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Closed Conduits

1- Introduction

practical significance in CE

Sources

Pressure

Pipelines

system

closed conducts, which do not usually operate under

pressure, to sewage treatment plants, from where it is

usually discharged to a river or the sea.

Oil and gas are often transferred from their source by

pressure pipelines to refineries (oil) or into distribution

network for a supply (gas)

Theory of pipe flow will be discussed in this chapter.

Laminar

Turbulent

Re

where

VD

(1)

D : pipe diameter

v : kinetic viscosity

Re<2000

Flow is always laminar

2000<Re<4000 Flow is either laminar or turbulent

Re>4000

Flow is always turbulent

For laminar flow, the frictional head loss was proportional to velocity.

For turbulent flow, the head loss was proportional to the square of the

velocity.

kinds of flow

velocity

subjected to energy losses due to frictional

resistance at the pipe wall

Application of Bernoulli equation between section 1 and 2

yields,

P

P

(2)

Z1 1 Z 2 2 h f

g

g

Momentum equation between section 1 and 2 leads to,

(3)

( P P ) A gAL sin PL

1

P : wetted perimeter

0 : the boundary shear stress

(4)

0 PL

P1 P2

g Z1 Z 2

As

h

Whence

h

P1 P 2

Z

g

or

0 gR

gA

Z

(5)

0 PL

gA

(6)

hf

(7)

gRS f

where R (hydraulic radius) = A/P ( = D/4 for a circular pipe of diameter D).

Rewriting (7):

D hf

0 g

4 L

(8)

Laminar flow

of the Hagen-Pouiseuille equation:

32 LV

hf

gD 2

Hagen-Pouiseuille

Equation (9)

Turbulent flow

L V2

Darcy-Weisbach

hf

Formula (10)

D 2g

: Dimensionless friction factor

1. Smooth pipes

In the case of turbulent flow experimental work on

smooth pipes by Blasius (1913) yielded the relationship:

0.3164 Blasius equation (11)

Re 0.25

Nikuradse conducted experiment on pipes which were

artificially roughened by sticking uniform sand grains.

He defined Ks/D as the relative roughness.

follows:

a. Laminar Flow

The relative roughness has no influence on the friction

factor.

64

64

DV Re

(12)

Pipe flow normally lies outside this region.

c. Smooth turbulence

values of relative roughness as Re decreases.

d. Transitional turbulence

In practice, most pipe flow lies within this region.

e. Rough turbulence

Ks/D, and is independent of Re.

and Prandtl

Van Karman and Prandtl suggested the

following semi-empirical formulas:

For

smooth pipes

Re

2 log

2 . 51

1

For

rough pipes

1

3 .7 D

2 log

Ks

(13)

(14)

data than the Blasius equation.

Colebrook and White studied the effects of non uniform

roughness as found in commercial pipes.

They demonstrated that in the turbulent region, the -Re

curves exhibited a gradual change from smooth to rough

turbulence in contrast to Nikuradses S-shaped curves

for uniform roughness.

They determined an effective roughness size for the

commercial pipes equivalent to Nikuradses results.

Their experimental study leads to the following formula:

ks

2.51

2 log

D

3

.

7

Re

(15)

This formula is

applicable for the

whole range of the

turbulent region for

commercial pipes

using an effective

roughness value

determined

experimentally for

each type of pipe, as

given in Table 1.

Pipe Material

Ks (mm)

Brass, copper,glass,

Perspex

Asbestos, Cement

Wrought iron

Galvanised Iron

Plastic

Bitumen-lined ductile

iron

Spun concrete lined

ductile iron

Slimed concrete sewer

0.003

0.03

0.06

0.15

0.03

0.03

0.03

6.0

Colebrook-White (15) equations yields an

explicit expression for the velocity V:

Ks

v

V 2 2 gDi log

2.51

D 2 gDi

3.7 D

(16)

first plotted in the form of a -Re diagram

by Moody and hence is generally referred

to as the Moody Diagram.

equation, a number of approximations in explicit

form in have been proposed.

Moody produced the following formulation:

(17)

K 10

0.00551 20000

Re

1/ 3

which gives correct to 5% for 4x103 < Re < 1x107 and Ks/D<0.01.

5.1286

K

2 log s

0.89

3.7 D Re

(18)

better than 1%

Using Colebrook-White formula, Moody diagram; or Barr

formula is simple to apply for single pipeline.

However, for pipes in series, parallel or for the more

general case of pipe networks, it rapidly becomes

impossible to use for hand calculations. For this reason,

simpler empirical formulae are still in use.

0.54

h

(19)

f

0.63

V 0.355CD

or alternatively,

6 . 78 L

L

D 1 .165

hf

V

C

1 . 85

(20)

material and age.

Example 1

absolute viscosity 0.065 Ns/m2 at 20C is

pumped through a horizontal pipeline 100

mm in diameter at a rate of 10 l/s.

Determine the head loss in each kilometre

of pipeline.

such as Darcy and Colebrook-White, it is convenient to

treat the non-circular sections as an equivalent

hypothetical circular section yielding the same hydraulic

gradient at the same discharge.

The transformation is achieved by expressing the

diameter D in terms of the hydraulic radius R=A/P and

since for circular pipes R=D/4, equations (10) and (15)

become:

hf

LV 2

8 g R (21) and

Ks

2.51v

2 log

14

.

8

R

4

V

R

(22)

friction, local head losses occur at changes of crosssection, at valves and at bends.

These local losses are sometimes referred to as minor

losses since in long pipelines their effect may be small in

relation to the friction loss.

However, the head loss at a control valve has a primary

effect in regulating the discharge in a pipeline.

Local losses occur at pipe bends, junctions, and valves,

etc.

In the case of long pipelines (e.g. several kilometers) the

local losses may be negligible, but for short pipelines,

they may be greater than the frictional losses.

V2

hL K L

2g

(23)

KL: constant for a particular fitting.

derived from KL in terms of area of the pipe.

This result may be extended to the case of a sudden contraction.

For all other cases (bends, valves, junctions, bellmouths, etc) values

of KL must be derived experimentally.

A. Sudden enlargement

equation of continuity between section 1 and 2 yields

P1 A1 P2 A2 Q(V2 V1 )

Q V1 A1 V2 A2

P1 P2 V2

(V1 V2 )

g

g

(26)

So,

(V12 V22 ) ( P2 P1 )

hL

2g

g

(V1 V2 ) 2

hL

2g

by using (25) we obtain

2

2

V

A

hL 1 1 1

A2

2g

Whence,

A1

K L 1

A2

(27)

(28)

(29)

(30)

For the case of a pipe discharging into a tank, A2>A1, then KL=1.

B. Sudden Contraction

From position 1 to 1 the flow contracts, forming a vena contracta.

Experiments indicate that the contraction of the flow area is

generally about 40%.

If the energy loss from (1) to (1) is assumed to be negligible, then

the remaining head loss occurs in the expansion from (1) to (2).

Since an expansion loss gave rise to (30), that equation may now be

applicable here. As A1=0.6A2 then:

V22

hL 0.44

2g

(31)

Example 2

A uniform pipeline, 5000 m long, 200 mm in diameter and

roughness size 0.03 mm conveys water at 15C between

two reservoirs. The difference in water level between

which is maintained constant at 50 m. In addition to the

2

entry loss of 0.5 V a valve produces a head loss of 10 V 2 .

2g

2g

using the Colebrook-White equation and the Moody

diagram. Take = 1.13 x 10-6 m2/s

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