.
The spring is of constant 320 N/m and its undeformed length is 200 mm.
Knowing that the collar is released form rest at B, determine (a) the speed
of the collar as it passes through C, (b) the force exerted by the rod on the
collar at C.

SOLUTION
(a) Speed at C
L ab = ^ /( 3 0 o 7 + ( l5 0 ) ^ f ( 7 5 7 = 343.69318 mm
k = 320 N/m
At B

vB = 0

Tg 0

## ALab = 343.69318 mm - 200 mm

AL ah = 143.69318 mm = 0.14369318 m
(VB\ = i * ( ALABf = 1(320 N/m)(0.1436932m)2
(VB)t' = 3.303637 J
= Wr = (0.5kg)(9.81m /s2)(0.15m ) = 0.73575 J
vb

## = {VB)e + {VB)f, = 3.303637 J + 0.73575 J = 4.03939 J

Tc = \-m v l = 1 (0 .5 kg)(v^)

A tC

Tc = 0.25V(.
(Vc )e = l/r ( A L ,c )2
AZ..lt- = 309.23 mm - 200 mm = 109.23 mm = 0.10923 m

## = 1(320 N/m)(0.10923 m )2 = 1.90909J

T g + V g = T C+ Vc
0 + 4.0394 = 0.25v + 1.90909
Vr =

4.0 3 9 4 - 1.90909
0.25

= 8.5212 m2/s2

vc = 2.92 m/s ^

## PROBLEM 13.69 CONTINUED

(b) Force of rod on collar AC
F. = 0 (no friction)
F = Fxi + Fyj
6 = ta n '1 = 14.04
300
Fe = (iAL/<c)(cos^i + sin#k)
Fe = (320)(0.10923)(cosl4.04i + sinl4.04k)
Fe = 33.9091 + 8.4797k (N)
2

## IF = (Fx + 33.909)i + (F , - 4.905)j + 8.4797k = ------j + mgk

Fr + 33.909 N = 0

(8.5212 m 2/s2)
F = 4.905 N + (0 .5 P ----------------y
K
0.15 m
Fx = -33.909 N
Fy = 33.309 N
F = -33.9 N i + 33.3 N j A

PROBLEM 13.70
A thin circular rod is supported in a vertical plane by a bracket at A.
Attached to the bracket and loosely wound around the rod is a spring of
constant k = 40 N/m and undeformed length equal to the arc of circle
AB. A 200-g collar C is unattached to the spring and can slide without
friction along the rod. Knowing that the collar is released from rest when
0 = 30, determine (a) the velocity of the collar as it passes through
point B, (b) the force exerted by the rod on the collar as is passes
through B.

SOLUTION
Tc = 0

vr = 0,

(fl)

th

= -m V B

t b = |( -2 k g )v |

Tb = O.lv2

0 = 30

Kc = (Kc ) ,+ ( K c )g

arc BC = ALBC = R0
M

e a -c o s

bc

= (0.3 m)(30) (* )
180

ALbc = 0.15708 m
(Vc )e = - k ( A L BCf = i(40N /m )(0.15708 m )2 = 0.49348 J
(Kr ) = WR{ 1 - cos#) = (0.2 kg)(9.81 m/s2)(0.3 m )(l - cos30)
(Kf ) = 0.078857 J
Vc = (Vc )e + (Vc ) = 0.49348 J + 0.078857 J = 0.57234 J

^ = ( ^ ) e+ ( ^ ) x
Tc + Vc = Tb + Vb-

=0

+0 =

0 + 0.57234 = 0.1v|
vs = 2.39 m/s A

v | = 5.7234 m2/s2
(b )

+ f l F = Fr - W

= ^ -

(5.7234 m2/s2)
Fr = 1.962 N + (0.2 kg)

(0.3 m)

## Fr = 1.962 N + 3.8156 N = 5.7776 N

Fr = 5.78 N <

PROBLEM 13.71
A 10-oz pellet is released from rest at A and slides without friction along
the surface shown. Determine the force exerted on the pellet by the
surface (a) just before the pellet reaches B, (b) immediately after it has
passed through B.

## PROBLEM 13.71 CONTINUED

0 62*5 lb

/-3<30

&
N
2Fn =

N - 0.625cos30 =

32.2 ^ 2.75

N - 0.54127 = 0.90909

PROBLEM 13.72
A 10-oz pellet is released from rest at A and slides without friction along
the surface shown. Determine the force exerted on the pellet by the
surface (a) just before the pellet reaches C, (b) immediately after it has
passed through C.

SOLUTION

- v
1

Datum
va -

> t a = 0

r

2 c 2(32.2)
Vc = 0

## Ta +V a = Tc + Vc : 1.48027 = 0.009705 v2c => v2c = 152.527

(a) Just before C
y,x y r

N
ZFN = maN : N - 0.625

0.625 r 152.527^
32.2 v 2.75 y
N = 1.702 lb 4

0.61S
-mo/
N

t IF , = 0
N = 0.625 lb <

PROBLEM 13.73

dr

If
1

~~
ill 5*
75 M

## A 1.2-kg collar is attached to a spring and slides without friction along a

circular rod in a vertical plane. The spring has an undeformed length of
105 mm and a constant k = 300 N/m Knowing that the collar is at rest at
C and is given a slight push to get it moving, determine the velocity of the
collar and the force exerted by the rod on the collar as it passes through (a)
point/f, (b) point B.

\\
JL

Vv ISIInun
H

SOLUTION

o.i& o m

Tc = 0, {Vc\ = 0, (Vc\ = 0,

Ta = i(l.2)vj|

(a)

## (VA)e = -(3 0 0 N/m)(0.09 m )2 = 1.215 N m

From conservation of energy:
0 = -^(1.2)

v 2a -

2.11896 + 1.215,
vA = 1.227 m/s ^

At point A
Fs = kALCA = (300 N/m)(0.195 m - 0.105 m) = 27 N

mv
(1.2 kg)(l.22744 m/s)
=1
= 10.044 N
>
r
(0.18m)
=

0.195v
N = 14.88 N A

## PROBLEM 13.73 CONTINUED

(VB)g = (-1.2 kg)(9.81 m/s2)(0.36 m) = 4.23792 N-m

(b)

( VB)e =

## From conservation of energy:

0 + ^ (l.2 ) v ] - 4.23792 + 3.375,
vH = 1.199 m/s A
Fs = k(A LCB) = (300)(0.15) = 45 N

Is/

(v i)
1.2 - 0.18

9.588 N

V M m i)
+ | I F = -N g + 45 - 1.2(9.81) = 9.588
N B = 23.6 N } A

PROBLEM 13.74
A 1.2-kg collar is attached to a spring and slides without friction along a
circular rod in a vertical plane. The spring has an undeformed length of
105 mm and a constant k. The collar is at rest at C and is given a slight
push to get it moving. Knowing that the maximum velocity of the collar is
achieved as it passes through point A, determine (a) the spring constant k,
(b) the maximum velocity of the collar.

SOLUTION
(a) For maximum velocity,

a, = s = 0

h 'O .Q ^ A

0 .0 1 s m
=

<

O, I O t t \

rvi X *

5/ne=

o,o7s/0i, ^

W = (1.2)(9.81) = 11.772 N

t I F ' = 0 = 0 . 0 9 * _ 1.2(9.81) = 0
1 y
(0.195)
v
'
(k = 340.08 N/m)
k = 340 N/m <
(b)

Tc = ( H

=( H

= 0.

r , = i ( 1.2 )v=

## (VA) = -1.2(9.81)(0.18) = -2.11896

(y A)e = ^(340.08)(0.09) = 1.37732
Conservation of energy:

## 0 = l( l.2 ) v ^ -2.11896 + 1.37732

v, = 1.112 m/s 4

PROBLEM 13.75
An 8-oz package is projected upward with a velocity v0 by a spring at A;
it moves around a frictionless loop and is deposited at C. For each of the
two loops shown, determine (a) the smallest velocity v0 for which the
package will reach C, (b) the corresponding force exerted by the package
on the loop just before the package leaves the loop at C.

SOLUTION
(a) The smallest velocity at B will occur when the force exerted by the
tube on the package is zero.

N -o
&

A
Im q
o
I IF = 0 + mg =

mv d

## v2 = rg = 1.5 f t(32.2 ft/s2)

v~B = 48.30
At A

ta

= 2 m vo

8 oz = 0.5 lb => =

0.5

= 0.01553

32.2

A tB

= ~ wi(48.30) = 24.15 m

Tb ~

## Vg = mg (7.5 + 1.5) = 9 mg = 9 (0 .5 ) = 4.5 lb-ft

Ta + VA = Tg + Vg\

## i(0 .0 1 5 5 3 ) v 02 = 24.15(0.01553) + 4.5

v0 = 627.82

v0 = 25.056

vn = 25.1 f t / s

A tC
Tc = - m v l = 0.007765v

vc

= 7.5mg = 7 .5 (0 .5 ) = 3.75

## Ta +V a =T c + Vc \ 0.007765vq = 0.007765v^ + 3.75

0 .0 07765(25.056)2 - 3.75 = 0.007765v^v2 = 144.87

(b)

0 .S
-* LF = m a -

= 0.01553

(144.87)
1.5

N = 1.49989
Loop 2

LTb-O

r- \ S \$ t

## (a) At B, tube supports the package so,

VB * 0
vs = 0 , r f l = 0

VB = m*(7.5 + 1.5)
= 4.5 lb-ft

C'fcTUM
ta

+ va =

tb

+ Vb

vA = 24.1 ft/s A
(b) At C

v'c = 96.573

0 .5
Nc = 0.01553

96.573
^ 1.5

= 0.99985

## {Package on tube} Nc = 1.000 1b A

PROBLEM 13.76
If the package of Prob. 13.75 is not to hit the horizontal surface at C with
a speed greater than 10 ft/s, (a) show that this requirement can be
satisfied only by the second loop, (b) determine the largest allowable
initial velocity v0 when the second loop is used.

SOLUTION
(a)

Loop 1
From 13.75, at B

j j
[jJ

T O . r Vft"
Y03 - O S

7-5

I t

## v2g = gr = 48.3 ft/s~

tr

vB = 6.9498 fVs

= i(0.01553)(48.3) = 0.37505

rc =

= ^(0.01553)
Fc = 7.5(0.5)

TB + V =

= 0.007765v
= 3.75 lb-ft

## Tc + Vc : 0.37505 + 4.5 = 0.007765v + 3.75

v

= 144.887 =>

vc = 12.039 ft/s

12.04 ft/s > 10 ft/s => Loop (1) does not work 4

t lf %

(b) Loop 2 At A

1
Ta = pivq = 0.007765Vq

HMM|

vA - 0
I'PvTU W

At C assume

vr = 10 ft/s
Tc = i m vl = 0.007765 (10)' = 0.7765

(2)

vc = 7.5(0.5) = 3.75
Ta + VA = Tc + Vc : 0.007765vq = 0.7765 + 3.75
v0 = 24.144

vn = 24.1 ft/s 4

PROBLEM 13.77
Prove that a force F (x ,y ,z )is conservative if, and only if, the following
relations are satisfied:
dF\_ _ Fy_
dy
dx

^
dz

= dF^
dy

dFz _ dFx
dx
dz

SOLUTION
For a conservative force, Equation (13.22) must be satisfied
dV_
dx
We now write

Since

dFx _ _ d 2 y

dy

dxdy

8V_

dV_

dy

dz

dFy _

dx

d V

dydx
d2V = d2V
dxdy
dydx

3'f
dy

dFy
dx

dz

dx

dz

## We obtain in a similar way

dy

PROBLEM 13.78
The force F = (_yzi + zxj + x y k )/x y z acts on the particle P ( x ,y ,z ) which
moves in space, (a) Using the relation derived in Prob. 13.77, show that this
force is a conservative force. (b) Determine the potential function
associated with F.

SOLUTION
Fx =

(a)

yz
xyz

_ dti) = 0
dy
fy

zx
Fy = xyz
Jd y _
dx

d
t

= d_Fy_

Thus

dy

dx

The other two equations derived in Problem 13.80 are checked in a similar way.
(b) Recall that

Fx = ,
dx'

F =
Fy
y

,
dy

F =
Fz
~

dz

Fx = - = ~
X
ox

V = - ln x + f ( y , z )

(1)

F ==~
y
fy

V = -In y + g ( z ,x )

(2)

Fz = =
z
dz

V = - In z + h ( x ,y )

(3)

## Equating (1) and (2)

- ln x + f ( y , z ) = -In y + g ( z ,x )
Thus

f { y ^ z ) = _ ln T + k {z )

(4)

g (z ,x ) = - ln x + k ( z )

(5)

## Equating (2) and (3)

- ln z + h (x ,y ) = -In y + g ( z ,x j
g ( z ,x ) = - l n z + /(x )
From (5)
g (z,x ) = - ln x + k(z)
Thus
k (z ) = - ln z
/(x ) = - ln x

## PROBLEM 13.78 CONTINUED

From (4)
f ( y , z ) = - l n y - lnz
Substitute for f [ y , z ) i n( l )
V = - h i - Iny - lnz
V = -ln x y z 4

PROBLEM 13.79
The force F = (xi + yj + zk)/ ^x2 + y 2 + z2j
acts on the particle
P ( x ,y ,z ) which moves in space. (a) Using the relation derived in Prob.
13.77, prove that F is a conservative force. (b) Determine the potential
function V ( x ,y ,z "j associated with F.

SOLUTION
Fx = -----------

(a)

Fy = -----------? -

(x2 + y 2 + z2)2

9 fx _
^

x ( ~ 2 ) i 2y )

(x2 + y 2 + z 2j 2

dFy ..

(x 2 + y 2 + z 2f

y ( ~ \ ) 2y
(x 2 + y 2 + z 2)

dFx _ 8Fy
dy
dx

Thus

The other two equations derived in Problem 13.79 are checked in a similar fashion
dZ , Fy
F -= J
L , Fz
F =
= J- O L
Fx =
dx y
dy
dz

## (b) Recalling that

Fx = ~
&

V = -{
^

*
T dx
+ y 2 + z 2y

V = (x2 + y 2 + z2) 2 + f ( y , z )
Similarly integrating

dy

and

dz

## shows that the unknown function f { x ,y ) is a constant.

V =
(x2 + y 2 + z 2) 2

PROBLEM 13.80
A force F acts on a particle P(x, y) which moves in the x y plane.
Determine whether F is a conservative force and compute the
work of F when P describes the path ABCA knowing that
(a) F = (far + y )i + (kx + y )j, (b) F = (fcc + y )i + (x + ky)j.

SOLUTION
(a)

CU

6
UAB = ^k x d x = k
Fx = F ,

U CA =

## F is normal to BC, UBC = 0

2
^mcv< = (* - 0 > not conservative -4
- a - .

## (b) From Problem 13.77,

^ k = 1= ^ l
dy
dx
Conservative, UABCA = 0 A

PROBLEM 13.81
F .t,,.k tx* /
\X '

## Certain springs are characterized by increasing stiffness with increasing

deformation according to the relation F = k{x + k2x3, where F is the
force exerted by the spring, /c, and k2 are positive constants, and x is the
y ^ 7 .k ,x -k ,^ deflection o f thespring measured from its undeformed position.
Determine (a) the potential energy Ve as a function o f x, (b) the
maximum velocity of a particle of mass m attached to the spring and
released from rest with x . Neglect friction.

SOLUTION
(a)

Ve = k\X2 + k2xA -4
e 2 1
4 2
(b) Conservation of energy:

7] = 0, T2 = i m v 2

PROBLEM 13.82
m

## Certain springs are characterized by decreasing stiffness with increasing

deformation according to the relation F = kxx - k2x3, where F is the
F .k \ - k x* frce exerted by the spring, k x and k 2 are positive constants, and x is the
deflection of the spring measured from its undeformed position.
Determine (a) the potential energy Ve as a function of x, {b) the
maximum velocity o f a particle of mass m attached to the spring and
released from rest with x - x0. Neglect friction.

SOLUTION

(a)

## Ul_>2 I? Fdx = - ^ 2( V + k2x~ )dx

= ~ \ ( X2 ~ X\ ) +1^ { X2 - ^ l4)
Ul^ 2 = Ve l - V e2:
Ve = kxx 2 - k2x 4 4

T\ = 0, T2

-mv

## V\e - - kxx l - ~ k 2x l, V2e - 0

- m v 2 = h x I - k7x t
2
2
4
v=

,2*.
Requires x0 < 1 *

x 20 +

\2mj

PROBLEM 13.83
Knowing that the velocity of an experimental space probe fired from the
earth has a magnitude
= 32.5 Mm/h at point A, determine the velocity
of the probe as it passes through point B.

SOLUTION
rA = hA + R = A3 Mm + 6.37 Mm
rA = 10.67 Mm
rB = hB + R = 72.7 Mm + 6.37 Mm

rB = 19.07 A/m

At A,

## Ta = m(9028 m/s)2 = 40.752 x 106 m

GMm

-g R 'm

Va =
rA = 10.67 Mm = 10.67 x 106 m
R = 6370 km = 6.37 x 10h m
(9.81 m /s') 6.37 x 106 m)
= -4

## ----- 3 ------------------ - m = -3 7 .3 0 6 x 10hm

(10.67 x 10h m
At B

rj*
1
7* =
2

2
vb

GMm
-g R 'm
= --------- = ---------rB
rB

## rB = 19.07 Mm = 19.07 x 106 m

(9.81 m/s )(6.37 x 10h m) m
= -20.874 x 10 m

-------------
vB=- A--------(19.07
xl0h m

I

## v \ = 2[40.752 x 106 - 37.306 x 106 + 20.874 x 106]

v j = 48.64 x 106 n r /s 2
vB = 6.9742 x 10 m/s = 25.107 Mm/h

## vB = 25.1 Mm/h <

PROBLEM 13.84
A lunar excursion module (LEM) was used in the Apollo moon-landing
missions to save fuel by making it unnecessary to launch the entire
Apollo spacecraft from the moons surface on its return trip to earth.
Check the effectiveness of this approach by computing the energy per
kilogram required for a spacecraft to escape the moons gravitational
field if the spacecraft starts from (a) the moons surface, (b) a circular
orbit 80 km above the moons surface. Neglect the effect of the earths
gravitational field. (The radius of the moon is 1740 km and its mass is
0.0123 times the mass of the earth.)

SOLUTION
GMmoon = 0.0123GA/earth

Note:

G M ^ = 0.0123gR2E

By Equation 12.30

## At co distance from moon: r2 = oo, assume v2 = 0

e2

= r2 + v2 = o - GMm m'cm = 0 - 0 = 0
00

v, = 0, 7j = 0
K| =

## RM = 1740 km = 1.74 x 106 m

~GMmm^

Ei = Tl + Vx = 0 -

RM

, = -

0 0123 gRzm'
R

## (0.0123)1(9.81 m/s2) ( 6 . 3 7 x l 0 6 m) 1 "'lem

1(l .740 x 106 m)1
mkm = mass of the lem

Where

## , = (2.814 x 106 m2/s2j m,'lem

AE = E2 - | = 0 + ^2.814 x 106 m 2/s2j mllem
A
= 2810 kj/kg A
m.lem

## Energy per kilogram:

Cb)

rx = Rm + 80 km
r, = (1740 km + 80 km) = 1820 km = 1.82 x 106 m
Newtons second law:
F = km<W

V, =

GM

g jO g to n _ kmvr
2

T
--m
v2 - 1 m^ G M n
J l ~ "'lem I 2
2
r,

## PROBLEM 13.84 CONTINUED

y

GMm1fllem

g = J1 + V =

rx

E =
1

1G M a
2r,

1
=

iem

lem

rx

rx

1 (0.0123)g/?|/wlem
2
rx

## ! (0.0123)j9.81 m/s2'{(6.37 x 103 m)mlem

1"

1.82 x 106 m

Ey = (-1.345 x l 0 6 rn2/s2W m

## A = E2 - j = 0 + (l.345 x 106 m2/s2)mleffi

Energy per kilogram:

AE
lem

= 1345 kJ/kg A

PROBLEM 13.85
A=arro km

## A spacecraft is describing a circular orbit at an altitude of 1500 km above

the surface of the earth. As it passes through point A, its speed is reduced
by 40 percent and it enters an elliptic crash trajectory with the apogee at
point A. Neglecting air resistance, determine the speed of the spacecraft
when it reaches the earths surface at point B.

1500 km

SOLUTION
Circular orbit velocity
vGM
-j =

GM

...
,
GM = gR

gR2

## (9.81 m/s: )(6.370 x 10ft m)

(6.370 x l 0 6 m + 1.500 x l 0 6 m)

Vr =

v l = 50.579 x 106 n r /s 2
vc = 7112 m/s
Velocity reduced to 60% of vc = 4267 m/s
Conservation of energy:
ta

+ va =

tb

+ vb

1 /7
GM
1 / 2
GM /ft
~ /fiv A -------------= ~ / t v B -----------2
rA
2
rB
,2 9.8l(6.370 x 106)2 v2
9.8l(6.370 x 106)
4.267 x 103 ------ -------------- - r L = ^ ---------J v
'
(7.870 xl O6 )
2
6.370 xl O6 )
vB = 6.48 km/s A

PROBLEM 13.86
A satellite describes an elliptic orbit o f minimum altitude 606 km above
the surface of the earth. The semimajor and semiminor axes are
17 440 km and 13 950 km, respectively. Knowing that the speed o f the
satellite at point C is 4.78 km/s, determine (a) the speed at point A, the
perigee, (b) the speed at point B, the apogee.

SOLUTION
c

Distance

## OA =6370 km + 606 km = 6976 km

Distance

OOe

= 17,440 km -

13350

r l = (13,950)2 + (10,464)2

\
0

6976 km = 10,464 km

rc

=17,438,400 m

r + F = 1 m(4 7 8 0 f -

At C:

Constant = (T

, , .
. ,
(a) At point/I,

## +V) = -11.402 x 106 m2/s2

T +V

rc

1 2
vA
2

gR2
6.976 x 10 m

,
i , (9.81m/s2)(6 .3 7 0 x l0 6 m)2
(-11.402 x 106) = v \ - 4------- -----i i ------ - r----'
2
(6.976 x 106 m)
vA = 9.56 km/s 4
(b) At points,

## rB = 2 ( l 7.440 x 103 km) - j 6.976 x 103 km)

= 27.904 x 103 km
T +V
m

Is
2 U

/
1 ,
( 11.402 xl O6) == v j
1
1 2

gR2
27.904 x 106 m
(9 .8 l)(6.370 x 106)2
, '
\
(27.904 xl O6)
vB = 2.39 km/s 4

PROBLEM 13.87
While describing a circular orbit 200 mi above the earth a space vehicle
launches a 6000-lb communications satellite. Determine (a) the
additional energy required to place the satellite in a geosynchronous orbit
at an altitude of 22,000 mi above the surface o f the earth, (b) the energy
required to place the satellite in the same orbit by launching it from the
surface of the earth, excluding the energy needed to overcome air
resistance. (A geosynchronous orbit is a circular orbit in which the
satellite appears stationary with respect to the ground).

## PROBLEM 13.87 CONTINUED

(b) Launch from earth

EF = - ^ m- = - ^ m = -W RE
Re
Re

## Ee = -6000(3960 x 5280) = -1.25453 x 1011

& e = E g* ~ E e =

## -9.5681 x 109 + 125.453 x 109

AE = 115.9 x 109 lb-ft <

PROBLEM 13.88
A satellite is placed into an elliptic orbit about the earth. Knowing that
the ratio vA / vp of the velocity at the apogee A to the velocity at the
perigee P is equal to the ratio rP / rA of the distance to the center o f the
earth at P to that at A, and that the distance between A and P is 50,000 mi,
determine the energy per unit weight required to place the satellite in its
orbit by launching it from the surface of the earth. Exclude the additional
energy needed to overcome the weight of the booster rocket, air
resistance, and maneuvering.

SOLUTION
Total energy per unit weight
rr
Ty
rr,
T, T^ 2
E0 = Ta + VA = T + V - E0 = - m v A
2

GMltl
1 2 GMm
= - m v ---------r.
2
r
p

Unit weight W - mg
W 2 W GM
W 2 W GM
En = vA ------------ = v . ------------2g
g rA
2g p
g r
E,0
W

VA

2g

2g

GM _ v-p
grA

1 - ^..2

1 - ^..2

GM

2g

gr

GM

( 1)

1
rpJ

= 2GM
v r*rp j

= (given)
rA
r
\
\
r
p
~
rA
= 2GM
1- ^
I r*rp )
V TP y
f
\
2
2>
fp ~ rA
rp ~ rA
= 2GM
9
\ r* p )
V rP y
r
1
T
P
_
VA = 2 GMrA \ r.P +

## PROBLEM 13.88 CONTINUED

Substitute vA from (2) into (1)

grA

GM

GM

rAS rp + rA

rAg

+rJ

/
GM rp
g rA u

GM

E0 _ i
2G M - W
2g
\ rn
P + rA
A

- i rP + ta )

-G M
g { rA +rB)
GM - gR.\ => = -----5 L _
W
rA + rp
\2

& W

## (50,000 mi x 5280 ft/mi)

E F = TF + Ve , Ve = 0, T

On earth:

. -,.65598 , ,0 ft-,M b

= 0, VE =

WGM
g&E

Em. = -EEL=
w
For propulsion:

gRE

-MEm. = _R
gRE

Ep _ E0 E e
W W W
= -1.65598

106 - (-20.9088

106)

## - E = 19.25 x 106 ft lb/lb A

W

PROBLEM 13.89
A satellite of mass m describes a circular orbit of radius r about the earth .
Express as a function of r (a) the potential energy of the satellite, (b) its
kinetic energy, (c) its total energy. Denote the radius of the earth by R
and the acceleration of gravity at the surface o f the earth by g,
and assume that the potential energy of the satellite is zero on its

PROBLEM 13.90
Observations show that a celestial body traveling at 1900 Mm/h appears
to be describing about point B a circle o f radius equal to 60 light years.
Point B is suspected of being a very dense concentration of mass called a
black hole. Determine the ratio M B / M s o f the mass at B to the mass of
the sun. (The mass of the sun is 330 000 times the mass of the earth, and
a light year is the distance traveled by light in one year at a speed of
300 Mm/s.)

SOLUTION
v - 1.9 Gm/h = 0.528 x 106 m/s
1 light year is the distance traveled by light in one year.
r

O H 4 ,r

r - (60 yr)

0.3 GM

1.00 xlO 9
Gm

## x (365 days/yr)(24 h/day)(3600 s/h)

r = 0.56765 x 1018 m
* J m

n o

'

GMBm

mv

F = ----- f =
r
r

mb

r S

r_S_
G

## GMemh = g^artii = (9.81 m/s2 )(6370 km)2 j

1000 m
^

M
- 398.059 x l 0 12(m 3/s2)
M sun = 330,000M e : GMsun = 330 000 GMearth
GMsun = (330 000)^398.059 x 1012)
= 0.131360 xlO 21 m3/s2
G =

0.13136 xlO 21
^sun

rv M
A/f = rv =
-^sun
B
G
0.13136 xlO 21
M
(0.56765 x 1018)(0.528x 106)2
M b _ = \-------------------A----- ------- = 1.205 x 10 A
\A
r\
w 1 0 /1
Msun
0.131360x10

PROBLEM 13.91
(a) Show that, by setting r = R + y in the right-hand member of
Eq. (13.17') and expanding that member in a power series in y /R , the
expression in Eq. (13.16) for the potential energy Vg due to gravity is a
first-order approximation for the expression given in Eq. (13.17').
(b) Using the same expansion, derive a second-order approximation
forVg.

SOLUTION

V. = -WR 1 + -

We add the constant WR, which is equivalent to changing the datum from r =

Vg =WR

go

to r = R:

{R j + "

[Equation 13.16]

(b)

## Second order approximation:

Vg = WR
R

VR)

PROBLEM 13.92
How much energy per pound should be imparted to a satellite in order to
place it in a circular orbit at an altitude of (a) 400 mi, (b) 4000 mi?

PROBLEM 13.93
Two identical 2-kg collars, A and B, are attached to a spring o f constant
100 N/m and can slide on a horizontal rod which is free to rotate about a
vertical shaft. Collar B is initially prevented from sliding by a stop as the
rod rotates at a constant rate 0O = 5 rad/s and the spring is in
compression with rA = 1 m and rB = 2.5 m. After the stop is removed
both collars move out along the rod. At the instant when rB = 3 m ,
determine (a) rA, (b) 0, (c) the total kinetic energy. Neglect friction and
the mass of the rod.

h r* *1
'\n
U k = l(K)N/m _*

SOLUTION
Initial state

*:---- = <
-----n
mr
IOO*0 = 2(1)(5)2
x0 = 0.5 m

(Unstretched length = 2 m)

5tJII

Us.
II

## hR = rB0 = (3)20 = (2.5)2(5), 0 = 3.4722

(B)

(a)

rA = 1.20 m ^

(b)

Conservation of energy

T0 + K0 = T + V, V0 = -j(l00)(0.5) = 12.5 N m
To = ^ (2 )[5 (1 )]2 + i( 2 ) [ 5 ( 2 .5 ) ] 2 = 181.25 N-m
V = ^ (100)[(3 - 1.2) - 2 ]2 = 2 N m
T = 181.25 + 1 2 .5 - 2 = 191.8 J

(c)

T = 191.8 J A

PROBLEM 13.94
Two identical 2-kg collars, A and B, are attached to a spring of constant
100 N/m and can slide on a horizontal rod which is free to rotate about a
vertical shaft. Collar B is initially prevented from sliding by a stop as the
rod rotates at a constant rate 0Q = 5 rad/s and the spring is in
compression with rA = 1 m and rB = 2.5 m. After the stop is removed
both collars move out along the rod. At the instant when the spring is in
compression and the total kinetic energy is 185 J, determine (a) rA,
(b) rB, (c) 0. Neglect friction and the mass of the rod.

SOLUTION
Y

Initial state

( mr^ 2

100x0 = 2(1)(5)2
x0 = 0.5 m
(Unstretched length = 2 m )
Conservation of energy
T>
- j ( 2)[5 ( l) ] ! + ^ ( 2)[5(2.5)]2
= 181.25 N m
V0 = ^(100)(0.5)2 = 12.5 N-m
T + V = 185 + ^(lOO)xj2 = 181.25 + 12.5
50xj2 = 8.75, x, = 0.41833 m
For compression:
(rB - r A) - 2 = -0.41833
Conservation of angular momentum
(A)

CB)

## hB = rB0 = (2.5)2(5) = 31.25

r | = (2 .5 )2r j, rB = 2 .5 rA
rB ~ r A ~ 2 = 2.5rA - r A - 2 = 1.5rA - 2

(a)
(b)

(c)

## .'. 1.5^ - 2 = -0.41833,

rB = 2.5rA

=2.64 m

rA - 1.054 m -4
rB = 2.64 m ^

PROBLEM 13.95
A 5-lb collar^ is attached to a spring of constant 50 lb/ft and undeformed
length 0.5 ft. The spring is attached to point O of the frame DCOB. The
system is set in motion with r = 0.75 ft, ve =1.5 ft/s, andvr = 0 .
Neglecting the mass of the rod and the effect of friction, determine the
radial and transverse components of the velocity of the collar when
r = 0.4ft.

SOLUTION
H 0.75 f-t

O' - o

## Conservation of angular momentum about O

mv0 (O.75) = mv^(0.40)

## _ 0 /7 5 ^ = j g75/j 5\ _ 2.8125 ft/s

0.40
V ;
V0 = 2.81 ft/s 4

Conservation of energy
T + V = r +V
r = I ( v ; + v J ) = A ( o + i.5=) =

5.265
g

## V = 2-lc(r - rB) = (50)(0.75 - 0.5) = 1.5625

v'e = 2.8125 ft/s
r = ^ m ( v + v;2) =

V = i , k (r ' -

rB f

T + V = T' + V

g
g

## 5.625 + 1.5625# = 2.5v;2 + 19.775 + 0.25#

2.5v;2 = -1 4 .1 5 + 1.3125(32.2)
v!2 = 11.245
vl = 3.35 ft/s 4

PROBLEM 13.96
A 4-lb collar A and a 1.5-lb collar B can slide without friction on a frame,
consisting of the horizontal rod OE and the vertical rod CD, which is free
to rotate about CD. The two collars are connected by a cord running over
a pulley that is attached to the frame at O. At the instant shown, the
velocity v A of collar A has a magnitude of 6 fit/s and a stop prevents
collar B from moving. If the stop is suddenly removed, determine (a) the
velocity of collar A when it is 8 in. from O, (b) the velocity of collar A
when collar B comes to rest. (Assume that collar B does not hit O, that
collar A does not come off rod OE, and that the mass of the frame is
negligible.)

Y
'

SOLUTION
O)

H
Conservation of angular momentum about O
00

( ----4^ m v, = m
V12 J A
ll2 j

Mr

4(6) = 8(v^)r
( v 'a ) t

= 3 ft/s

Conservation of energy

va=0.75 ft/s

71 = -

## Vj = 0 (choose datum for B to be its initial position)

M 2- M l +M l =M l +(3)2- K )2 +9

## = ^aM2+\mBM2 VB=Mr (kinematics)

If 1.5 / , \2 2.75 / t\2 18
T2 =

T2

M l +9

## v2 = mBg' ' = 1.51 | = 0.5lb ft

72
T\+v\= T
2+V2: + 0 =HIl(v'A)l + + 0.5
g

+J

## PROBLEM 13.96 CONTINUED

2 . 7 5 = 54 - 0.5g = 54 - 0.5(32.2) = 37.9
{VAf R = 13.782 =>(*a )r = 3.712 ft/s
^ = y / M i + M r = >/13-782 + (3)2 = 4-773ft/s
0 = tan-1-^7! 2 = 51.06
F* = 4.77 ft/s, 0 = 51.1 <
(*)

## Conservation of angular momentum - Assume x is in feet

) * ..( ) =

( 4
I+ x
12

x = 'a _ r
P
"

= j(6 ) =

+ X

Conservation of energy
A t

vA 6 ft/s, vB = 0
t
^
2
1 ( 4 )/>\2
72

T\ = -im An = -i f -l (6) = , Vj = 0
2 1g

At CD
vy

F2 - ms gx = 1.5x

## PROBLEM 13.96 CONTINUED

Ty +VX = T2 + V2>

= - K ) 2 + 1.5x
S

72 = 2 ( v'4)2 + 1.5gx
From conservation of angular momentum
72 = 2 ( v ') 2 + 1.5g - 1 _ I
v,
3
72 = 2 ( v )2 + - ^ ( 3 - v' )
3v'
216v;, = 6(v',)3 + 1 .5 g (3 -v ^ )
6(v'/))2 + 144.9 - 264.3v^ = 0
6(v'/()3 - 264.3v^ + 144.9 = 0
v'A = 0.552 ft/s M

PROBLEM 13.97
A 0.7-kg ball that can slide on a horizontal ffictionless surface is attached
to a fixed point O by means of an elastic cord of constant k = 150 N/m
and undeformed length 600 mm. The ball is placed at point A, 800 mm
from O, and given an initial velocity v0 perpendicular to OA. Determine
(a) the smallest allowable value of the initial speed v0 if the cord is not to
become slack, (b) the closest distance d that the ball will come to point O
if it is given half the initial speed found in part a.

SOLUTION
A

length, L0, at
\

## Conservation of angular momentum

\
^ s.

\>

0.8v, = 0.6v2
i

0.8

7 = v,

0.6

= 1.333v0
0

Conservation o f energy

O'
v, = v0

Point

7j = -1 mvl = 0.35Vq

Vj ^ \ k { L - L 0f = i ( l 5 0 N /m )(0 .8 m - 0.6 m )2
V, = 3J
T2 = ^ m v l = 0.3 5v2

Point
AL = 0

V = 0

v2 - 1.3158vfl

## From conservation of angular momentum

0.35 vq (1.3158)2 - 1

vn =

(3J)
(0.35 kg)(0.7313)

= 3

= 11.72 m2/s2

vn = 3.42 m/s 4

## PROBLEM 13.97 CONTINUED

The ball travels in a straight line after the cord goes slack.
Conservation of angular momentum
(0.8)(l .71) = dv
d =

1.368

Conservation of energy
v, = 1.71 m/s
Point
T{ = I/nv,2 = |(0 .7 k g )(l.7 1 m /s )2 = 1.0234J

Point (D

3 2 3
r3 = o

## Ti +Vl = T3 + V3: 1.0234 + 3 = 0.35v2 + 0

v = 3.39 m/s
From conservation of momentum
J
1.368
1.368
^
d = -------= --------- = 404 mm
v
3.39
d = 404 mm A

PROBLEM 13.98
r

JOOmm

600 mm

## A 0.7-kg ball that can slide on a horizontal frictionless surface is attached

to a fixed point O by means of an elastic cord of constant k = 150 N/m
and undeformed length 600 mm. The ball is placed at point A, 800 mm
from O, and given an initial velocity v 0 perpendicular to OA, allowing
the ball to come within a distance d = 270 mm of point O after the cord
has become slack. Determine (a) the initial speed v0 o f the ball, (b) its
maximum speed.

(a)

## Conservation of angular momentum: About O

0.8v0 = 0.27v
v = 2.963v0
Conservation of energy
Point

v, = v0

7] =

= 0.35vo2

## Vt = j k ( L i - L0f = i(l5 0 N /m )(0 .8 m - 0.6 m )2

V = 3J
Point

v2 = v

T2 = |m v 2 = 0.35v2

V2 = 0 (cord is slack)
Ti +V{ = T2 + V2: 0.35vp + 3 = 0.35v2 + 0
From conservation of angular momentum,
0.35v02[(3.125)2 - 1

v = 3.125v0
=3

M
(0.35kg)(8.7656)
Vq = 0.9779 m2/s2
v0 = 0.989 m/s A
(b)

## Maximum velocity occurs when the ball is at its minimum distance

from O, (when d = 0.27 m)
vm = 3.125v0 = (3.125)(0.9889) = 3.09 m/s
vm = 3.09 m/s A

PROBLEM 13.99
Using the principles of conservation o f energy and conservation of
angular momentum, solve part a of Sample Prob. 13.9.

SOLUTION
R = 6370 km
r0 = 500 km + 6370 km
r0 = 6870 km
= 6.87 x 106 m
v0 = 36,900 km/h
= 36.9 x 106 m
3 .f> X 1 0 3

## = 10.25 x 103 m/s

Conservation of angular momentum
r0mv0 = r\ A,
r
VA' =

rnu

## *j> = rmin> r\ = ^max

\
v0

, rl ,

f 6.870 x l 0 6V
3\
= --------------- 10.25 x 103 1
I
n
){
}
Va- =

70.418 x 109

Conservation of energy
Point A
v0 = 10.25 x 103 m/s
1
1
2
Ta = - m v 02 = ~m (l0.25 x 103V
Ta = (m)(52.53 x 106)(j)
Va = ~

## GM - gR2 = (9.81 m/s2')(6.37 x 106 m )

GM = 398 x 1012 m3/s2
r = 6.87 x 106 m

(1)

## PROBLEM 13.99 CONTINUED

(398 x 10 m /s

VA = - i - ,
(6.87 x 10 m)

= -57.93 x 106 m ( j)

Point A'
-mvA'
GMm

ta

398 x 1012 m

(J)

+ va = t a. + v a.

## 52.53 x 106 /ft - 57.93 x 106 /

= - r f v 2A. - 398x10 A .

## Substituting for vA>from (1)

(7 0 .4 1 8 x l0 9)
398 x 1012
-5.402 x 106 = i
y -L -

m f
_ (2.4793 xlO 21)
-5.402 x 106 =

398 x 1012

## (5.402 x 106)r,2 - (398 x 1012)q + 2.4793 x 1021 = 0

r, = 66.7 x 106 m, 6.87 x 106 m
''max = 66,700 km 4

PROBLEM 13.100
As a first approximation to the analysis of a space flight from the earth to
Mars, it is assumed that the orbits o f the earth and Mars are circular and
coplanar. The mean distances from the sun to the earth and to Mars are
149.6 x 106 km and 227.8 x 106 km, respectively. To place the spacecraft
into an elliptical transfer orbit at point A, its speed is increased over a
short interval of time to vA which is faster than the earths orbital speed.
When the spacecraft reaches point B on the elliptical transfer orbit, its
speed v B is increased to the orbital speed o f Mars. Knowing that the
mass of the sun is 332.8 x 103 times the mass of the earth, determine the
increase in velocity required (a) at A, (b) at B.

Transfer

SOLUTION
M = mass of the sun
GM = 332.8(l0)3(9.81m/s2)(6.37 x 106 m )2 - 1.3247(lO)20 m3/s2
I Glbf
Earth vE =--j------- - = 29,758 m/s
1149.6(10)

Circular orbits

GM
Mars vM = I
^ - 24,115 m/s
1227.8(l0)9
Conservation of angular momentum
vA (149.6) = vB (227.8)

Elliptical orbit
Conservation of energy
1 2

GM

J_ 2

GM

2 VA

149.6(10)9

2 VB

227.8(10)9

va

vb ;~ 2 7 - [
B (149.6)

1.52273vE
*
20

## l ( 1.,2 2 7 3 ) V ,- .1^ 247i l ) ;- . v l - 1-3247<10)<2

149.6(10)
2
227.8(10)
0.65935v| = 3.0398(10)*
v \ = 4.6102(10)*
vB = 21,471 m/s, vA = 32,695 m/s
(a) Increase at A,

va

(b)

Increase at B,

ve