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SCOPE

this test method covers the measurement of abrasion resistance of


vulcanized rubbers that are subject to abrasive frictional wear in actual
service. The abrasion resistance is measured by moving a test piece across
the surface of an abrasive sheet mounted to a revolving drum and is
expressed as volume loss in mm, that is, a smaller number indicates better
resistance to abrasion.
Test result obtained by this test method shall not be assumed to represent
the wear behavior of rubber product experienced in actual service.
The values stated in si units are to be regarded as the standard. The values
in parentheses are for information only
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any,
associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to
establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the
applicability of regulatory limitations priors to use
Summary of Test Method
this test method provides procedures for preparing cylindrical test pieces of
specified dimensions from vulcanized rubber and for evaluating their
abrasion resistance by sliding a test piece across the surface of an abrasive
sheet attached to a rotating drum. It also describes the preparation of a
Standard Rubber (see Annex Ai)
The test method is performed under specified conditions of contact
pressure, sliding distance and travel speed of the test piece rotational speed
of the drum, and degree of abrasiveness of the abrasive sheet.
The abrasiveness, S, of the abrasive sheet is defined by the mass loss in
miligrams of a test piece prephared from a Standard Rubber when tested
under the same specified conditions.
The abrasion loss, A, of the rubber test piece is reported as volume loss in
mm, calculated from the mass loss of the test piece, density of the test
rubber, and the abrasiveness of the abrasive sheet is relation to the
"nominal abrasiveness," s, defined by a mass loss of 200 mg
Significance and Use
Abrasion resitance is performance factor of paramount importance for many
rubber products, such as tires, conveyor belts, power transmission belts,
hoses, footwear, and floor covering. A test capable of measuring resistance
to abreasion of vulcanized rubber compounds, including uniformity and
prediction of wear behavior under abrasive/frictional service conditions is
therefore highly desirable.
This test method may be used to estimate the relative abrasion resistance
of different vulcanized rubber compounds. Since condition of abrasive wear
in service are complex and vary widely, no direct correlation between this
accelerated test and actual performance can be assumed.4This test methos

is suitable for comparative testing quality control, specification compliance


testing, referee purposes, and research and development work

Test pieces containing voids or porosity, or both, will yield unreliable test
results.

Limitations
Test pieces that bounce (chatter) over the surface of the abrasive sheet,
rather than running smoothly, will produce inaccurate test results.
Test pieces that tend to extensively smear the surfave of the abrasive sheet
will provide meaningless test results. In that case it is recommended to use
a coarser abrasive sheet, for example, grit 40 instead of grit 60, to obtain an
approximate indication of the abrasion resistance.
Test results obtained under any of the above conditions shall not be used to
reach conclusions regarding the relative abrasion resistance of vulcanized
rubber compounds.
Aparratus and Materials
The abrasive sheet shall be bonded tightly to the drum using three evenly
spaced double-faced pressure sensitive adhesive tapes, extending the full
lenght of the drum. The tapes shall be about 50 mm wide and not more than
0,2 mm thick. The gap where the ends of the abrasive sheets meet on the
adhesive tapes shall not exceed 2 mm
It is mandatory that the abrasive sheet be bonded to the drum in the
direction of rotation marked on the surface or back of the sheet.
The test piece holder shall be mounted on a pivoted swivel arm, wich can be
swung into vertical position to insert and remove the test piece.
The center axis of the test piece holder, shall have an angle of 3 to the
perpendicular in the direction of rotation and the center of the test piece
shall be within 1mm directly above the longitudinal axis of the drum
Otra hoja
The challenge for industry
in late apri,l executives of the world leading chemical companies will gather
in paris for the third forum of the world chemical industry to address "Major
Challenges of the Next Century" technologies and competitiveness,
cooperation and competition in global market,and relationships between the
chemical industry and society. as we look to the future, it is clear that these
challenges and related issues will have growing impact on the long term
health and success of our industry around the globe.
one concept that has gaines much attention is sustainable development.

Quite simply, sustainable development links a healthy environment to a


healthy economy and recognizes that we cant have one without the other.
in the past, the two have often been viewed as conflicting coals. Now there
is growing recognition by industry, governments, and the environmental
community that environmental protection and economic growth must be
mutually supportive. The private sector must become a positive, leading
force in the transition to sustainable development. And the enabling tool for
sustainable development is technology cooperation.
"Technology cooperation" is being used more and more, replacing the
traditional phrase "technology transfer." this is a welcome change because,
among other things, it helps to shift the focus of the technology debate from
subjects like "how is it protected?" and "who pays?" to the more positive
focus on "how we can we form innovative partnerships to make it happen?

Technology cooperation is much broader than technology transfer. Unlike


the debates that have taken plae about technology transfer discussions that
quickly polarized developed and developing countries and created a chasm
between the private and public sectors todays discussions are focused on
ways to cut through previously erected obstacles and unpoductive rhetoric.
What is the key to unlocking the barriers and beginning the flow of activities
that will allow technology cooperation to become a more everyday
occurrence? In my opinion, the key is partnerships. Partnerships among
businesses, governments, groups working to protect the environment and
enhance development and the scientific community will be the key to
technology cooperation.

Today more and more persons are working to break the gridlock that has
stalled the free flow of ideas necesary to get the right technology applied
appropriately to the priority needs of a country and get it done in a timely
manner.
THE UNCED, better know as the Earth Summit, addressed this subject in Rio
de Janeiro last June. With representation from more than 150 countries as
well as nongovernamental groups and the media, theearth summit brought
the issue of technology and sustainability to a new level of focus.
Agenda 21, a document adopted by consensus at the conference, set in
motion the type of positive, nonpolarized cooperative dialogue that can only
lead to longer term, measurable progress in technology cooperation
one group that had a voice in the earth summit and now is actively pursuing
technology cooperation is the business council for sustainable development,
of which i am a member. the bs has published a book, changing course,
which is a global business perspective on sustainable development. in the
chapter entitled technology
technology cooperation works best as a company to company transaction.
the common interest of the parties is local business development with

emphasis on building up the infrastucture, the wealth generating capacity


and the competitiveness of country

towards an agenda for improved enabling environments for


agribusiness and agro industries in developing countries}the
promotion of improved business climates, or enabling environments, for
agribusiness and agro industry in developing countries requires not only
proactive roles for all stakholders at the national level, but also roles for
donors and international organizations in activities such as advocacy,
fundind and provision of technical assistance in enabling environment
assessment and reform planning and implementation. although
governments must be the prime movers in perceiving a need for and
initiating the process of developing an enabling environment, donors and
international organizations can provide the expertise and funds tat are
instrumental in these endeavours seccess.
while calling attention to the need for international support to the definition
of an agenda for improving agribusiness and agro industry enabling
envisonments, workshop participants identified roles that organizations with
expertise in food and agriculture, such as fao, are well positioned to assume.
One of these roles is awareness raising and advocacy, wich fao has been
providing whtough activities such as organization of the workshops and fora
mentioned throughout this report. the following sections outline other
suggested roles.