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Evaluation of engine running parameters

Measured running parameters.

Engine speed
TC speed
Fuel rack position
Charge air pressure / temperature
Pressure difference over CA cooler
Pressure difference over cylinders
Exhaust gas temperatures

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Engine speed:
- Measured by cam shaft wheel, or flywheel.
- Unstably engine speed can be caused by wrong governor
settings, worn/jamming regulating mechanism.
- Engine speed controls pre.lub pump start and stop,
pre.heating start and stop, by-pass valve function.

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Alarm / safety blockings.


Safety functions; clutch opening, over speed.

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Turbo charger speed:


An important factor to follow since the turbo speed gives
an indication when the nozzle ring gets dirty. I.e. the turbo
speed increases slightly.

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Fuel rack position.


- Indicates amount of sprayed fuel oil (engine load).
- Increased fuel rack index (same load) can be result of worn
pump (bigger internal leakages) or change on fuel quality,
lower heat value.

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Ignition quality parameters:


1. Energy
2. Viscosity
3. Maximum firing pressure.
4. Injection delay
5. Ignition delay .

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Energy comparison
The injection pump is a volumetric pump
The higher the density the more energy it contains per
volume unit
The density difference between HFO and MDO is larger
than the difference in net calorific value

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Viscosity comparison
The viscosity of MDO is lower than the viscosity of HFO
(even HFO is heated)
Lower viscosity fuels result in more internal leakage in the
injection pump from the high pressure side to low pressure
side.
Internal leakage has to be compensated by giving more fuel
rack

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Maximum firing pressure


Dependent on the charge air pressure
To achieve proper combustion, the firing pressure has to be
high and thus also the charge air pressure
Timing of the fuel pump

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Injection delay is the time it takes to build up a pressure


higher than the opening pressure of the nozzle.
Normally 4...5 of crank angle
The delay is comparable to the condition of injection
equipment

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Ignition delay is the time gap between the commencement


of injection and the commencement of ignition.
Dependent on the fuel quality
Compression temperature has a big influence on the
ignition delay
Compression temperature is not high enough for the fuel to
ignite longer ignition delay

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Higher peak pressures and higher exhaust gas


temperatures.
Normally 1...2 of crank angle.
Too early timing of injection
Higher peak pressure

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Evaluation of engine running parameters


Exhaust gas temperature after cylinder
Measured individually after each cylinder
Each cylinder has two measuring points.
The average temperature of all exhaust temperature
sensors is approximately 100 C lower than the exhaust
gas temperature before the turbine.
Maximum allowed difference between valves in one
cylinder.
Maximum allowed difference of one cylinders average from
the average of the all cylinders , alarm.

Evaluation of engine running parameters

In normal operation the average temperature Cylinder


temperature deviation can be up to 30 - 40 C.
Engine is (depending of installation) provided with a safety
slow down arrangement if the temperature difference is too
big
A 10 C increase in ambient temperature will result
approximately 15 C increase in exhaust gas temperature

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Exhaust gas temperature after turbocharger


Indicates the kinetic energy of the exhaust gases that are
running the turbine
Indicates the condition of the turbo, i.e. scavenging of the
engine
If a de-Nox catalysator is installed the temperature has to
exceed certain level to ensure the function of the
catalysator

Evaluation of engine running parameters


Pressure difference over the cylinders:
Measuring the pressure difference between charge air
manifold and exhaust gas manifold.
gives an indication of how well the scavenging works.
Depends on the turbocharger, therefore values below
should be considered as allusive
The bigger the Dp is the better scavenging.
Is normal value with 100% load varies depending of
installation once the value has been dropped down, it is an
indication that something is wrong with the engine
-e.g. dirty nozzle ring & turbine

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Dirty charge air cooler:


Indicated by the increase of the pressure difference over
the cooler, remember that the cleaning of the cooler is
aggravated with the dirtiness of the cooler.

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Consequences:

Less fresh air to cylinders


Higher exhaust gas temperatures
Improper combustion
Low peak pressures
More deposits to nozzle ring
Increased SFOC
Increased SLOC
Higher fuel rack reading at the same load

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Condense water in charge air:


Condense water that is condensing in the cooler has to be
drained out
Causes wear in the pistons, piston rings and cylinder heads
Will cause inlet seat ring problems
The amount of condensed water may be reduced by
increasing the charge
Air temperature, but the maximum temp must not be
exceeded which is 55 C
Increases thermal loading of the engine

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Influence on
operating data

Wrtsil Vasa 32
n = 750 rpm
Output constant
pe = 20 bar
Charge air temp. constant

+20%

Charge air pressure / mass flow

+10%
-30
0

Inlet air
temperature

Firing pressure
-20
50

-10

Fuel consumption
-10%
Exhaust temp. after cylinder
-20%

10

20

30

40

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Dirty nozzle ring:


Indicated by;
Slightly higher turbine speed
Higher receiver temperature
Decreased pressure difference over the cylinders

Evaluation of engine running parameters


2. Possible consequences;

Remainder pressure in the cylinders increase


less fresh air to cylinders
worse scavenging
delayed combustion
more deposit accumulations
higher exhaust gas temperatures
increased thermal load
increased risk of engine failure
piston seizure
hot corrosion
increased fuel consumption.

Evaluation of engine running parameters

Evaluation of engine running parameters

NOMINAL OUTPUT:
_____________________

NOMINAL SPEED:
_____________________

ENGINE DRIVEN PUMPS:


_____________________

FUEL:
_____________________

TURBO CHARGER:
_____________________

INJECTION PUMP:
_____________________

Evaluation of engine running parameters


Low peak pressures-high exhaust gas temperatures:

Obvious reason:
DELAYED COMBUSTION
Dirty air cooler
dirty nozzle ring(s)
injection nozzles in bad condition
worn injection pumps
a long injection delay
bad fuel
high CCAI value poor ignition properties
high water content
high exhaust gas temp

Evaluation of engine running parameters

High exhaust gas temperatures:

Obvious reason
Injection valves in bad condition
dirty nozzle ring
dirty air cooler
Low fuel viscosity
worn injection pumps
bad fuel
burned valves or seats

Evaluation of engine running parameters

High Fuel Rack Reading Compared to Load

Worn injection pumps


more internal leakage
too low viscosity of the fuel
more internal leakage
low heat value of the fuel
high water content
dirty fuel filter
too low fuel pressure
big fuel leakage