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Designation: EToe- 1s



Standard Guide for

Magnetic Particle Testingl

This standard is issued uncler the fixetl desigtation 8709: rhe.n:rmber immediately
tbllowing the clesignation indicates the vear of
original adoprion or' in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number
in par.entheses in,licates the year ol last reapproval. A
snperscrii:rt epsilon (c) intlicates an editoriar change since the rast
revision or reapprorar.
'l'his standctrd htts been apprct,etl


bv ugencies of the u.S. [)eptlrtfrrcilt



This guirlcr cot,ers iecl:niques fi,-r both dry ancl wet

mu_giletic particlc tt:sting, a r.tondcstructi'e rnethod lor detc-ct_
ing c.ircks arcl
cliscontinuities at or flear rhe surlace i.
'1h*rr-ials. _Llagnetic
tcnomagnetic mate
particle re sting may be

appiictl to raw lrateri;rl. se,rilrnishetl *raterial (billeis. bloorns.

."'tings, a*c[ filrgings.i, tinislrecl lni]te'iilr and weltls. reir:r.{.rress
oi heat treaimcrit ot. lack rhercol. It is usetul tirr prir,,.:ntive
ritaliittenaitce ir'sli ng.

i.l.l This gr_ride is intended as e relcrencc to aicl in the

irr.perarion of specilicati*ns/stanilarcls. proceciures a,d rechn




Tir aid in thc org;lniziition ol thc fircilitie s anrl person_

n!-l concL-rned in rnagnetic particle lc-sring.
1.2 3 To aid in the preparation ol proceclure s dealing rvith
the cra,rination of :urcl parts. I'his g,ic1e deiribes
rnagnetic particle testing tech,iclues that are recommenclc<I rirr
e gl'eat varietv ol sizes ancl shapes *f f'err.*ragretic nrateria]s
lund rvidely varying e.xamination requircnrents. since trrere
rnanv acceptable ditl'crences iu hoth proceclure anci techrricrre.
the explicit requirenrents sttoulil be covcrcd bv a ,,r,rittcn
procc,dure (ree Sectjon l1).

L-l I'his guii'le cioes not inilicate. suggesa. or specify accep_

tunce standa'Lis for pirrts/lrieces exanri,ecl bv these tech*ic1Lres.
It slir.*rlil be pointed our. hou,evcrr. that afte-r indicatio,s have
been producect. rhey rnust be inrerpreted or crassitiecr a,d then
erraluated. Iror this purpose rhel.e shoukl be a separate cocle.
specification. or a specilic aqrirentent ro clefine the typt:, size,

| 'I'his

guidc is untlcr ilrc .!ririsdie riun or ASTI\.1 C*rrrriucc i::iJ,r .n NtxdcsLr-ircLilc Tcslilg altl ir Ljtc riircci rcspiitsibililY of SubcorniriittNc ili-I.{)j,rn Liquid
P{r}oirtlt tird X,[egn.:tic Parriclc llctltorjs.

CuricnL.cditi.n epprolctl.lrrnc l, li)li. F,uLrlishcd June 2{}l5. Origirrrllv

:tppiovcrl in l9ll0. Lesi lrcricus ecliiior: rppror,ed in l{.}i4 a-r g;tfq _
f +. nfli,

{). i


locatio*. clegree of alignmenr arril spaci,g, urea conce,t'atirr.

o'ientati,r of indicariors rhat are unacceptahle in a specific

pari \iLrrsll-{ thosr- r,vl'rich ner-d not be remover-l hetbr.e parf

iicceptilnce. Conclitions u,,irei:e rework ut. t.epair is nr:t


sirould bc specifiecl.


This guide


52{r,E0709- 15.

F'r AsN{E Br;ilcr enir Prc:rurc

itr Sccriur il rrf thirr L'otie.


t.4. 1 Dry rnagnelic porvder lsee:r i),

1.4.: \\tl lraFneric partiele (see F..L
1"4.3 L.lasnetic slurrylpaint nragnetic particle (see :i r .1.

Vrsscr [--rtle r\ppliciLti,ns sce rc];rrcd [iuidi:

i"4..1 Polytner magnetic particle (see r:.j..r,).

1.5 Per.sorurc1 QuoI iJictLtit;n-personnr:l perfitr.ming exami_

nalio,s in accorclance with this giride shoirrcl be qr-ralirieil ard



accordance ll,ith ASNT Recornrnentt"ii pr.actice No.

Shi'l',TU-iA. ANSUASNT StanLi;rrd Cp-199" NAS;110. or

sp*ciii*d in thc c{)ntriict or purchase orrler.

: lpy:ight ASTII


1.7 'I'he valucs stated in inch-pound units ar.e to be legardeci

as statdarcl. The values given in parenrheses are mathernatical
con''ersions t' SI units that are ploviciecl lor inlbrrration only
and are not considerecl


1.8 \lttrning: Men:r1-\. has been de.sigttuterl bJ- tnrin| re'tt_

lalon,\. {t' tt httJtrdou.y twrleriul llyt{ t.tilt L.Ltr!.\d ,\trioLt.\

nx:dicol isstLes. il|ertufi,

or it.s.t,tt1xtr, hrL.r Lsren

lo be htrz.artktu.t to hectlth *ntl .or*,t'i,e to ,toleri.rrls. CLtutkttt
sltt;itltl be lak<:n n'ltan lta,rllins t1rr(:ttr\) *fid mt,k,tt L:{)ttrt.tittitrg proilu.t.t" See the ttysltlituble Strorht:! Sulcrr. iltrtu Sltett
(SD,\) lor uitlitiotrttl int'onnltion. tistrs. shoLtld be rnyttre
.telling mtrcun'on.dlor tlt.,t1.!!t.\'L{rntLt!niu.q l)rL)dtK:ts,irttrt t,our
1l{tle or {:oL#ttt\, rutr.t, he S;*thibitetl b.l. l*t.
l.L) Tlti.t.tItndaxl tloe.s rtttt pilr])or{ ta utlire.y,g *!l ot' tlre
sttfett trnt erns, |f un\., ussocirtte d rt;ith its Lr,tt. {t is. tlte
re.\p()11.\"ibilit! of rhe user rsf tltis sttuttltrnl to esroblish appro_

priute sofbqv und healtlt l) rmtl dele*nitre rhe ttpltiit.rtbiIity ttI regulotor.v Iimit*Iiotts 1ttii,tr |o use.

Barf Hartrcr Drive, Po Box c700, west cocshohocken, pA I 9428-2959.

unite.l states

ded by HS under I cense wilh ASTI,j
ornetworking permined wthout licensefrom IHS


1.6 Nondt.ttt"Ltctit,t'{estitig Agclrr,_t,-l{'

testingl agencJ- as described in practice i:::: j-i is nsccl kt perlb**
the erarninaiion. the nondest.rctive testing agsnc). sho*lcl nrr-et
the requirements ol' Practice l::.j.-1.

'lA summar' of charrges section appears at the end of this stanrtard

co,yrlght o ASTlr'l ,nternational,

lhe use of the I'o]]orvins masuetic

p:1rliL'lr' tttrlhr,tl teehrriqrrcs.


1.1 This gr"riclc is alstl a reterer)ce rh.rt niav be userl as

l.l.I Tb e srrbliqlT :l ineans b1, ivhich rna.rlnetic pariicle
rL'stins. p.ocetlures reconrmendecl or requirerl by i,rlii,itlnal
orgenizaliors. can br' revierved t' evalilate their applicabilitv



prder Number:02067709


Sold to:PT SEBVOTECH tNDONEStA [7OOj66iO528i],

2015-08 0407:33:28 UTC


- ts


2. Refercnted Drlcuments

illl.l'l'f!l h,leiirr:Jt
.le:L*rlor [:i1rrh
{llttr,--r,l {i1p


2.1 A,!.?M

rr.rd {.}p;lilLre


{-iiluidl iand {laleLilaiic::

il*nc;::tl l*Just:

i.-rtitlg f-*f:{::r*el
i i ,i:j:.:ii [rluirl. ]'lrr;rtr'lii i',t' . !,' i,iri--s1,lirl \i:-;:4




i:i i !;.: lr.'l:ttiiloli)3r' li}r No*'lrslfircliYr' irral:tr,:-;.:. :i:
irl.i t i..!'.t:f.:f:!1'l p11:;ll;c lip L'lii*:trtir: Paltiel* T;:ll:;*
2.2 Sotierl'o.f i\utitn'x;lit,e Engineer.t (SAE): AerosS:Ltt:e.


AS\l'l' QLralifirllr.,r. i.i;:. 'r-;-ilrliuirtru,; r,i .\r,:;,[:-


"iii''rtliir ':r




A!,\ Dor.unwnty;t


.,,,.j i" it.i.r..:::,




j.l For definitions

Terminologl, i:: i i ii,;"


:l l: .:-iIii lLlet;i :.r:': r\ircriil't Qurrl i:-_v 5 L':e1 {.llti*lincns

.\'lrLsr:clit ir;rrti;l* lnspect.i*r: Procr:ilurl
\i.L,l f l,,.rti!!,,".t \l:,.:,.i:r.{}.rr..
": '' - -'"
li.le i*s1_:i:r,rron il..*r:rl*1.*


ol lerrns used iil

rhe pt.3ctice. reier to


.1. Summar-l' of Guide

4.1 Prittt:iyle-'l-he rnagnetic parlicle method is baseil on

a magnetic helr[ i.vith high flLrx ,.'lensitl in a


(',,1r, 'ir,: !{ r:r'.:.rl \'"",'i" \lt '::r,'lt,' l',rli..t* 1.:.1','',,,,:

th*1 pit\\ thrOtluh n{}11-lL'rrt)lll.l-nt'Li( lllilicliill 'ttelt;s uii in e

rJisciintinuitl'or an inclusitxr- BecausL'llrrr liner can not cross.
thi:sprcadingaclio'mav iorccsomsof thefluxlineso,tof the
m.tlerial (ll,i leakagc). i.lux lcakage is also causu.r-l by, redLrc-

'\l'ii:i,ll:.ii \,r:hiiir 14:;:ltt,tiL l,::ti.i. lilr1rL'f i'ir11
.,\lii .lii lii ltrl!'.*r:tie i];irtie l*r, Nsn-i'l Lr*r*scrtrt. llly


l,''i .,


lJrtltrlrl' {lil v*i:ici*. 5{i:;ri{-r'1i: li',s*
-,\!l:i.l{}.1 .: hli:gt;etii l'itrtir'1.':.. Hrr:r-1'!u*:;:rr,t.
1'1i:il:<:ri' I')ry



is llrong enoush. fine nragnetic partictes wilt bc- held irr plai'e
an accumulation of particles r.r,ill be visible un<[er the
proper lighting condilions. whilc there are varintions irr the
m;rslietie particle rnetho{-l" thel all arr: alependent on this




,1h15 .l{1,-i,l hla*rre !ir PrltieLrs. i\i:l-llur.:re:re*1, {}i! \,iil".-.

..r rr....I .,.-._.i
r 1r\i I ! rr! tr'i:r ( I
i1":t ].i;tlrL,t-i
.f 1:.1 .il:.i.i h.1.lgL:eti,: Lttrt'tLrrlilltrli;lcs- Fir-rcr*srr:r:t.
I r'if iL3'Lnr{e
t7n \

: ii1-.1tt:l



, thal magn*tic plrticles i,vill he re teined al


ol'magnelic ilur leakage. The amount of l'Iux leakage

iit disco*tinuitics depends primarily on tire lblloli,ing factors:

1I.,1..! r):l
vu{lrrrr' l&'ild-v
1.'rr 1'.1"i..i

to I'stl
to the sr.rrface r:f a discontinuity. wiih longituililal fields" alt of
[*s, Ni,il-1lLri]tfs..it1. Wct tht: llur lines ntust r:otnp]ete their ]'ops th.ug1 air anrl an
i\,{eth**. {}itr V*hii'le. Acro-tol lr.tck;rr'il
ercessivell,strong magnstic field ma_v inter.lere r,vith e.ramina_
,11.;1; -illtil St.-el. {-ow Cerl;ixl {3;rru. Fllging:" 'Tlhirrg,
tion *e.r the llux e,try anii exit p'ints due .. the high \t:.;- " Pl rt.: { li i !tn,!!} \1:ir rntrrr
llrrr_Jert.ilr .rt tlicrc [l1ri11ls.
,,i l-ii lt::'i:rl:ur'*i Ll*siirrEr
4-2 Metluxl Whilc this practice permits aild descritres
:1i,ls,l :j i iiT {rrpi:ilrorfi lj,r.,,-": :_,. },!.rglt*tic l{Lllihrr


1 ii]+a: h,"l;,re**tic

!'Ll tiL

:\li j-lil
Str,*l Jii,lt

lre tlrree steps essent.iul to the meth{ld:







thrr part


2.3 ilnerit'tLtt sotietl,,frtr NotLdesrrLtuive

:i\1. i i' 1,,1. pcrsirirnel euilLi!ii;;rtion airii C:.rrir,-.rii",ri
;\iottrie slt L:i:liv;:


rF()r rctcr!'i)ccd AS'II{

-ctaflilarilq, r,isiL the ASTNI $ebsite, wr'\!.; or
rontact ,,\STN{ CLi-<tottet Servicr: 11 srrvicct, For.llnrrirl 8tt'tk tl ;\.\T}l
Skulddta!s *rlunc inibrmtti{)t. tel}r lo thc staniiarri's [)tcurncnt Surtttrry prg: on
thc ASTtr.,l r,ebrite.
'I .Avrillble lrorl Srritlr ol r\ul1[r(]tir. Enqinccrs
iSAE). .1U0 Coltm0nrverrllh
l)r., \trirrenrhlc. PA I 5(l()(r -tiil(i I, hti,r:.1/ww*r.,\
" Arlilebie !ir:rr ;\mericiur Socicty liri \!e li\rrii- r \\\'l ,. ll{) lt('\
-185 18, l7l I ArlingaLc 1.,n.. Colunrbris. ()H ,1-l:-18-{}i lE. htrp:/lrr'*u,.iisnt..or;.

Copyr ghl ASTM lnternational

Prov ded by IHS under I cense wilh ASTIII
No reproduction or networking perm lted wlthout icense from IHS

.i.2.1 'l'he pal't tnust be uragnetized.

4.r.2 l\'lagnetic particles ol the t,v'-pe deslgnntecl

t+i Il,rgri*{ic p;rrr}c3


is rnagnetized or immecliately thcrealier.

An-v acculittlatiotl of rrragnel-ic particles nrust

,4'2'3 interpreled, and evalLrated'




4.3 llogneti:.utitin:
" r\railabic liu:r SLanrllrriizatirn D('.unr.nts Ordcr Dcsk. DODSSP, tlkig. -1,
Scitirrn ll, 7il{} Ro}rbins :\r'c.. Philadcllhia. PA l(, I I 1-5{)(rx lrr11';tl

" r., J, ri,.l,.rl,rl'..rnrl.

I Avlilrble llorn Occrrpi:lir)nal Satbty and Hcrlih Ailminisrrrtiorr :L)5FlAl. :{lil
foirsritutir-.n;\r'e." NtrY. ltrashilgl,)n. DC:l)lLll. http:/lwivr.,,.hl ,:,,'.

rAr':iil:l-.lcfronrAcrospacelnilustiesAssocialionrri :\meriurr. lrrc.r\l\,. lrt{}il

Wilson Illvd..5r;1e l7()(1. ArlingLon,

VA:ll0a--t918. htlp:,/ltrrl .iiir-,rcr,,s|.ur',rig

'lDrder Number: 02067709

to:PT SERVOTECH INDONESIA i70016610s2811,
20T5 08 04 07:33:28 UTC


,{flP ezoe - rs


tt: fuIttgnati;t-A ferror:ragnetic rnalelial can be

ma-enetized eitlrer by' passing an electric cLlrrerll through the

matelial rr b.v placing the malcrirl ivithin a nragnetic liekl
*riginaLcd bv an r'xtcrnal sourcc. The entire mas\ or':L pottiln

of the milss can be rlaguetizecl as dictateii


ccluipmeni cap:icit1' oL rree-d. As pr"eviousl1, noted. in order lo he

dclectirble, the clisconiinuit,v rnust inten'upt tlte norrnrl path of

the rnlgnetic field linrs.

lf a discontinuit.v is opeu to the

ivill be at the
nraxirnunr value lirr that particr-rlar disc,:niinuit3,. When thal
salne discoiltinr-ritv is belorv the sr.rlflce, fiux leakage eviclenl
on the surlace rvill be a iesser vaiue.
4.3.2 Fitld Direr:tittn If ir cliscontinuil-v is orientecl peralle I
to the magnetic field li*es. it r:ra_v be csseulially undetectahL:.
Tlrelcliri'c..irrce disuuntinuiligs m.r) oce ttr in rttr olictttali,'rt. il
rnty be llecessary t{-i nlagllelize the palt or the area of interest
t',vice or mol'e seclilerltially irt dift'erent directions b;, thc sarr.e
rnethod ol- a combination of difi-erent nretl'rods (sr:e Seclion J .i)
tri indLrce magnetic field linr:s in a sr-ritatrle clirectiou in i.r,hich
trr pcrliri'm iiil J(ldquillL' c\:ln'li,tJli(u].
4.3.3 Fie-lrt Srrrrgllr--The magnelic fieid rnusl be ol sufircient stl'ength to indicate those discontinuities arr
unacceptable, yei rnLlst not be so stlong that an exccss ol local
palticle accunrulalion masks relevant indications (sce Sc:ctlon
surflLce. the f'lux leakage attracting the particles

i i l.

4.4 'ltpes'




und Tlwir Us'e There are

oi nragnetic particl*ii

ar"ailable tbr Lrse rn nrilrnetic 1:article testing. Tht-ry are availalrle as dry powders
r,'arious types

lliuorescc:nt and nonf'luoresctnt) r'eady fr.rt' use as si:pplieii {see

.r..,1). powder concentrates (lluoresceut and nonfluoresceni) lor
dispersion iu r.vater or suspending ir: light pctroleum distillates
lsee .'i I), magnetic slun'ieslpaints (sec s,j.l). and rnagnetic
liol) tncr di\fe f\irllls { )rc .:..'l.
4.5 li,ulurttirvtt r>i ltulicarlorr,r-When the material to be
exanrinerl has been propelly nragnetizec[, the nragnetic palticles

have been prr.lperly applied, and the excess particles properly

rt-:railved. there will be :rccurnulations of' magnetic pafiicles
remaining at the poinLs oI flur leakage. These accLrmulalions
shor,,, the ilistortion ol' the lr)irgl)etic llel-l and are called

indications. \Vithout distulbine the particles, the indie:alions

must tre examined. classilietl. c:ompared r.vith the ilcceptance

CopyrightASTM nternationa
Provlded by IHS under I cense wlth ASTM
No reproduction or networkrng perm tted wnhoul license from


l decisiori lnade concerning the disposition r;l'

the matcriul that coiltains the indication.
st;Luclalds. anrl


1'pir:ol M ugttelit Pu rlit-l e {ndir.'tttitttts :

S u r fs r e D i,r tonli nu ilie.r ..-S Lrrlace di scon lin


ties. lvitlt

lerv *xceptions" producc sharp, distinct pitllerns {sce ,'i.rilrr'':

.', !\

-i.6.2,\ecr-sutl'ace L)ist'r.,rrrirlrrilrr,,r'-Near-surl:acc eliscontinuities produce less clistinct ildications tl'ran lltose open to th.
suriirce. T'he patterns tend to be broad. rather than shrrp" and
the piirticles ar-e less tightl3,' helci (see -.1:;;:r.:..; ,1 l).

5. Significance and tise

5.1 The rnirgnetic particle fiiethod oi' nonr'lestructir e testinr:
indicates lhe presenccr o1'sLrrf ace arxi near':surlircc: iiiscontinuilies in malerials lhat can be magnetized (l'erronragreticl. This
method can he used l'or produclion cxirmination ol' parls/
colnponents {}r sil'uctLlres an{l for lield applicillions rvhere
portahility o1' erluiprnent and accessibili4, to the lrea to be
examinecl are taciors. The abilit;,- of the lneth*d to find snrall
discontinuities can be enhanccd bv using flr,urrescenl particles
sulperldecl irr a suitahle vohicle and h--v intrcducing a rnirsnctir
fielcl of thc proper strength r,vhose orientation is as* as
possible io 1l{}" to the clirection ol'the suspc:cled discor.rtinr-rity
(see i.,.1.-1.). A smoothsr sut"litce or a pulsed aurrt'nl inrplor.'s
rnobilitl,' trf the nragrrelic particles unrler lhe inlluenere o1'the
rnagnetic field to collect on the surlirce rvhere nragrtelic 1'litr
leakage occurs.

6. Equipment
6.1 ltpe.r-There are a nnrrber of' iypes of I ab I e


l'or mag net i zi n g lerrorna-enetic parts und corriponents.

With the exception ol' a permanent magnet. all eclLripnrenl

a power source capable ol deliveriug th* requirccl


currenl levels to prclduce the rnagnetic lield. The curreilt $scd


tlie sizes ol cables and the capabilit,v ol relays.

if the lrorier soulce is

switching cont.lcts. rnetelii and rectifier

alternating current.

6.2 Porabilitl,-Portahilitl,. r,vhich inch,rdes the ability to

hand carr_v the equipnrent, cnrl be obtainc'd l'rom yokcs,
portablc coils witl) por,ver supplies. and capacil-or dischalge
porver supplies wilh cables. Generally', portable cr:ils provide

Yoke Method of Part Magnetization

prder Number:02067709
2015 08 04 07:33:28 UTC

{$fp ezos - rs
high rnagnetizing iblces by using highel numbcrs of trrrns to
compLrnsatr for their ic.,vet turlertl 11()u,. Capacitor <lischarge
units nse high cLlrlent storagr capacit-v and plovi<je there higir

fi}| only a ver-v shorl rlLrration.

6.3 lbtrs-Yoke s are usualll,' C-shapecl elscirorrirqnets

cufl'e1rt ler,'els

which iucl-rce a lnagnrtic lie lcl bctlvcen lhe pr.r1t-:s (le-qsJ and are
userl ior local rnagnctizllion (iii::. i). Many- portable yokes
have articulated legs (poles) thet alior,'the legs to be adjr-rsted
to cort.rct ilregulur sultlces or two surl'aces that join at an

6.3.1 Pennan{lfit fu{(tgfiets-Penlanent magnets at'e availmay ire rr:stricled l'or nriurv applications. This
reslriction ma-v h0 clue to applicaLion irnpracticalitl,, or Llue t<r
ther speci{ications governing th* exariination. Perrnaneill l-naqnets ciin lose their rrragnetic lirld generating capacit-y b"v,' being
pal'tially denrag*etizeil by a stronger 11Lrx field, being clanraged,
able hut theil


or dr"oppecl. In addition, the pirrlicle rnobility cleated by AC

current or 1I\\,- cun'ent pulsations procluced hy electromagnetic
vokes are n{rt prcsent" Particles. steel filings. chips, and scale
clinging t{r the poles dau create a houseker"pinll problenr.
6.1 Prods-Prorls are uscd lirr local magnelizations, see ir;:.:.
-1. The prod tips tilal contact the pirce should be aluminurn,

copper braid, ol copper pads r;ithel than solid cuppcr. With

solid coppei' tips. accidental arcing duriilg prr:d placentent trr
re:rnovrl can causr copper pdnetralioil into the sull'lice whictt
nra_y re sult in rnetallurgicril damage (softening. har-dening,
craeking. r:tc"). Open-circLrit voltages should rot erceed 25 \'.

6.1.t Rewote Cctntrctl,trr'irr-lr'*-.A rerruite-c{llrti'ol

in order to prevent arcing (arc


Bertt.-lt L,/rul-A typical bench type unit is in i::i;.

The unit tonnallv is lirrnished ll,itl.r a heacl/tailslock corrtbinalion along wiLh a fired coil (see l':,:. i).



6.6 UL'-A {.ighrs {Bltrck. tr.1.{i,/l-which are poltable , handprernranenlly mounted or hrcd. and usecl to crlrruine plrrts.
sliur:Ll bc check*d lor oulpirt at the l'reclLrenc_v- speciiieil in
TaLrle 2 and al'tel hulh repiacenrent. A longer" period ura_\' be
r"rseil if a plan justil,ving tlris extension is prepare,-l hy the Nl)1'
tacilit,v ol its delegate. Minimum acceptable intensitv is 1000

pW/crn:r at :he ex&mination sullace.



usittg a rllcilrllr-v vapor stylc larnp. a clunge

T"vpic*l p*rt::hlc F*lir*r paeil lix';:rads

T-tpieal Ili:ruhh-: l]r*tl Scl

Typi*,:! Singl,: 3:r*r{ $st

FIG. 2

Copyr ght ASTM inlernal onal

Provided by iHS under icense wilh ASTtr,1
No reproduction or nelwork fg permilled withoul license lrom IHS


r.vhich inay be built inm the prod handles. shouli-l be providecl

to permit the currenl to be tLrrned on atier tire pli:r-ls have heen
properly placed and to turn it ofl'bel$re the proils are rernoVe,.l

iprder Number: 02067709

So d lo:PT S EFVOTECH lN DONES lA {7001 661 os28l l,
2015'08 04 07:33:28 UTC



,{$fp ezoe

- rs {i!/-A illlat'k |-ight1 Warm-rt1t trVhen using a rnercurv vapol bLrlb. allorv the l]\'-A (hlack) iight m warnt up firr
a ntininrum ol Ilve ntinulc: nrirl'tr) its irse t>r illettslrrcment (')t
ihe inrcnsit_v of' the ultraviolct 1ig,ht cmiitrd.


.3 l)urk

Are tL

b'e Atluy;tctiltn-Ihe generall-v


praclice is lhat an inspectol'be in lhe darkened aree at least one

(l) minLrtc ro tlrai his or-her eyes will adapi to rlalk vietving
prior to examining parts Lin.ler t.lV illLrmination. {llarningPhctochrr;mic i)r pel'manellt11, tinted lenses shoulcl nol be ,,vor-n
duling exrrrninalion.l


HousekLepilrg-The e xarlliltiltion area should be kept

free of interi'ering deLrris.


fluorescenl nlateriels are involvcd"

the ar-ea shoultl also be kept liee of fluorescent objrcls nol

:'elltecl to lire parllpiece being exarnincd.

FlG.3 Bench Unit

\'{)11lge grcnt!'r th:rn -. 1{}.i cun ctruse a ciulng. in light output aftal
c()nsequentiai loss oi inspcclion peLformruee. A coilst:tnt iolt:rgr. lr"linsfturrlr rnav he usi:rl u,here thclr is cvirlcnce rr1'lrillage ch.lngas gretter

lhan ll) 7.

Nolr 2 So*re LjV-A soutcts olhcr than mcicurr vap()l, iirr Lr\llnpllr.
rnicro-Lirsrharge, i"LrD, rte.. ha!a been to ht!Ll crltis:ion chnracteristics such:rs cxcessive lisihL'light lntl LIV inrensit], tll:i{ trla_v rr:sult in
fluolcscent iurle. vcillng ularu. ctc., all o1'rvhieh c3n -risnilicently r-lt-*r'rde
erainiiralior.r lcliabi litr'.

I UV-;\ lights that



peak rva\relellgth at

it l.iV-A [,ED

to 370

soLrrce shnll



r.neilsur-ed \vith a spcch'ot'a.lic{}mcter. \tr"hen r"equested. the

lrlanufilcturer sh:rlI pr"ovicie a crrtiflcatirnt thereol'.
6.6.2 Batter'1,'-[)owered tiV-A lights used to c\xminc piirr\
shall hrve their intensity nreasureel prior to use and after fach

6.7 Etltti1*rtcnt Verifit:tttir;,r-See Section lii.

7. Examination Area
7.1 Light ltrten.tit'* .t'rtr F)xruninutittn L,lugnetlc indications
fcund r.rsing nonfluorescent particles ;tre exanlined under vis,
ible light. Indications lbuncl irsing il-roresceat particle:i ntusr be
exanlined Llnder LIV--A (black) light 'I.his requires a darkened
area \,vith accompanying coiltrol o1' the visible lisht intensity.
1.1 "1 Visible {,igfu hunsil1-The intenrity of tlre visible
light at Lhe surluce ol the part/rvork piece undL.rgoing nonf:luorescent particle exar.ninution is lecornmenclerl to lre a triuili.lunl


100 lbot car.rdles i lU76 lux).

"1.1 Ficld E-rontittutiotrs-F'or sonrc .field c.rtt*rintttion.s

r!sing nonfluot'escenf particles. visible ligitt in{ensilies as lorv as
50 lotx canciles (,538 lux) may be user-l ',vhen agreed on b1, rhe
1 .1

contracting agency. Antbient Vi.tiltle Liel?l-The itrtensity ol anrbient
visiblc light in the darkened aroa r,vlrer-e l'luoresucnr rnagrrctie
particle testing is per"tbrrlcd is rccomrncnded to not excfed '7
loot candles (2l.-5 luxi.
r' .1.2 (llluclc) Lighr:
"2.1 UV-r\ {l}ltu:k Light) [utr:rtsrA'-T"he L]\',A irradiaace
al the examinatiun suriace is recorun:erxied to not be less than
l{J00 prW/crn2 when mei.rsure(l with a suitable UV-A radiontetef.
Copyright ASTM nternat onal
Provided by IHS lnder icense w th AST[/
No reproducton or neiworking permtted wtho!t icense lrom IHS

8. Nlagnetic Particle illaterials

8.1 14 ttgnetic Pc rtitle P ttprrtie,s:
8.1.1 Drl' Fttrtir:le Pntperties Al\1S lO:tL) clescribes


g*neraily acceptecl pt'operties of ch'y nrethod plrticles.

8.1 .2 ll'et Pnrtirle lj*tptrties--Tl're 1'ollowing ilocrime:nts
descrihe the generally accepted properties o1' ilethod

plrticles in their r,arious tbt'ms:

A1\,IS 3t1.1
l4agnetic P*rticle
N,Iethod, Oil Vehicle, Ready to Llsc:

s. Non-fluolescent.


Ail,{S 3{1.12 i\'{agnetir,: Particles. Non-llLrot'escent, Wet

Nletlrod. I)r1, Poiyjt'r

3043 Magnetie P;,rrticles, Non,flLrorescent, Oil

Vehicle, Aeritsol Packageci

AIIS 3t)44 \,lagnetic Part.icles. Fluoresccnt. \Ye1 N.leiliod.



AMS 3045 I'Iagnetic Particles. Non,fluorescenr. Wet

Methori" Oil V'ehicle, Readi,' tn Use
AN.{S 3046 }.'[agnetic Paticles, Non-l'luoresccnt. \Yr-t
l!{ethocl. Oii Vehicle. Ar:rosol Packaged
8.1.3 Sir.rperusk.'tr l/elricle.-The suspelsion vehiele 1or i.vetmrrthod ex:lmination may be either a light oil distillate l'lLrid

(r'eler to AL,IS


or A-A-52930) or tr condirioned rvlfer

r.ehicle (rel'er to AS ;1792).

8.2 Pttrticfu lrpe.i-T.he par:ticlcs used in either dry or u,,et

rnagretic parlicle testirrg techniqnes ar:e basical ll,' flnely di vi cleil
ferrcnragnetic matelials r.vhich have bt:en lreated to impart
color (llLrorescent and nor:lluorescent) in ordcr tit make them
highl;, visible (contrasting) against the backgror-rnd o1' the
suLf iLCe heing exarlined. The par.liclLrs are clesigned tor use
eitlter ls a free llorving dry powder or l'ot'sLrspension at a given
concentration in a sr"riteble liquid rnedium.
8.3 Ptrrtitlt Charactaristir',E-The rnagnetic parficles must
have high pern'reabilitS, to allolv ease of rnagnetizing and
attraction lo the site ol the flux leaka-{e nlrd l{llv retentivity so
thi:y ivill uoi tle attracre.i (ntagnetic aggkrnrrration) to each
other. L-ontxrl ol'particle size ancl shape is rer-luireci l"o oht-ain
consistent results. The particies should he norrrorie. licc l-rom
rusl. grease, paint. rlirt, and other de:leterio*s tr-iaterials thal
migirt interl'ere rvith tlieir use: see .:iJ.: anLl lij.r':. lloth clry ancl
rvef partir'les are considereti sale when used in accorciairce witlr
the r:ranuijrcturer''s instnrctions. They generally at'ftird a vert,
lor.v hazarr[ pctcnlial with regard to 1'larnmability and toxicitv.
_Qrder Number: 02067709


.{$p rzos - rs


t,r:*reeptir:n shc*'i:.:g ll*r ciistriiiutiarr

rr.ith p:rrt j* 1ir* L',*rl*n'r *lthe **it

ncar in coit


Bench Fixed Coil and Field Distribution

li.4 Iln., Purtitles -Dr.l naltnetie lxiivders are designeri tu

bc used ls supplied ;rnd ar"e applied bv spra1.'ing or dusting

clirectly oato the surfac* ol tire part being exatiiuel1. 'I'he-v are
generally used on an expendable basis becanse of the requirernent to maintain particle size and coiltrol po-ssible contrmination. Reuse is not a nurnral practice. Dr-v por,vdels ma1, also hc
LlsL:d undcr cxtrcme L:nvironmeiltitl conditions. They rre not
allecled b;-- coid; theleir.rre eranrirurtir.n can be carried tiul at
terl]lleratures thal woulii thicken or lrseze rvtt l.raths. Thc:) xre
also helt resistant; sornc powders nray be usahle at lernpcratures up to 600'F (315"C). Sorne colored. olganic coatings
applietl to r.lry particles to irr4;rove coiltruist lose their c-olor 11
telnperatures this high. inaking the contrast less e11'ective"

dry particir:s canrlot be used at tlris high a

temperature: lhe manr.rl-acturer shoulcl be conlacied lbr the

temperature limitatir:ns (see i.{.1 .i.t.

8.4.1 Adtonurge.i-The dry magnetic particle technique is

gencrally suprrior

to the wet



iletection ol'

near-surlace tiiscontinuities cln parts r.vith a gross indication

size. I{efer to,:.j.}: (a) for large objects rvheu using portable
er;uiprnent for local rnagnetization; (b) superior particle rlohilitl,' is r:btained tor relatively deep-seaterl flaws using halt'r,vave recli['icd cLrrrenl as lhe nragnetizing source; (c) ease of


2 lli.liirly o n t * I


--Thrr dry magnetic particl e lecl.rnique :

ta) cannot br: used in confined areas wilholrt proper safet;,

breathing apparatus; (b) can be eliflicult to use in overhead
nagnetizing positions: (c) rloes not aiways leave evidence of
courplete coverage of part surtace as with ihe wet technique;
(r-'l) is likely lo lrave [o'"ver prtduction rates than the wet
lechnique; ar:rl (e.) is diliicult to adapt ti) any type i;lautomatic

mellts are not often iivailable in the tield-ty'pe localion3 where

dry rnagnetic particle d\irnlinrtions are especially sLritahle.
8.4.5 Duol l*:i'y;onse-Dual response particlc-s are available
that are leailily i-letectilble iir visible light and also Cisplay
lluoresceirce r,vher viewed under' {.i}'-A or a courbiilatior}
visible ancl LrV--A. I.ise in accorciance rvith the manulactLrrer's
reconr nre nclittitxr s.

8.5 i'i/zl Puriit:!a. ^\j',irryri.l-\\et tragnr:tic particlL-s ate deto he suspenrled in a vchicle such as rvater or light
petrohllm clislillate at l giicn cr)nccntri.rtion Ior applicalion to

the eranrination surl'ace by llowing. spra5,ing, or grouring. They

are a\iailable in both fluor"escent and nonfluoresceut concen-



sonle Lrases the particlt-rs are premireci rvith the

bl the sLrpplier. but usuall_v the particles are

supplied as a dr';,' c(lrlcLrntrote or paste concentrate rvhich is
nrixecl r.r,ith the dislillato or water b,v the user. The suspensions
are norrnally' used in wet horizontiil rr.ragneiic pill'ticle equiplrenl in \r,hich lhr: suspeilsion is retained in a reservoir ancl
recirculated ftir continuous Lrse. Thc- suspension ma1' also Lre
useLl on an expendable basis disprenserl ti"om an aerosol or other
suspending vehicle

suitthle dispensers.
8"5.1 Prinutrl* Use Because the parlicles used are snraller"
wet rnellrod lechnil1ues are generally nsed to locate smaller
rliscuntinr-riticrs tharl the dry methocl is Lrsed firr'. The liquid
vehicles Llser"l may not pcrlbm satislactorily i.vhr:n their viscos;ty exceeds 5cSt (5 r.nmt/s) at the operating temperature. Il'
thr: surpension vehicle is a hyclroe:albon" ils fiash point lirnits

the lop lemperillure ol r-rsage. l'liring equiprnenl for bulk

ol rnanual egitalion f-or portable dispensers is usually




their highcr cost and use limitatior-rs. Thei; reclLrire a U\'-A

(blaclt) light source ancl a darkened work area. ThesL: requir"e-

dry magnetic particle porvcler can be almost any ctilor. the rnost frt-qucntly
emplo-ved colors are light gray. black, red, or yellolv. The
choice is generally hased on lnaxilnuni contrilst rvith the
Non.futors{t7t fblrrr,r.*-AlLhough

surface to be examined. The exaniiuation is done unrler visible

8.4'.4 Fluore.rr-erul, -Fluore,{cent dry rilagnr'tic particles are
also availahle, but are not in general use printaril3,. becairse ol
;:jJJ::';:IX ::ff iHl! ** o.,,
No reproduct on or neMorking perm tted w thout I cense from IHS

to keep wet rnethod particles unifbnnll, in suspension.

Us.rl-The rvet fluc;rescent nrethod usuall3,' is
perforrned indoors or in aleas where shelter and anrhient light
level can be controlled and where propet' application equipment is availatrle.
8.5.3 Color-Tlre coL:r' chosen lbl any giren erlLmination
shoulcl be one that best L:ontrasts with the test sirrfitce. Because
conti'ast is irrvariabl,v higher with fluotescent nraterials, these

prder Number:02067709

il]t l8JJr".ti\|t"T+t'NDoNESrA

17001 661




art Lrtilized in rnost rvet process rrunrirrations. Fluorcscent rvet

niethod particles nornrall_v _ulorv iL bright yellorv-Ereeu tvhen
viewerl undel LIV-A (black) light" ;rlthoLrgh other colors are
*r,ailal.r1e . Non-{'luorr:scenl par-tir:les ale Lrsuall_v black or recldish hroivn. allhoLrgh other r:olors are *vailahle. I)riai re sponsc
particle s are availilhle thilt are reatlily deteetable in visibl* light
and alsc display iluorescence rvhen vicwed under UV-A iight
or a cor'lri:ination l'isible and UV-A liglrt" Ref'CIr to::.j.
8.5.;l Srr.rpeirsioti Veh.icltt -Generally the particles arc susiu a iiglrL i:etltleum (krrv-viscositv.r distillate or condi,


are specified, use "l'cst

ill sulfirl'rir chlorine litnits

['lethods l:lr:r.:r'j,' :1';j.'r,1. Alnex A2 ol A.l to rielermine their.

tioned rvater.
vi,iiuf s.

8.5.:l.l I'errul.etun Distillure"i-Lor.v-viscositv light pctrolcirrn distillates velricles (AL.1S 2(;'1 I 'Iirpe I or eriual j are ir.leal
ftrr suspending both fli-rorr-scent anrl nonfluorescent magn*tic
particlcs and are conrmonlv ertrploved.
i I i A{tv{rntogg.e--{w6 signilicant advantages firr thc us* r,rl'
petrok:um tiistillal"e vehicks are: (a) ihe nragnelic parl,icles arrr
sLrspended ard ciisper-secl in petroleurn clistillate vehicles r,r,ithout the use ol conditioning agents: ancl (Lr) the pc:rroleum
distillate vehicles proi,ide a me:tsure olcrtro:ion pnrtcction to
parti and lhe equipment uscd.
(2 ) Ilisttdyttn

rrgr,i-Principal disadvantages are

flarnrnabilitl,, l'r,rr.nes, and ar.aiiabiiity. ti is essentinl. thelelore,

[o select and rnaintain readil_v avai]able sources of' supply r-rl'
petroLrum riistiliate vehiclcs thar [:ave as hi_eh a l]ash point as
practicable fo avoid possihle flatnrnubilitv probletrs ancl pt-oviile a work area t,itlr proper rrentilation.
{ 3 ) d-lutktL'teri.slic.s-Petroleum
clistiilate vehicle s to bs
usecl in wct rrlagnetic particle lesting should possess rhe
lblloq,ing; (a) r,,iscosity shoultl not exceecl 3.0 cSt (3 tnnt2ls) at
100'F i38"C) and not rnr:r'e tlrau 5.0 cSt 1-5 rnm:/s) at the lou'est
terrlprritturc at which the r.,ehicle will be used: rvhcn verilierl in
accordance with Tesr Method i]-1-.1-'i. in orcler not to impede
particle rnobilily (see 'Jti. /.r), (D) rninintrm flash point. wherr
r,,r'rilied in accordance rvith Test Nilethods i]ri.i. shor-rlcl be
200'F (93'C) in order io rninirnize fire hazards (see .-.i!.1.-i), {r.)
odorless: not ohjectiortahlr-: to user, (11) loi,v inhelent l'lur>re-scence if used r,vith flurtlescent parricjes; tirat is, it sl'rould not
intcll-ere si snilicantly r.vith lhe fl uorescent ilarticle indicatiotrs
(see .li:l:. i i). irnd ie) norreactive; shoukl not dcgradr sr-rs,
pend*d ;)articles. Wuter l'ehit'les tv.itlt Crnrlitirlting Agarr.i-Watc:r

rnay be ursed as a suspension vehicle fi>r wel magnetic parlicles
proviclecl suitable conclitioning agents are added lvhich provide

ploper wct tiispersirrg. in arlclition to corrosior] prorection tor

the pilrts treing c.ri;rnrined and the cclr.riprnent in use. Plain i.vater
not dispelse sonle typcs r'rl ntagnetic palticles. does not
rvet a1l surliictrs. and is colrosive fo parls ancl equiprnent. On
the other: hand, conditioned rvater suspensions of rtragnetic
particles are saler to use since they are nonflalnntablcr" The


lection ;urd concentration of tlre corrdilioning a_rent .should be

iis r:ecorllulenrlecl by the particle nralrr-rlnctuler'. The tbllarving

ilre reroJnrnendcd properties fbr rvaaet' vehicles conlaining
condilionirrg agents lor usr' with lvet rnagnetic particle testing:
Copyr ghl ASTM lnternational
Provded by IHS under icense wth ASTM
No reproduction or nglworklng permilied w

( i ) \Yettittg {.'lruructeri,stit s -I'he vehicle shor:ld har,*

good wetling chancteristics: that is. r.r,et fhe sr-rrfacc lo he
examinerl. -qi\re rven. complete coverage rvithout evidelce oi'
delvr--{tin-e the rxamitralion surlace . The surlace tension (coverilge) should be obselved inr-lcper.rdentlv Lrnr-'lel bcth U\-A
(biack) light ancl visihle light. Srnooth t:ranrination sulfaces

reclLrilc thal a gr-eafel perc:entage of wetting ageltt be added than

is leqnired f'or rou-uh sr"rrlace. Nonionic uctrin-s i.ircnL\ .u-LICC{)tntnL't}LlcLl (:ce ..: - , ).
i 2 1 S u :; p e n :; t n tl h a rar: t e t'i.rt1r'.t-lrnpirrt goori di spersahil i

it-v; that is. tholiiuchlv disperse ihe rnagnetic particles r,r,ithrtLrt

eviclenccr t [' parti r-:le agglonleratioil.

(.ii [t'r;u.*tin,q-lVIinimize tiranring: that i.r.


shoLrld not

prodLrce excessive ftrarn which wcuL,l inlert'ere r.r,ith inrlicatiou

tblmatio* or c;luse particles to torrn scum u,ith the fbanr.

(1){lorrosivuics.r-lt should ncx corrocle parts to be exarnol lhe er-lLriprnenl in rvhich it is usctl.
i-j ) li,ilo.r ll i Li nt i t-The v i scosi tl, ri i' the concli tirlltell wlrter


shoLrlil not *xeeed a ma.ximurr viscosil-y o1'3 cSt (3 mmrls) at

I(l{} l- ('r


({t) f''arce -tr'he coaditionecl water slioLrlcl not proeluce e xcessil'e lluuresce nc* il interriled lbr use with fluolescenl
(7) iy"rmrett'til,r,n.{.r-The r,rorrtlilioued rvater shonkl not
cause cleterioration of the suspendecl magnetic palticles.
(3) V\|rrcr yH-The pFi of tlre conditioned u,ater should trot
be less than 7.{) or erceecl 10.-5.
{9) Oiktr-The conditioned rvater shor"rld hc esseniiall-v
8.5.5 (i;nr'r:r t { rut i ( )n cl We t fu[ u gn c t i t' P * rtit:l e 5us7;r:n.rlori-

The initial bath concentrution of suspendeci nragnetic particles

shoLrld be as specilicr-l or as recor-rturenclecl b-y the nunulicturer
ar.rd should he checket'l by seltling volume measulcnretrts and
rntir-rtained ai thc' specilied concentration on a daily basis. Il'thc:
concentratioo is not maint;Linerl properiy, examinat.ion resuits
can vary greatly. The concentration of dual response particles
in the u,et-method bath suspension u'rrry be adjLrsted to hest
perfblm in the desiled lighting environnrent. Iligher pal-ricle
coucdntl.atioii is rect'rmr:nr'ndr"d lilr visiblc light areas anrl lower
piil'ticle concrnlritlion is recomrnended lbr [,iV-A areas. LIse in
accordance with the particle rnanufacturer's recommeudalions.

ilIttgttelit Purtit'les isee i:...i).

8.3.] ['{aptrctit Slurrl,/Pttirul .l\,.rri:nr.r -Anothr-r type tif ex-

8."5.6 A7.r1.r/irtrlion oJ' lYe:t

arnirration r,ehicle is the niagnetic sh-rrlyipaiill type consistiug

ol a hear,], oil in lvhich llake,like particles nre suspenried. The

nrateriel is nonnallv applied by brush belbre the part is
mas.netized. Becausc ol' tlrc high viscosil_v, ilre nraterial does
not rapidly rLrn ofl' surlaces. lacilitating the examinatior.r ol'
ve rtical or overhead sLrrlace s" The t,ehicle s tnay be
cornbustible , but the hre hazarr-1 is very lorv" Other hazurcls are
very, si*.rilar to those of the clil anr-l 'ovater velricles previousl-y


Prll-r,rle r-Bas<ztl







rnagnet.ic polymer is basically a lic$rid polymer which disperses

the magnetic pmticles and which cllres lo an elastic solid in a

perior-1 of tinte. lirrrning fixed indicatious. \,'iscositS,
limits of standlrd wet technique vehicles do not apply. flare
,rhoulrl he ererciscrl in hanclling these poll,mel matelials. L.rse


tho!t I cense from IHS

- rs

Number: 02067709

,8li l8f Jr".%:"r'.1?+t'



s A 1700

66 I 0528 I r'

..{$}p rzoe


rrccllr'dance lvith m:rnufacturer's instnrctit'rn-c and preLrautions. This techniqrle is particulally applicable to exarnination
areas of iinriterl visual accessibilitr,, such as bolt holes.

9" Part Preparation

t).L Get*ral-fhe surlace of the lerrorn:rgtietic palt to


examined shouk"l be essentially clean. dry, nnd lree of cotttatninanls such as rlirt. oi1. grease, loose rrist, loose nrill sanLl. lo{}se
nrill scale. lint, thick paint, u,eirli*g fli-rx/slag. ;rnrl we ld -rplatler
that rnight re slricl particle nr(]vemerlt" See ii. L.l aboLri appii'-

pailicies to a daml:/wel surlace. When e.rarnining a

l weld. the areas adjaceal to the surfacc tir
be examined. as agrcer-l b.r, the contracting parties, ttust also be
cleaned to the extent ncr'cssnr'_\ tu pcrniit r,letection of indications. See r\1-:1:;;11i!3';. Xl ibr mol'e infortnlttion oil steels.
9.l.l iYonc'rtndrtt'tivt, Corrtirg,r-Thin nonconductive
coatings. such as paint in lhe order oi I or 2 mil (ii.02 to 0.05



local alea, such as

mrn) will not normally inlerlere with ihe lirrmalion rtl

indications, bLrl they rnust be renxrved a{ all points whrrri,
clcctlic;il c{}ntact is to be nrar-1e ibr direct rttagrretization.
Indirect rnagr)etization does not require eleclricill contact with

tlie partlpiece. See Section i: l. If a ttonconducting coating/

plating is lett on the area to be exatnined that has a thickness
greater than

2 rnil (0.t)5 nrm), it ntust be

cletnr-ltiitraterl that
unacceptahle discontinLiilie s can be cleiecteil ihrough the rnlrilnum thiL:kness applicd.
9.1 .2 {-ontluttive Cociiing.r-A conclitclir.'e cttaling (such as

chrome plating and heavy mill scale on wroLtght proclucl,s

resultir:g frotr hot fonning opelulions) cac mask rliscontinr.rities. As rvith noncon<luctive .:oatings, it must he demonstrated
that lhe unalrceptable clisconlinr.rities can be dr:tected thror"rgh
the coaling.
9.1.3 frrslduul h{ugrLrtit Fields-lf the part/piece hokls a
residual lira;luetic field fiom a previous magnelization that wiil
interlere ivith thc cxamination, the parl musl he delnagnr-tizr-c1.
See Section


9.2 Cleufirg L'..ruminittion ,\Lt.,joce-Cleaning ot the e.ranination surface rnlv be accomplished hy tlefetgettts. organic
solvents. or rnecheurical melns. As-rvelded. as-rolled, as-cast.
or. as-fhrsed snrfac:es are .eenelalll.' satisfacttiry', but if the
sullace is Lrnusuully nonunitbrrn. as wil[: hulned-in sattd. a verv
roLrgh wr'ld deposit, ol scale. interpretalion ma1, tre diflicult
hecause of nrechanical entraprrent ril the magnetic particle s. In
case of douht. any queslionablc area shoukl be recleaned and
reexarnirred (see :i. i ).
L).2.1 Plugging ud Ntttsking ,Snutll {loles und Openilrys-

tinless prohihited by the purchaser'. small openitgs aucl oil

lroles leacling to obscure passages or cavities can be plug-eed or
nraskc'd r.vith a suitable nonabrasive inuterial r,vhich is reaclily
renroved. In the case ol' engine parts, the material must tre
soluble in oil. ElTeciive nrasking mLrst be r.rsed to pr{}l"rcl
cornponellts that rrray be darnaged b3r contact *,ith the partie-les
Ur' parliclc :us,rensiott.

[{}. Sequence of 0peralions

10.1 Sequettt:ing Parlitle Altp!.itttliort ttnd Estahli,rltin,q
fuIttgrwtic Fh.tu Field-The secluence ol-opt'r'ntiort in maenctic
particle exarninatirx applies t{r the relaiionship hetr,vc.en the
::iJ,#:'J:lx fi":ii'"311! -*

- rs

tinri*g and application of parlicies and *stablishiirg the nragnetizing flux fielcl. Jwo basic lechniques apply. that is, con-

I i and :ai. I.:) ancl residual (see iii.;...:1, both

ernployed in industr3,.
I0.I.I {'antintxtLrs fuIugntri:crioru-Llontinuous ttxtgttr-tizalion is enrployrd tor most applications r"rtilizing either dr_v or
wet pallicles and rvill provicle higher'lna.Llnetic field strengths.
to aitl indication ibln-ration betaer, than lesirlral nlagenlic fields.
tinLrous isee li].

The continuoils lneth{}rl mirst be used wher: perfbrrriing mr-rltir-lirectional magnetizalion. The sequellce of operation lbr thc
rlrl' and lhe u,el cor.rliuuous magrletization lechniques are
signiiicantll,- iJillert-:nt anrl ate discusserl separalel,v in ti:. i. i .l
{)r't, {rtiitLtutus Mogneti:clitnt 'ler:luriqse-Unlike
a lr,et suspelrsion. dry pal'ticles lose rrrost ol their tlobility


r.vhen thcy' contact the sullace of' a pai:t. Therefbre. it is

inrpelative !.hat thc part/area ol' intelest be *nder thc influence
o1' thc applierl magnet-ic lield lvhile the parLicles are still
airborne and liee l{} be attriicled to lc:akagr; helds. This dictates
that the floiv ol' rnagnrtizing cur"rent be initiated pritr to lhe
application of clry magnetic particles and teuninateel after the
applicatiol of por.vder has been completed and an1,' excess has
been blorvn o11. N.,lagnetizing with HW current and ;\C cul'rcnt
plr.rviile additional particle rnobilit-v on the surtace of the par"t.
Erarnination rvith rh'y partichs is usuall_l, carried i:ut in
eonjr-rnclion u'ith prod-ti,'pc or,voke localized nragnetizatii)ns.
and bLrildup of ir.rdications is observed as lhe pilrticies are heing


1.2 \Yet Continuou,s htu;4neti:.ittiott'[ccltnitlue-The

continnous magnelization technique involves bathing the
palt rvith the examination rnediurn to provide an abrrndanl
source ol suspr-'nr-led palticles on thc surlace of the part ancl




lermilating the balh application inrtrediately prior to the

ol the nragnetizing cllrrent. The duration ol' the
magretizing current is typicall-v on ihe orcler ol r,'i s for each
rnagnetizing pulse (sl-rot). with tr.vo or nlore shot-r gir.,en lo llte
part. To insr"rre that indications iire not washc-d a"r,ay, tlte
sr-rbseclue ut shots shoulcl fbllclv the firsl whi]e the particles are
stiil rnobile on the sr.rrtace of the parl.
10. L 1.3 Polt,nte r or Slurn' Continuortt il(tRn(ti-drion
Tet'ltnique- Prolonged or repeatecl periods ol rrlgnetization
ale rrlien nelressar! for poll'mer'- or slur-ry-base suspensious
because ol skxvcr inheren{ magnetic parti.rle rrrobilily in the

high-viscosit-v suspension vehicles.

e C o nt i n r.s Lts M a g rtt: ! i :.ttt r tn Te c lui t1u e'-ln lhis

the magnetizing current is sLrstainecl throughoLrl
both the processing and examination ol thc part.
I 0. I .3 Re slr& ut I ful o,q n e t i:-ttlkx t Te t:hr it1 u t s :
141.1.3.I Residuol fulugneti:lttit-tr-Lr lhis technique. the erI





amination nrecliunt is applied after lhe magnetizing fbrce has

been discontinued. It can he used onl-v it- the nraterial hc,ing
examineci has relatively high retentivi{y so the rcsidual }eakage
fielcl will be ol'sulhcient strength to attract anci holcl the

particles and produce indications. This technique ma;, hc:

advantageous tor integration rvith production ol h:rnclliug
requirerients or when higher than residual field strengths are
not required to achier,e satislactory results. When induoirtg
cir"cular fields arrd longituclinal fielcls of long picces, residual
prder N!mber:

^.,, tholt license lrom IHS

No reproduction or networking permined w




,{$fp eroe

- rs

fields are nonnalll, suilicient to rlleet rnlgnetizing rrquirerncrrts

consislent ivith the tecpriremenl-s o1- Sect'ion i l. The lesii'iual
method has lirur.rd r.virlc Lrse trranrining pipe and tubLilar goorls.
For rnlgnerlization re(iuirements ol' oilllclLl iuhulars. Lefer ,.i.-

to he ernplol'etL. llecruse particle rnovernent, either r,1t'y ot' r'r,et

is noticeablv less, plecautions must be taken to ensule thai
sullicient time is ailorvecl l'or iornratiiln of indicntiuns.
i 1 .I .4 ,Dlrcrr Curre,nt f DCj--A bank ol hatlerie s, ltrl[-ivave

,1t:;:*l:i!: :":,. Uuless rlemonslr"alions rvith ty'pica1 plrts inclicrte thal the residual fieid has sull'icient strength to plc,-lucc


relel,ant indicatians ol'disconlinrrities (see lii.ri ) r,vhen the helci

is in proper orie ntation, the continuous nlethod shr-ruld be uscd.


Types of N{agnetizing Currents

1i.1 Eoiil Cunent lrTit:r'-'fhe iour basic type,r of current

11.1 .1 ;\!rertriltiil! Cilj"]eilr lr{Cl-Part magnelizirtion u,itl.t

alternating clrrrerlt is prclerrc-cl 1'or those u,here

residual magnetic fielcl in tubing. casing, line pipe. and clrill

). i.
pipe. For specilic requilernent.. sce i ,

eraminrlion recluirenrents call for the detection of

discontinuities. snch as fatig*e cracks" lhat iire open Io the

12. Part t\{agnetization Techniques

surfhce to r.vhich tire nragnetizing fblce is applierl. Associaterl

r,r,ith.,\C is a "skin e11'ect" that conlines lhLr niagrletic lreld at or
neilr to the sudace ol'a part. l'r contrast, both l{W c*rlerrL and
FW current produce a rl;ignetic field having penetrating
cai;abilities proporti{}nal to the .ui.tor.lnt o1' applied cun'ont.
which should he usecl when near-surlace or inside sur'lace
discontinr-rities ;rre o1' coilcenl.
I1 I "2 HtIf-\t'ave {let!i|'ietl Cu.rrent {11l.Ll-F{ali'-wilve cur:

17.l E.t'tttttitttrtitxt Coverttge-All examinatiotts shoulcl be

coniluctcd rvith sLrflicienl .ireil overlap [o assilre the required
colieriige at the specified sensitivity has hr'en oblained.

palt cen bt:

121 Dirct't antl lniliret:t fultLgntli:.tuittn
ruragnetized cithr:r directl,v" or inclirectly. For r-lirect rnrgll.lirrilitx the rlagnetizing current is passerl clirectll, throLrgh the part
creating a magnetic tleld oriented 9() degrees to cul'rent flow in

rent is lrequcntly used in conjunction with rvet. and rt'y

the palt. With indirect rnagnetizotion technirpes l rnilgnetic

field is induced in the par1. which can create .i circular/toloicial"

particles hecausc [he cnrrent puises irrovide rn(lle rnobilit,l' to

thc palticles" This waveiirnn is uscrd rvilh prods, yokes" inobile
and hench irnits. Hall-lvave ree tilied currenl is uscd io ;icl.rir:r,rilcpth ol penelralion l'or deter:tion ol typical cliscontinuities
lbund in rvr:ldrnents, lbr;eings. irn,,l ferrous castings. As with AC
for magnetization. single-phase current is utilized anil the
average value rneasr.rred as "magttetizing r":urrent."



Ret:ri.fied Currerfi

Lrtilize single-


or a DC sener:rl{}r



t.3 l;lrl1-lVuve


reachcs high amperage ri,ith a very shorl clulalion (norinallv

lhan l5 nriltriseconils). Because ol'the shori prilse clLrrurtiern
the cun'ent recluil'cme:ils are allccttd by the atrount ol'mate rill
to be magnetized rs lvell as the appliecl anrpernge. The
capacilor: dischiir:ge technique is rviriel,r,' to establish a

used in nragnetic pilrtiL'le testing to establish pail rnrrgnetizrrtion

are alternating culrent iACl, half -lvave r-cr:tificd cLrrrent (IIW).
llll-r,vavc' rt-'clified crirre!rt (FW). ancl fiu a special application.


AC iiltered through

produce ,,lirect magnclizing currenl. 'I'hev lralc larsciy given

\,ay lo halirvave rectifierl or lull-wave lectified DC r'xcept tbr
a fell specialized applicatious. prirnarily lrccrius* of broad
tpplication advantages u,hen using othcr tvpe s ol eqr,ripment.
ll .1.5 Ca1;ar'itur Disclrttrge ({{)) {.-urrenL-A bank of capaci!-,.lrs ar.e u-qed to slore energy and whcn triggered ihe enelgy

longitudinll. or rnultiriirectional rnagnetic frelcl in the palt. The

tcchniques desci'ibed in .li:.1, tirr verilying that the magnetic
llekls havc- the anticipated dirr:clion an.i strength shouLl be
cmplo,ved. This is especillly intporlant rvhett usiug mr-rltidirectional techniques fo exemine cornpler shapes.


12.3 {-lr:ositt,q *Iognerizution

choice of
dilect or indirect rnagnetization will depend on sltch f actors as
'lrilri.: i compares the
size, coniigr-u'ation, or ease of'prtcessing.
advantages ancl lirnitations of the various ol parl

il-l'|r;-Irull-wave cilr-

three-phase culrent. Three-phase

{uffent has the advantagc of lor.r,er line arnpcrage

le,hereiis single-phase equiptlent is less erpcnsive. F'r.rll-wave
reclilled currenI is cqrmrnortlv used when the residual me lhod is


TABLE 1 Advantages and Limitations of the Various Ways of Magnetizing a Part



g Techn!que and lvlalerial Form

Direct Contact Part Magnetization (see




Headfiaiistock C(-)ntact
Solid, relalively srnall parts {castings,
forgings. machinod oreces) thal iran be
processed on a horizontal wet Lrnit

1. Fast, easy technique.

1. Possibillty of arc llirrns if poor contact conditions


2. Circular magnetic

2. Long parts should be examineC in sections

{ield surrouncis current path.


facilitate balh appllcation without resoding to an

overly long current shot.

3. Good sensitivity to surface ancl near-surface discontinurties.

4. Simple as well as relatively cilmplex paris usually be
easrly processed wilh one or more shots.

5. Complete magnetic path rs conducive lo maximizing residuel

characteristics of nrateriai.
Large castings and forginEs

1. Large surface areas can be processed and examrned


Cylindrical parts such as tubing, pipe, hoilou.,

shafts. eic.

Copyr ghi ASTM lnlernaiional

Provded by IHS under I cense with ASTM
No reproduction or network ng perm tted wthoul license irom IHS


1. High amperage requirements (16 000 to 20 000A)

dictate costly DC power sirl.)ply.

relatively short time.

Er-rtire length can be circularly magnetized by contacting,

1. Effective fie,d limited to outside sudace and cannot

be used lor !nsrde diameter examination.

end to end.

(prder Number: 02067709

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Magnet;zing Techntque and Material Fornl




- rs



2. Ends must be conducii\,,e to eieciricai coniacts and

L*ng solid parls silch as biliets, bars. shafts,

Entire iength can be circularly rnagfiettzed by


end to end.

Curreni requirements are independenl of


capable of carrying i'equireci current vrithout excessive

heat. Car:not be used on oillield tubulars because oi
possibil|ty of arc burns.
1. OLrtput voitage requirements ;ncrease as lhe part
lengtlr inc.eases. due to greater value ol the
rmpedance endior resistance as the cables and part
length grows.
2. Ends must be condiictive to slectriCal contact arid
capable of carrvirg required current withoLt excessive

N0 end loss.
Circular freld can be selectlvely directed tc
1. Only small area can be examined at one time.
prod placement.
2. ln conjLlnction ivith half-wave rectified alternating current afld2. Arc burns {:jue to pocr contacl
dry powder, provides exce!lent sensitivity to subsllrlace
discontinuities as weli as surface type.
3. Fiexilrle. in that prods, cables, and po'rver packs can
3. Sudace musi be dry when dry powder is being used.
brclrght ta examination site.
4. Prod spacing must be ]n accorriance urith the
nragnetlzing curr+nl le'Jel.
1. Entire sudEce arae can be examined in small incroments 1. Coverage of large surlace area require a niultipliciiy
using norninal current 'JAlues.
oi shors that ca0 be ver,/ {ine-consumrng.
2. Circular field can be concenlrated in specillc areas
2. Possibiiity of arc burns du-. io poor contact. Surface
historically are prone lo discontinuities.
should be dry when dry oorrder is bBing used.
3. Equiprnent can be brought to the location ol parts that
3. Large por.ier packs (r:ver 60004) cften require a
diflicult lo move.
large caDacity voltage source to operate.
4. ln conjunction wrth half-r4/ave reciified alternatinq current and4. When usrng H$/ cur.ent or FW current on retenlive
dry powder, provides excellent sensii,vity to near surface
malerials, it is oJten necessary that the power pack
subsurlace type discontinulties lhit are difJicult to iocate by
be equipped with a reversing DC demegnetizing


Prods: w*elds


Large castings or




ll. lndirect Part Magnetization (see lj,i.:,i)

Ceniral Conductor
Miscellaneous parts having holes throuEh
wnich a conduclor can be placed such as:
Bearing race
H0llolv cylinder

When used properly, no eleclrical contact is made with

pad and possibility of arc burns eliminated.




Size ol conductor must be ample lo carry required



Large nut

2. Circumferentially directed maqnetic fleld


is generated in

2. Larger diameters require repeated magnetization

su{aces. surrounding the conductor (inside dianreter, laces,

with conductor agarnst inside drameter and rotation o!

part between processes. Where continuous
magnetizaticn iechnique is being employed,
examination is required after each magnetizalion



3. ldeal for those cases where the residual method is

Light weight pa|ts can be supporied by the centrai
5. Smaller central conductor and rnulttple coil wraps may be
used to reduce current requiremenls.


Large clevis
Pipe coupling, casingitubing
Tubular lype parts such
Hollow shaJt


Large valve bodies and similar

I. When used properly,

electrical contacl is ilade wilh




Outside surface sensrti,/rty aflay kle somewhat less

than that obtained on the insi.le surlace for large
diamBter and extremely heavy wall sections.

2. lnsrde diameter as ,,vell as outside diameter examinalion.

3 Fnlire lclgrh ot par'1 c,rcuiarly magnelizcd.
1 . P{ovic{ee good sensitiyity ior deleclion oi discontinuities 1. OutEide

localed on internal sudaces.



part and pcssibility oi arc burns eliminated.


Miscellaneous medium-sized parts where the

length predominates such as a crankshaft


All generally longituclina, surfaces are

magnetized to effeclively locaie transverse discontinuilies.

suriac" sensiilvit'j may be so$e$rhal less

than that obtained on ihe inside diameter for heavy
ival, secti0ns.
l. Length may cjictate multrple shot as coil is

2. Longitudinal magnelizatioir of compler parts wilh

Large castings, Iorgings. or

Miscellaneous small



Copyright ASTM lnlernalional

Provided by IHS under iicense w th ASTM
No reproduction or networking permitted w thout license from IHS



Longitudinal field easily attained by means of

Fasy and fasl, especiaily where residual magnetizalion




upsets such as crankshafts will lead to dead spots

where the fiagnetic iield is cancelled out. Care must
be taken to assure magnetization of all areas in
perpendicular directions.
l\4ultipie magneiization may be i'equired due lo
coftfiguratron of parl.
LID (lengthidiamete0 ratio i.npoilant consideration in
determining adequacy of fi mpere-lui'ns.

gder Number: 02067709

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,ffi eros - rs



Maqnetizing Technique and lvlateriai Form

2. Nc electrical .antfict"

2. Effective LiD i'atio can be altered by utilizing pieces

Relativel:i conrplex pafis can uslially be prccessed

;atrre ease as tnoge rr,th simp e .rcss seLiiLc.

o{ simiiar crilss-sectional area.


3. L.Jse s.nailer ccil for more intense field.

4. Sensiiiv ty diminishes at ends {rf parl Cue




ieakage field pattern.

Ouick break desirable to minimize end eflecl on

shcrt parts wilh lolv LID ialio.

lnduced Current Fixtures
Examination cf ring-shaped pad for circumie('1. No eleotrical
entlal-type discontineities.
2. All suriace


1. Laminated

core reeuired through ring.

oi parl suDjected tc toroidel{ype rnag- neiic field.2. Type cf magnetizirlg current must be ccmpalibie


3 Sir'igle process
4. Can lle

Ball examination


lCO %

No eleclncal contact.



3. Other conductors encircling field must be avolCeC.

4. Large diamelers require special consideration.

ci co\.,erage lor disconlinr,iities in any direction \vith

three-step process and picper orientation beiween steps.
3. Can be autcmated.
1. Nc electrical contact.

For small-diamBter balls. !imited to residual


2. 100

Disks and gears

2. Good sensrtivrty at or near periphei']/


Exam jnatron cf large surlace areas
surlace{ype crisc0ntinuities.


No electilcal






3. Can locate discontirru;ties

of l.


Sensilivity in varlous areas can De ,Jaried by core or polepiece selection.

2. Uinhl,.-^/

l\tiscellaneoL:s parts requiring examination

locaiized areas.


100',; aoverage ma_v require turo-step process with

corB oi- pole-piece \,'ariation, or both.
2. Type of magnetizing current must be compatible y'/ith
part geometi'y.

No electrical


Time consuming.
llust be systemaiically reposiiionecl in
randorn discontinuity crientaticn.

any direction \#ith prcper



fuiust be properly posiiioned re:ative to orientation cf



2. Gcod sei-rsitrvily to direct surface


good cr:ntact rnilst be established between ilart anC poles.

Complex pa( gecmeiry may Nause difficuliy.
4. Poor sensitivity to subsuiJacelype disconttnuitres
except in isoiated areas.

Hlgirly portable.

4. Wel or dry technique.

5. Alteinating-curi"ent iype can also serve as derragnetizer

isco ntin u ities.

Z. Relatively


some instances.


Diret-l Cott{rtt:l &'[ugneli:.ctti(7r?-For

{1) [;nrectilicd AC limits the prod teclrnique to the r-[cleclion oI sLrrlace discontinuities. Hall--ivave rectilred AC is rnost
desirable since it ivill rletect both surlace rlnd near-surlace
discorrtinuities. l'he ploei technirlue generally urilizes dr-vlnagnetic p:rrticle materials due to better particle mohility. Wet
rnagnetic pariicles are not genelally r.rsec[ rvith the plod
technique because of potential electrical and llartrnrability


magneiization, lrh)'sica1 conl,acl fitust he made between thf

lerromagnr:tic part an.l lhe currenl ciln']'ing electrodes ctlttnected ti] thc- pou,e t" sclurce. Both localizecl arcu mirgnctizution
and overall p;rrt rnxgnetiziltion are direct contact nteirns of part
magnetization. and can tre acirieved tlrrough the use of prods,
heatl and tailstock. clililps, and lnagnetic leeches.
1 2. 3.2 Loc ul i :e rl r\ ret t l\l tt,q n e I i : trt i tt tt :
12.3.2"1 Pruxl Tecltnique-"trht prod elrclrodes are Iirsl
presscd firrnly against the part under exalninutirlil {\cc
'l'he u-ra-{netizirrg current is tlten passed through lhe prtrds and
into the &rea of the palt in contact i.vith the prods. 'Itris
establishes a cilcular nlagnetic field in the part al'ound altd
betlveen each prod electrode. sufficient to carry out a lrlcal
nragnetiLr prrticle eraminalion (see Iit. i). (llarningExlreme care shoukl be taken 1o maintain elean prod 1ips, to


i2) Proper prod eximination requires a secorrrl placentent

rvith the prods rotated approxinrately 9{}'- from the llrst

piacernenl to tlssure thei all existing discontinuities a,'e levealed. Depending on the surlace coveragc rc-qu it-ctttetttr.
overlap betrveen successive prod plueernenls may' be uecessary.

On lalge surlar-:es. it is goocl prae:tice to layout a grid lbr

lroJ/r,rLc l)lrcctncnt.
I 2 "3 "2.2 M unu rt I CI am p/M * grtt t iL Le v c t'l et: hn i q ue-\.llcal

mininrize healilg at thr point ol' corlact and lo plrcvfnl arc

bLrrns ancl local overheating on the surlace heing exan-rinc-d
since these nrav cause adverse elfects tln rnriterial properties.

areas ol'conrplex comporlerlts rna.v be lnagrtelizr'd by electrical

contacts manLrally ciamped or atrached lvith rnagnetic leeches
t{r the 1}art (i:ig :}. As rvith prr:cis. sr-rllicient ovellap rua3, be

rnelallurgical dan'rage; il lhe tips ale solid

copper" copper penetration inlo thcr part rna),' tlccur. Prods
should not be used on nrachined surlices or or aelospiice


comp()nent ilarts.


Arr-r bnrns may cause

No reproduct on or nelwork ng permitted w

thout cense f rom IHS


the coltlact localion is requiretl.

12.3.:.3 {)t'er*!l Magncti:.u!ir.;rt: \.1) Heut! nnd Tbilstock

CrmNu:t --Parts ma3,be clarnpell betrveen tw{l electrodes (such

Copyrighl ASTM lnternal onal

Provided by IHS under icense wlth ASTM

il' examina{ion


il hea.l and tailstock ol horizrtntal

ffi !#,i{+l,trjii1i



1700 i

66, 05281,,

u,'et nlaglletic pal'iicle

.{$fp eroo

- rs

FlG. 7 Spring Loaded Contact Clamp

(.3) fulultiIirr:t'Iirnut.l il{ttgnr:Ii:Ltlirttt '[t:chnit1ur,:-With sLrit-


ahle circuitry, it is possible to pro<luce a nrultidircclional

(oscillatin-g) field in a part h-v- setrectivcll, sr,vitching the magnetic iield ivithin the part l,relwecn electrode conlacts/clamps
posilioneri rippl'o.riirlate ly 9()" apart or h_y Lrsing ;r comhinution
ol st,itched dilect and in,-lirect methocls. such ls conlact and
coil. 'firis pemrits buildins r.rp indications in all possible

5 Direct Contact Magnetization through Magnetic Leech

part undel exarrination by clanrping (fii;*

the currelrt
carrying electrodes lo the part. producing a circnlar magnetic

directions and may be ccinsidered lhe equivalent *f mtgnetizing in twri or lnole directions (i:i:. x). f)n some contplex
shapes as nrarly as l6 to 20 steps nra3, he requirecl with
con ventional ecl t. Wi tli rnLrlticlil'cctional rnlgnL'ti /iltion.
it ir usualll' possible to rcduce the miignr-rtizing steps rr:quirecl
b1'morc' than hall'. ln many in-\tances. the uumber o[ steps ura,v
be reduced to one. It is essential thlrl the 'ulcI eontiuuous
tnethod. be used ancl that the magnetic field direction ancl
r-elatile intensit,r' be iletennined by i\S 5,17 t shims as clescribed
in .':1.,,:i::r,.ir',: 'r I ol rvith u iclentical part rvith r,liscontinuities in



Clamp of Part

quiprnt-:nt) and the magnetizing curre nt applie d directll'

through the part (i:ill. {:). "lhe size ancl shape ol rhe prart rvill
delermine rvhether both field directions can be oblainecl rvith

such equiprrient.
(2') Clump.r-The rnagnetizing current nray bc applierl to the



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f ig*rc

,,\. -


- rs

Ttpi**l l-r rrl*r aruiririirrrctionat

Figur* li - Typir-:*l


trriritidire*lilu:*l r.l*1 hrui:rlurt*}

x.*t h*ri;-or:tat *sinr 1::r::in:rled erirc



12 ^3.

Cable llyrap Magnetization Examples (9a


I t u] i re c

l fu'I u g


;.ttlion - -lndireut pal't

Multidirect!onal Magnetic Particle Units


Low Fill Factor


Cable Wrap Magnetization Examples (9b

Example) {cantinued)

High Fill Factor

substantial heai clue to rnrgnelic dorriain rrovenrent and a

nlagnetic field outside the conductor rvhen compared
to a n{rn-ierlous conrluctor. Additionalll,, r'r,hcn usins f'erromagnetic conrluctors. the inspector must he rnade fiwilre ol'thc



involves tlie use oi a prelblmed coil. cahle rvrap. voke" or a

central conductor to inr-lucc a illagnelic field. Coil, cable rvlap"
rnel -voke nagnetization are reierretl to as longifurlinal rnagne,
tization in the part (see l-i..1).
12.3.1" I Coil atul CubLe- fu{ttgteti:ution When coil (Iii;:. :1)
ol cable wrap (liil. iia and b) technicp,res a!:e usr.d, the
magnt:tizing tilrce is pl0porlional t{};unpere turn\ (\r.c I

possihilit-y ol'magnetic ri,riting. When using central

conlluctors. the distance along the parl circulnfercncc, which
may be effectively e.umined should he taken as approximatel5,
fbur tirnes the diameter ol the central conductor'. as illustrated
in l'j:.:. l{i (b). The presencc of suitatrle fields in the efl'ective
region of exarnination should be veritied. The entire eircurn- Certlrul Contluctctr, Induccl {ttrrent

Mugrtetittttioa-lnr-lirect circulal magnrtization ol' hollor.v
pieces/parts can be perl'omretl b,v passins thc rlagnetizing

ference shoukl he e ram.ined

by rotating the part on


cottduclor" allowing lirr approximately a 10 oZ magnetic fielcl

overlap. Ce ntr"al corlduLrtors are rvidely usc-d in niagnetic
pariicle examination to provide:
(1.1 A circular field on both the insicie surtace and olrtside
surface oi tuhuhr piecc:s lhat c;lnnot lte duplicated by.' the direct
t:urrent lechniqr-re.

current through a central L'oncluctor (l:g. !{i(a) and }::ii;. lriibj)

or cable useel ;ts r central r:onrjuctor or throu*qh an indur-:ed
current firture ii::!1. 5(A)). Ccntral (olicilictors rnay be solid rtr
hollow ancl are irieall_v nrarle tiom lon-t'errolls nraterial" Ferrous central conr-lnctors will lunctirtn as wcli. hLrt lvill generate

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Effeetive Reglon

of Exnmiftati*n


Figure A

FlG. 10 Central Bar Conductors

(21 A non-contact lneanii ol part m:.rgnetizalion virtually
climinating the possibilit.l,' of arc burning the material. as carr
be the case with cun'ent florv through contacts. such as pror-ls or


(,lJ Substantial processing advantages over clirect cont-acl
tecl.rniques on ring-shaped parts.

i4J ln general it is not irnportant for the central conductor

to be centcred because the llux lines follow thc patlr of lezrst
resistance tlrrough the ferrouraguetic material. On large diamtrtcr materials the central condr"rctor shoulcl be within 6 in. of
th.r centcr" The resulting field is concenlric rclative to the aris
ol the piece and is ruaxinrum at th.r insicle sLrrface. ?'oke lflugneli:,rLtitn-A magrretic field can be induce d into a par't b]' means of an electrourasr)et (see ]:1E. ]),
r.vhere the part or a portioa thereol beconres the nrirgnelic palh
hetr.l,een the pole s (acts ils a keeper) irnrl disr:ontinuitiss
prel'erentially transverse to the alignmenl ol the polc: pieces are
indicated. Most -vokes are energizecl by an input ol AC and
proclLrce s luagnetizing field olAC, half'-rvar,e DC" or lull-wave
DC. A pcrmanent nlagnet can also introduce a magnetic lic.ld in
the part. but its use is r"estlicted (see l-.1. 11.

13. Directinn of h'Iagnetic Fields

13. I .Drscrrntint,titt {}rieutatiotr r,.r. Mognetic t;ieltl
Diraction-Since indicatiorls are flot nornr;rlly riblained when
discontinuities are parallel to the rnii-qnetic tield, and since
inclicatious may occul in various or unknor,vlr direclions in t

part. each part ilrust be rragnetized in at least trvo directions

approximately at righl angles to each other as noted in.;.1.1.
On sonte parts circular nagnetization may be used in [wo or
rnore directions. while or.r others both circular"ard longiturlin;rl
rnagnelization arc: used to achieve the sarle resull. !-or purposes of r"lemagnetization verification, circular rnagnelisnr
normaliy precedes longitudinal rnagnetization" A multidirectional fieL"l can also be employecl to achieve prrrt nrrrgnetizltiorr
in mole than oue directirin.

1 3.2 Circulor Mugnetiiutirlr-CilcLrlal nlagiietization (lii1:.

1) is the terrn irseLl r'vhen electric currrnt is passer-l lhrough a

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FlG. 1't Circular Magnetism

part. rlr h,r, use of a central condnctt>r (see i.l.-1..i..1) throLrgh a

central opt--ning in the pirrt, inclLrcing a nragnetic field at right
anglcs to thc culrent f'lorv. Circular tlelds norrnall-l' prodirce
slrong resiclual lir'lds, but rre not rneasurabic because the 1'lLrx
is contained u,ithin thc part.
I -i .3 Trutrsve rse llogntia.1ftioll- ft'ansvgr\L' rlaSllctizatirrrt
is tire term used rr,,hen the rnagnetic lleld is established across
the part and the lines ol flux cornplete their lor:p outside the

part. Placing a y'oke acr{}ss a har nonnal to the bar a.ris would
prorluce a lransverse field.
13.1 Tbrttidnl

il{ttgtetiztitior-When magrreLizing


r.r'ith a turoidal shape. such as a solid wheel or the disk rvith a

cenlcr openirrg. au induced fielcl that is radial to the disk is rrosl

useflrl lor the detection ol disuronfinuities in a circunrlerential

direction. I:r such lpplications this field ma1,' be rnore eff-ective

than rnultiple shots across the periphery. but requires special
I 3 .5 h x
it tl i n d M o gne. t i :r t t tn-Lon -eitudinal nragrteti zntion (l:il.:. ii) is tlre tenn used when a nragnetic tleld is


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FlG. 12 Longitudinal Magnetism

irble limits. usr-rally 'r25 q, on sir.rgle vector equiirrrient and

i,vhen r-rsing r.nulti-directirrr.ral equiprrient, the field strength
rnnst be controlled much cioser. otien lvithin 15 %. Factors

by an electric curreilt passing ilrrtlugh a utLtltitut'n.

which encloses the part or seclion of the part trr lre e xarnined.


1'3 .6 i14 u I t i d i *:. t: t i oruL I N{ u g n e I i;,ut i t;rr-NI uitidirecl ionill

rnagnctization rna,v ile used to tulfill the recluiremeni lor
rnagnetization in tlvo directions if it is demorl,(lraled that it is
el}'ectivr in all areas of interest. Exarnine parts in i:ccotdance
lvith li:.:,-: or shims rnanufhcturcr-l lo the requirerments ol
,\S 5.-r7 I (scc , ., ,.r: 1,.. lr,:l). or as otherwise approvctl bf ihe
Lrl,el 3 and the Cognizant Engineerin-u L)rganizatiot. marv he
usecl to verily iie L:l direclior.r. strengtir. anll balance in rrrirllidirectiollal magnetization. llalance of the lield intensity is
crilirjal. The t'ield intensit,v- shor-rld be balanr:ed in all directions.
The particle application nust br- timed so thrt the rnagnetiz:ition levels rc:ach fulI r,alue in all clirections. rvhiie the paiticles
are mohile rxr the surlace nnder examination.

that afl'ect the strength of the fie ld ;u'e the size. shape. section
thickness^ matelial of the parl/piece. ancl thc technique of
magnetization. Since ihe st-' lacl-ors var-y- rvidell,, it is dilicuit to
estabiish rigicl rLrles 1or nagnetic field strengths lor every
ar)nL\'i\ uhle utrn[igut ;rti,rtr.

fi;r Maprrctir Pu.rtk'lr





strip shoukl be placed peq;endicular to the clirectirxr o1' the

rnagnetic field ol inaerest in rlrder to generate the strongest
particle indications on the strip. Flexible lnminated
ortl-v be u-ssr[

ar a tool to


clemonstrate the direction ol' the

the trallsversr probe mi:y be placed anl,rvhere along the length

ol the part as thLl tangential circular field is collsistr'nL .rcioss
the iength.
transverse probe should be positionecl upright
surrh that the circular {ield is nonnal to the rnajor dimension of
the Hail-elI'ect sensor anrl u'ithin 5" of perpeuclicularity to the

14. Nlagnetic Field Strength

1 4.1 Mttgneti:ittg ? itld Strengtlts-To prodr,rce iuterpretable
inclications" the rnagnetic fielct in thcr part niust have suthcient

part. N{ore than one rrrasLlrernenl shoukl be taken to ensul'e

consistent rc'adings. On parts r,vith mole than one diaineter/
lhickness, rnultiple rrLrasllremcnts should bc taken tr) ensure i1

strength ancl proper oricntation. Fol the indications to be

consisteul. this lield strength rnust be ci:ntr-ollecl wilhin reasonI

tholl Jicense from HS

Krrrrrn I)ist'txttinrtities Experirnents r.vith sinrilar/

in all ureas of Cin'ulur 14ognc.tis'rtt Hall-c,ll'e cl Mete-r

Mensuretnent-On a part rvillr consislent diametcr or thickness,

ips rna)'

external magnelic iield.

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tl Slrcrzgrlr.s--'S uflicicnt magnetic lie!rj

14.2.2 Artttit'ittl Di,tt:otttin ujlir:.r-Vc'rificaliott o{' inr-lications

derived liorrr AS ,537 I shinrs (see r\;:1:.:r:'ii.,;. .rl) taped or gluecl
del'ect sicle in conttci rvith the part uncier cr"urrinatiun i: un
elli'etrve mcitns 01: l.cri/-virig lidd strcngtli r.i,lien usjng the
continiroirs lreihod.
14.2.3 Hull-,:ff'et't futtter TtLngentictl l::ielcl Strengl/rs-A
minirnunr tangential applied tielcl strength ol'30 G (2..1 kAM 1)
should be a.lequate when using sin-ule vector equipnrent.
Stronger Iield strengths al'e ;lllolvecl. but it rnLrst not be so
strorlg that it causes lhe masking ol relevant inditrations by
nonrelevitnt lccurnulations o[' nragnelic particles. Due to the
coniplex nuniber o1'variables. ihe use i.rl'Gaussnreters shilulcl
not be the sole soirrce of detc'rmining an acceptahlc freid ou
rrrrrlt i-dircution:il tcchtiitirri.'.

13.7.1 Flerible lantinated strips as dcsclihed in ipi:r;:'.ii:.

1 ruay he used lo enslrre proper helcl directirin ch:rinq

rnegneiic particle exar.ninntion. The longitudinal a.ris



E s t tLh Ii s Itil Lg F

identical parts having knor,vn rliscnntinuities

13.6.1 When actual parts r,vith knorvn delects are *sed. the
rri:nrber ;rnd tirienlution(s-) {)f the defects (for exarnple" axial.
longitudinal. circunilerenti;rl, c:lc.) should he nolecl. The magnetic fiekl irrtcnsity can lre considered as being properly
halanced u,hen all noted dei'ects cun be readilv identifierl rvith
p;rrtielc intlir'ati,rrt..
13.7 Fletible {-uttLirtttt<:tl Strips


strerrglh can tre established hy:

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rninlrnuilr nie;rsurement of j0 gauss on all areas to be exami*ed. [,'Ieasulenrent is rnarie of the appliecl field, that is. during
the rnagnelizing shol. not the resiclual llux field. Ltttzgifutlinu! Hull-e.t'|'ei:t


llca,surenant '.-On a part with consistent cliamete r *r thickness.

t-trc probe rna"l' be placed an-yr.vhcre along the lenglh ol thr' par1.
.rcrpt near tire poles as the fangenliill longituilinal field is
consistent across the length, e.rcept at the poles. l\'{elsulerrient
near"*re poles r.vill 1,'ielcl a sker,r,ed reltling due fo dc'tection oi'
the nomral fiur lielrl at each pole. ,\lso, mcasui'enrsrlt llear"iinv
geometry change tl,lat r,r,ou1d produce a non-relevant {lux
leakage should be ar',oicled. The probe shoulci he positioned
rvithin 5" ol perpendicularil,v to the part anrl sLrch that the

longitudinal iield is normal io the major dimension ol' the

Hall-eliect sensor. Mr-rre than one rneasurement shor:lcl be

taken to ensure consistent learling-r. "Ihe Hall-ellect probe may

be pirced rvithin the eoil or outside the vicinity of the r:oil i1'the
pal't is iongel than the rviclth o['the coil. On parts rvith more
than one dian.reter/tl'rickness, n:ulliplr-: measurenrents should be
take* to enslrre a minirirurtt lllcasurl'rnL'nl ol 30 gauss on all
xreas lo he ex*rnined. i\,{easuremenl is mflde ol the applietl
field, thai is, cluring the rnagnetizing shot, not the resiclual f1u.r

11.2.4 U,sirrg ['.ttrpiricul P'ttmt.ulos-;\1;;; X-:] rletails

r-rse ol' c'mpirical lbrmulas fbr cletermining fielcl strength.
Amperuges cleriveci tlorn empirical lirr:mr"rlas should be veril'iecl
r,r,ith a l{all-effect gaussnietel or AS 537 I shims.


4.3 Lota



- ts

fieltl applications

ancl are



in conjr,rncliotr u,itlt

cap*cital ilischarge style eqLripllent and the r-esiduai rnet"hcd.

15.1.2 Di-r, Powda.r A;split'ution-it is reconinrendetl thitt
dry porvder"s be appliecl in such a man*er thal a light uniform.
dust-likr' coating sr'ttles upon the surl'ace oi' the part/piecc
ivhile it is be ing mrgnetized. Drl, pirrticles rnust not he appliecl
to a damp surlace; thel will have limitcd nrobilit.v-. Neithc'r
shouid ihe,v be applied rvl:el'e thEre is excessive rvind. I'he
preferre,"l application techaic'1ire suspertds the parliclts in air irr
such a nlanrler tl'rat they reach ihe part surface bcing ma-rnetizecl in a uniiorrn cloucl rvith a rninimun"t ol lbrce. Usualll''.
specially' designecl powdel hlorvers and hand porvder applicatrlrs aie ernployecl (setr i'i5, 1). Dry particles should not be
applied b-'7 pouling. Lhrowilg. or sprcacling lvith the tingers.
l-5.1.3 Err-'r,.1:; Pott,der Retntva! []arc is needed in bolh the
applicetion and removal ol' excc:ss e!---v poi,l,ds1" Iienrovirl of
excess porvclel is generall;, rione r.r,hile ihe magrrtlizirtg cun'enf
is plesent a*d carc nrust be exercised lo prsve*t the rentoval of
particles attracted by' a leakage field. wltich nray prove to be a

relevani indication.
p atvr dtt r P ul I e m s-lt"t
1 5. I "-1 .\r,rrr- s t tl oL: e D i.t t: ont i n ui t i a' 1
orcier lo recognize thr: broacl, firzzy, lr,eakly held porvcler
palt.nls procluced hy near-surface disconlinLrities. it is essential
lo ohsr:rve carelully lhe lrrrmation of indicatioils r.vhils the
porvder is hclng applied and also lvhile the excess is being
renroved. Sulllcient lirne fi:r indicatlon forn-iation artd exarnilation should be allorverl betu,een succcssivc lll.rgnetization


gnetir.cfirttt : :

l.l.3.l l/sirrg Pmrl.r-When using prods on malerial '% in.

ii9 rnrn) in thickness ol less, it is rer:ornrnended to usc 90 to

15.2 li.'er Partit'le AltpLicuiatt-!Vet rnagne tic particles.

fluorcsceut or nonfluorescent. sLrspended in a vchicle at a

115 A/in. of prod spacing (3.5 to,1.5 A/rrirn). Fol nraterial

greater tlran 14 in. (19 mrn) in ttrickness, it is recommendecl to

rccr;mmended concentralion llray he applied either by spraying

or florving over the areas to be erarnitied during the appiication
o1'the rnagnetizing field crlrrent (continuous technique) or afier
lurnirrg o11 the current (residual technique). Propel seclLrencing
ol'opelation ipar"t magnetization and timing of hath applicalioni is essential to indicalion l'ormation ancl retenlion. For the
conlinLrous rnultiple current shtrts shoulcl be applied.
The liist shot should be appiied atter the particle flor,v h*s been
rliverteil and lvhile the particle bath is sti11 on the part. A single
shot rnal, Lre sullicient. Care shoLrld he taken to prevert danage



procl spacing. Plor"i spaciug is

use 100
I 25 Alin.
recuurnrenclecl to be not less than 2 in. (5U mm) or greater than

it in. (200 mm). Thr: effective rvidth of the nragnetizing liekl

u,hen using prods is ilnr: lourth ol the prod sp:.ic:ing on each side

ol' ii line through


prod centers.

14.3.2 Llsittg l'trlie,r-'fhc' lield strength

ol a yoke (or a

pei'manent magnet) can be ernpiricall-v determinecl by rneasLrring its litting porvcr (see:ii.i.l). lf a Hall-eli'ect probe is r-rsed,
it shall he placed on the surfircc: rniclu,ay br'tlvt:en the poles.

15. Application of Dry and

\l'ct Nlagnetic Particles

I Drr: fuldqu{tit: PurticleE:

l5.l.l Magnetit' !'ieltls for Dr,,' Partit'les-Dry nragnetic

por,vdels are generally applied rvith the continuous rnagnetizing

techniques. When utilizing,,\C, the crlrrent nrust be on hefble

application of the dr,v powclt-:r and remain on throirgh the

*xarnination phase. With l{allwavc' rectified AC or yoke DC

malluetizati{}n. a cllrrenl d*ration of at least l.r s shouid be
used. The currerlt cluration should be short enough l{) prevenl,
any danrage fronr overheating or from other causes. It siroulll
be noled th;rt ;\Cl antl half-',vave rectifred DC better'
particle mohility to the por.vder than DC ol full-wave rectitied
AC. Dry nragnetic porvders are r,r,itlely used tor magnetic
particle exarnination o1'large parts as rvell as on localized areas
such as lvelds. DrSi magrnelic particles are widely used tbr oil
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to a pai't due to overheating or othr'r cituses. Since fine or

weakly- helcl indicalirins on highly Iinisher.l or polished sull'aces
may be r.vashed iiwalr or obliterated, cal'e must be iaken tir
prcvent higli-velocity llorv over critical surlaces anr-l to cul o{'l
the bath application be1'orc removing the rnagnetizing tbrce.

Discontinuity delection may benelit

iirrn an ertended drain

tinre of sevelal seconcls befbre actual examination.

15.3 lVIagrrctit SLurryfPaiirf.s--Magnetic slurryipaints ;1r'c
applied to lhe part rvith a hnrsh before or cluring part rnrgnclizalitxr. indications appear as a diirk line against a light silvery
backgroLrnd. fulagnetic slurrl, is ideal lil' overhead or uttderu'ater ma*snetic particle examiuation.
15.4 &Iitgnetic PoLymers-Magnetic pol-ymers are applied to
the part to be examined as a liquid polymel snspension. 'l'he
part is lhen magnetized, the polymer is allor'ved tLr cul'e. ancl the
elastic coat:ing is removed fiom the exarnination surlace fbr
iilterpretation and evaluation. Care must be exercised to ensure
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thut rnaguetization is corrpleted u,ithin the actile nrilrirtic,n
periocl of'the polynrel i,vhich is usually aboirt l8 min. This
method is parlieuliirly upplicablc t{} iireas of linitc:d visual
access such as bolt holes. ileLailed application and use instrirctions ol' thc manLr{aclurer should be l}llorv*i! tbr optinrum



15."5 li?ulr Bat:kground ond lllutlt Oxide-A thin .,vhite

background is applied hy aerosol to provir-le a thin i< 2 rnil).
srnooth, high r-ontrast bnckgrcund prior: to nragnetizaiion and
particle applicution. Atier background has dried, rnrrgnetizrrtion
and particie application fbllorv norntal procedures. Tlre high
contritsl hetween the white backgrounrl and hlack par"ticles
provides high sensitiviiy in visible light conditions. L)etailcd
application and use insftrrctions ol'the manulactLrrsr should br
lblk:wed lor optimurn results.

16. Interpretaiion ol' lndicatiuns

l6.l )?tlir.l Itulk:aliott.s-All valid indications l'ormecl by

rlragnelic particle exarnination ale the |esr"rll ol lnirgnetic
ieakage lields. lndicalions rnir1,' be rclevant (i i-. : . ), nonrc-l-

arilnl ( :',

]. or'

fll:e l ,



1.1 Rrk:r,ant {rttlitutirsrr.s--*I{e leviinl ir.tdicatiorrs lre pro-



leakage fields lvhich are the result r,rf discontinuities.

Relevrnt indicati*ns lecluire evaiuntion ivith regarcl to


acceptance stanclards agleed upon bet*,een the manufactr-rler/

tr:sl agency and the purchaser (see .liiir..-, .\ 1).

I6.1.2 Nr.tnreleyunt IntLit:rrll.rr.r-Nollrclevalt indications

c:ln occur singly or in patterns as a result o[' leakage lields
created by conditit-rns lhai requile no cvalua{ion such ils
changes in sectiou (like ke1'llays ancl drilled holes), inherent
materirl lrroperties (like the edge 01'a birnetallic welrl),
ntagnetic u,riting. elc.
16.LI l, lrtdicutktns-fralse indications arr- not the result of magneaic fbrces. Examples are prrticles hel-l mcchanically or by gravity- in slrallow deprrrssions or particles held hy
lilsl r)r'scllc on lhC \rrrfflCL'.
17. Retording of lnclications

.1 Macm,t r$ Retonlittg Wlren required b1'


procer'lure, pennanent recolds ol the location,, rlirecticn.

length(s), and spacins(s) ol indications lnav he nracle by one or

mrre of the tbllowing meaus.


Skttches--Sketching the indication(s) and l-heir



17.1.2 '{iansJt'r (Dr-r, Pov,der (Jrl.l)-Covering the indication(s) with lransplrent adhesive-backed tape, removing the
tape i.r,ith the rnagnetic particle indication(s) aclhering to it, and
placing it on paper ol other appropriate backglound nraterial
indicating locations.
17 .l .3 Striltltable Filxt i{)n' Pov,der llril-r')-Covering the
indication(s) rvith a spray-on slrippahle fllnr that fixes the
ildicatiorr(s) in placc-. lVhen the lilm is strippecl fronr the part.
the rlragnetic particle indication(s.t arlhere to il.
17 .1 .4 Photographin g-Photogrnphing the inclications
themsehrcs. tire tape. ol the strippable tilm l'eprodllctiolls of the
l7 .l .5' \Yritten Recortls Rccording
orientation" anr-l numbcr o1 indications.
Copyright ASTM Inlernalbnal
Provided by IHS under icense wrth ASTM
No reproduclion or netwoik ng permitted w[hout rcense lrom IHS

thc location,


- rs

l 7 1.,;. i [)'tr ly lndiurt;tttt Si:iri,q ,,1r'eriiac.1' Iior situalions lvhere defect ol iudication size linrits are specified by the

acceptnnce crileri;r, mci.isur'('nlint eclLripn:cirt shoulil he sc:lectecl

lvilh an accLlracl,' bein:: prr:cise en{rugh lo deternrine cornpli-

;ince. For exanlple. to verily rttaxir.num delecl lengih does not

e.rcee,-l {1. 1,5{} in. i3.81 mm) a measLu'ing dc\icc irccutiitr- to
*0.01{l in. t0.25-l nrm} could Lre *sed Lr1' reciLrcing the
irllowahle lirnit too 0. 140 in. (3.55 mm). but u:irrg .r rnrr.rsLrling
clevice accurate to "1-{:}. 150 i*. (3 81 mm) or one rvith 0. 100 in.
(2.5.1 rnnr) incrernonts is nct accirraie enough" For silualions rvherc: no cletect or iuilicalion tolerances are specifiecl (lor e xample, rcprlrting thr l*ngth r>1-a crack
rvhen thr: acceplirnee criteria is "No cl'acks allot'ed") {he crack
length -rlroulcl not be reported u'ith more precision than the
rcsolution ol the rneasurement equipurent allows. For eraurple ,
ivlren r-rsing a rneasuring tler,ice accuratc- to +f).0i0 in. ttJ.25-l
!1rm) report the crack length in B.lll0 in. ({J"254 nrr.l) increnterlls.
17.1.-5.1 Sorne contracis rnay require belter than Lhcr mini-

tltrm rncirs ul'e rlien t acc *r;rc-\, leeded to riefern-line compl i ance.
'fhese sitLrations ;rl'e generally linriled 1o critical clirect nrcitsurenleut of deliverable ploduct i-eatures, r'atire r tharl examination paranreter checks^ Fclr example. alt accilri.lcv ratiri of 2 tri
L nrav be specified ibr measulenrent of delecis or prrich"rct
ge{lrnr)tr}'. rvlrich nieans ;ur instfl,lr.!re}rt r.vith a caiiblated accuracy ol *0.00-5 in. (0.127 nrnr) r.vor-rLl be needed lbr r,'erifi,ing
or reporting dimensions to the nearest -f 0.010 in. 10.25.i mm).
17 .2 i\ct'ttnq;unvittg lttfrtrnntion-A recorrl ol the procedure
pal"alnete1's listed beloi.i' as applicable should accornpan_v the

exur.nination resul ts:


.2.1 Methotl {i;tetl-


particlc rr"reihod

(dr_y, l,l.'el.

fluorescent, ctc.).

11.2.2 11ogrreti:.itt,q Teclutit1Ltt'-N{agnelizins techniclue

(continuons, true-continuous. residual).
l] .2.3 Curre71l'l'1,pg-\4agnetizing current (AC" half:ivat e
rectifierl or fLrll-wave rectiiied AC, etc.).
17.2.4 Field Direr:iiort__Direction o[' rnagnt:tic lieL"l (pror.i
placer-nent. cal-:le ',vrap secpence, etc.i.
I7.2.5 l'ieItl Srizrigr/r-Nlagneiic current strerrgth (ampere
tulns. rrnpfres per inch (millirtretre) ol prod spacing, lil'ting
force. etc.).

18. Deruagnetization

l8.l Applicabillr1,-Ali

ierromagnr:tic nraterial



some residuai magnetisrn, the strength of rvhich is dependent

on the reteutivity of the part. Residual magnetisnr does not

a1lect the rnechanit:al properties

r:f the palt.


resiclual tield rnay cause chips, filing, scaie. elc. to adhere to the
surlace aflectrng subsecluent machining opL"ruli()n\. painting. or
plating. Adtlitionalli,, i1'the palt rvill lre used in krcations nu:ar
sensitive ir:strr-rments. hi.qh residual llelds couL-l allect the
operation ol' t.hese inslrurnents. Furthenlorc:. a str(]ng residual

magnetic fieid in a part to be welded or electropl.lted could

intertere with rvelcling or plating pr'ocess. Residual iields may
also interl'ere r.vith later magnetic particie exauriuation. Deruagnetization is rr:quired onlf il spccified in ther drarvi*gs.
slrecilication. or purchase orcler. When requirr:d, an accfpt&hle
I grder Number: 02067709



ot resiclual


nragnetization and the measi-ring method

shoulC also be specified. See :x..i.

I 8.2 D e rt ct g trc t :.a i ot t M t ho d.s--The ease of rletttagtteti zation is dependenl oll the coercive lorce of the rnetal. High
reterrtivit,v is not necessal'ily relateil to high cr':ercive lorce in
rhai the strefigtl! ol the r"esidual fie ld is nol ahva.vs an indicator



casc o1' dcnragneiizing. In gcneral. deuragrctization is

acci:niplished bl sr-rbjecting thc part to a fielil equal to or'
greatel than that usr-d to rnagnetize the part ancl in neaily l-he
sanre dircrction" then cc*tinuonsl-v revelsing thc fir:ld r-lilection
rvltile r.:.r;rdurllr r1t. rr':t:irtr: it to zerir.

I li.l.
11'rllrrl r*rt' * ! .l'rrt tn Al t e rr n t h,q C u r rcn I Call --The lastest and niost s'irnple technique is lo pass the part through iL high
intcxsity aitenrating culrL'nt coil ancl then slowly rviihdrarv the
part from the t'ietd ol the coii. A coil o{ 50i}0 tu i0.000 ampL're
tr-rrns is recrimrnended. I-iue fr"ec1uenc1, is r"rsually fri:u 5[] to 60
I.{z *ltelnating cun'ernt. JhLr picrce shoulr,l entc:r the coil
l2-in. (3i10-mm) .listancr aud nrove Lhrough it steadilrv and
slor"-ly until the piece is at least 36 iri. (900 turt) hervond the
coil. Cai"e should be exercised lo ensilre that the patl is entircly


removcd lrorn thc inflnence of the coil hetbre lhe rlernagnetizing lorce is cliscuutiur"red. otherr.vise the dernagnetizer nlay
have the re\rerse ciI'ect ancl actuaily' renragnetize the par-t. This
shoulrj be rcpeated as Geccrssilr,v to reciui:e the residual l'ield to
an acceptablc i*r,*I" Set-' lr:..1. Small pafis ol' complcr figuration can be rutater-l and lunrhlcil ivhile passing through lire lleld
of the coil. LIse ol'this technique tnay nol be eflective on large
parts in which the alternaiing magnetic cllrrenl field is insuflie irrrt to pcnctr':rle.
18.2.2 llet'rau.tittg Altentalin.g Currerrt - .A.n alternativt:
techniqLre lor plrt d*magnctization is sutrjecting the parl to th*
alternirting rnagnetic 1leL"1 ivhile graduelly rerducing its stlength

io a desirecJ level.
18.2.3 v'itlr Y>kcs-Alternating cun"L-nt
yokes mav be xseci l'or local demagnetization try piacing the
polcs on the surface. moving lhern around the area. and slowly
withdmrving the yoke rvhile it is slill energized.
18.2.,1 ftr,r'e,rring Di.ret't {"utet*-Tho parl to he demagnelized is ,subjected lo consecutile steps ol'reverseil and reduccd
direct current nragnctizalioll to a desirecl ievel. (TIris is the
most effective process of demagnetizing large parts in which
the alternating current field has insutllcicni pcnc!r'iiti()!r to
remo\re the internal residual magnetization.) This lechnique
requires special rrquipnrent fbr- reversing the current r.vhile
sinrnllaneously reducing il in snrall incretrr:nts.

of I)etnagpeti:ution-'1"1rc el'f'ecliveness ol the

by the use lrl'
appr*priate rnagnetic fielcl indicators. (Warning-.A. part may
retain a str"ong resiclual lield irfter having heen cilcularl_v
nragnetizell and exhibit Iittle or no extemal evidence ol' this
field. Therelore, the circLrlar magnetization should be con-



deiriagnetizing operation can be indicated

clucted bel'ore longituclinll rnagnetizalion il' complete demag-

nelization is lecprired. Il a sacrifici:rl part is avnilable. in the

case ol' a p;u'I such as a bealing race thilt has heett circularly
lnagnetized. it is olten advisable to section otre side of it and
rnc-.lsure the remaining leakage field in ordcr to clteck the

ng pqocess. )

Copyright ASTM lnlernational

Prov ded by IHS under license w th ASTM
No reproducllon or networking permitted without I cense from IHS

- rs

18.1.I Afier,i-iemagnetization" rueasnrable residual fields

shriulrl n{lt excged a valur: agleed up{}rl {lr as specified on lhe
enginer:ring ch:awing or in the contriict, purcirasc' order, or
spe cification.
19" Post Examination Cleaning
19.1 Purtit:lr Rerroy'ui-?*st-cx;rmination cleaning is ttecessirry where r:iagnetic pafticle rnatelial(s) coulil inte rlere rvith
sr"rbseclLrent proc*ssing ol rvith service requirernents. Dcmagruetiz-ation shor-rld ah.vays precede particle renroviil. 'fh* pur-

chaser should spcciiy






needed and tlre exlent requirecl.

lL).2 Lteuns o{ PorticIe Removu|-Typical post-cxlniin;:ti,.rrt

cleaning techniques ernployed are: (a) the use of cotnpresserl
air to hlorv off unrvirul*d clr--v rnagnelic pailicles; (b) drying ol
rvet particles and sLrbscquL-nt removal by brirshing or rvith
coinpressed air: (c) removrl of wet parlicles h1' flushing rvith
solvcnl: anil (d) other suitable post-exalnination cleaning
techniques nray he usecl if they r.vill not inter-t'ere 'uvith sr-rlrseqr"renl requir-enients.

20. Process L'ontrols

20.1 Contrihuting l::ttt.'tor.i-The overall pertittrnance of a
rnrgnetic particle lesting systeil is riependent upon lhe fbllowi



Opelatol capability''.

il' a manral opelalion is



ol plocess steps.
1.3 'I'he particle,\ ol suspension, or both"
20. l.-1 The equipment.

20. 1.1 Conlrol


20.1.5 Visible light level.

20. 1.6 tlV-A thlack) light rnonitoring where applicable.
20.1.7 l.{agnetic i'ield strength.


FiL'lJ Jir'.'etitrrt ot trt icnt,rlion.

10. 1.9 ResiclLral iield slrength.

These lactors shoulcl ail be cor.rtrollecl individuall-v.


20.2 ivlttittettanr.'e

url {'olibrutiott oJ Equipnrctrr


magnciic particlc ccluipment cmploy'ed shor,rld be rnaintailed in

proper u,orking order at ali tirnes. The l'requcrncy' of verilication
caiibration, usirally every six tltonths, sce'li:l rir l. or lvhenever
a malfunction is suspected. shoulcl be speciliecl in the ll,rittert
proct'dures of the n*nclesiructivr llrsting lacilitl.'. Rc:cortls of the

checks and r"esults provldc usr:lul inlbrmalion lor qr-rality

conirol puqloses ancl should he nraintainod. In addition, any or
all ol the checks described shouid he perfonnecl whenever a
rnalfi-lnction ol the systerri is suspected. Calibration checks
shoLrld be conrlucted in accordance r.,',ith the specificatiorts or
docutuents that are applicahle.
){).2.1 Equitrttnent Cttlibrcttiort-.It is good praciice that all
calibrated equipment bc traceable to the job iL was used ott.
This lacilitate s possiblc re-exar:irtation or evaluatiort should a

piece of equiprlent he lounr-l nol rvolking properly.

20.2.2 Some exantiuation procedr.ires nray require cquipment calibration or operatiorral checks, bnt rto accltrac,v requirernent is sper:iiied. ibr that equipntent. h,\i the colltl'actually

specifie d maguetic particle exaniination procedure (for

examplt:, Pruclice l. I " : 4Ji 11 Ii ghi meters and gaLrssmetet'

accuracy), horvevcr the accuracy

I Erder Number: 02067709

;31'.13f J,".7.:"r11?+t'NDoNESrA1700166105281r'

ol' the rnr:asuring


,{$}p ezos
TABLE 2 Recommended Verilication Intervals


7.1.1, 2*.4.1

Visible light inlens:ty
Anrbient lighi irtensity
I l\/-l



[4axirrum Tirne
Beiweefl Veili:aati0nsa



L 1.t.1,


Bairei'y po\,re|ed UV-A

!ighi intensily check
UV-A llght iniegrity

before aird a{ter

each use

Syslem cerfcrmances
Y'/et pai'1icle conceniration



il. !l


a{'/1 a

20.S, A**ndix X7

8 h, cr every
shift change

lvet particle co*teminat!onB

$Jater break lest
Equipment calibraiionr'chelk:rl
Ammeter accuaacy
Tirner c0ntrol
Quick break
Yoke dead \fferght check
UV-A and l,.rhile iighi rneie.





;; ;;

Gaussmeler cr Fi*ld


6 months

Incicator accuracy
'1when the test system is in operatron.
a'l-he maxirnum time betr!-een veritications may be extended wheil substantiated
by actLral techn:cal stabilityireliabillty Cata.

- rs

shouirl be checkeil t'or accuncy as specilicr-l irr : - - L]r'

rvhrnevir a millfurction is .r*spected. The tinrel shoulci be
calibrated lo i,vithin +0"1 seeonrls using a suitahic el{ctronic
20.3..1 i\,Ia,qrr et it' F i e lcl Q tLi c l; B rtt a k { h r c l;-On c.l r"li pmcnl
thal h;rs a iluick bleak f'eature, the l'unctioning oi' this cilcLril
siroulcl bc- checked ancl verified. This check rnly bc perfbrnre,-l

using a suitalrle riscillosctpe ol e siraple test device usniiily

availahle fl'orn the rnrnui-ar^tnrer. Nornrnlly', onl;-' the tiriod coil
is checkt:d qr-lick break firnctionalit-v. lleatlstocks woukl
neerl tc be checked onlv il'c&bles are altachecl to the headsttcks
1u l'orrn a coii u,rap. On electronic power" packs or rnirchines.
l'ailure 1o ilchie\,1^ indication til a '"quick break" u,oi,r1tJ inr-licale
thut a rn*ll'uncticln exisls in tlre energizing circLrit.
20.3.1 Equigtntt'tfi Currtnt Outptr{ d'kt:t'k-"fa ensure the
colriinued ilccuraLrv of the equiprne*i. anrmeter readiugs at
each translbrnle l t.rp shoulel be nraile rvith a calibrrtecl
arrnieter-sllLrnt conrhinatiri:r. This ilccess{}r'y is placcd in series
rvith the corltaots. The eqr-ripment shunt shoLrld not he used to
check the machine ol' rvhiclr it is a part. For infinitt-: cllrrent
conlrrl r"rnits (non-ta;r srvitch)" settings at 50{l-A intervals



shorild be rr-asonabl.v sllited iirr the situation with the resolution

of the eqriipmelrt beirlg precise .:nough lo deterrttine compli20.2.3 Equipmeflt that rncets an .iccuracl rcrlr.rir!'mr:nt
specilierl b_v the crlntractu;]11-v specil'icd lnagne{ic partiL:le
cxilnlination procrdure itor e.rlample. Practice l . i . ...; : L...

ilmmeter accu[ac-!' ol' I l l] !i or 50 arlipe res. or a timel' control

l-t1.1 second) shoLrld bc consiclered adeqi-rate, with no adrlitional acculac)' or uncertaint-v deternrination needecl.
2fl.2.,1 Mr-asllrL'ment equipnrent that the c{lntlactlrally specified magnetic particle inspection procedure .hes not specii'ically reclLrirc to hc caiibrated or rnerrt a specilied accuracy (lirr

cxarnple. liit:err. slrop rril irrL-ssurs gir.rl:d. etc.) should be

maintirincd in good lvorkirg ordcr and have nleusurernent
resolutioo reasonably suited lbr the iDiended use.

2A3 L,tluipnteilt {lte(ks-The follorving checks are rL:cor-utbr ensuring the accurac-v of lrlagnetic particle mag-


netizing equiprnent^

24.3.1 Antneler A<:t'urnrr,-'Iir chr'ck



atlnleter. a suitrble and traceahle calihrated shunt lest kit shall

he connecrted in series lvith the outpLrt circuil. Comparativr:
readings should be takr:n at a minimrrm of thlee output levsls
ellcolllpassing the usahle rarlge of equiprnenl. The rlquipn1ellf rneter leading should not deviate by more lhan -" l0 9?, or
50 arnprres, whichever is greater, fram tire cunent value shorvn
by the calibrated itmmeter. lWhen measuring half-rvavc' recti-

iied current. the current

the calibraterl
FW-Recti{rer,l arnrneter rrraciings shall be iloublecl.) The fi*quency ol'the anrnrcter check is specified in 'l ri:it L lv{achinc
oulplrt repealahilitl, shouici not viuy more thiln -10 tli, or 50



amperes, whiclle ver is grcatc'r'. irt xn)' \ctp()iilt 3ud lhe machine
uilder test shoultl be rrrarkerl \,\,ith the value representing the
lowest repeatable current level.


On uni-direclional equipmcnt, r alirtliort"

!i, lroar the equiprnent

alililreler re adings
inclicate the equiprnenl needs selvice or repair'. On nrtilti-vector



equiirnent. r,ariaiions erceeding l-5 ?, tiour the equipruenl

ilnrmetrr r-eadings indicate the equiprnent needs sen,ice or

20.3.5 [rtenwl. Short Cirruit Clrct'k-^Nlagnelic particle

eqriprnr-:nt slrqruld he checked pc:riotlically fbr intemal short
circuiting. With tire hendstocks scl for minirttLrrti arnperagc
output. ln-v cleflection ol the anlrlleter r.vhen the cnrt'et.rt is
activated rvith no contluctrlr betrveen the contacts is an iniiication r.rf rn internal sholt circuit;Lnd nrrst be repaired prior lo




-eller:t lf'Ieler.r--Dcpending upon tlrc

me lers gre normally accurate fcr Lrse rvitlr

Illl-rvave DC only''. Hall-ell'ect meter rc:riclings l'ot" H'$v' ancl AC

current applications shoulcl he correl;rled lo the resLtlts ol the
application of AS 537 I shirns. Hall-effect gaussrrelers -shouki
be calibrated el,er-v six months in acccrdance n,ith fhe i.nauufacturer's instluctions.
\-iilr,, .l---Whcn usr.d with SCR erlntr-olled eqLiipment. thc Garssincler's
tccuracv is dependent upon {ire actnal cireuil dr--sign of elch moilei rnetel
and results mry


2fi.3.1 Eletlnnilctretit- ?bke Lilting Prtrte Checl;:-Tbe

lraguetizing lorce ol a y'oke (or a pertnanent rnagnet) should Lre
che'ckecl hy dctenuinin-e its liliing power on a ste*l plate. Sr:e
-i. The

litiing lolce relates to the electronragnetic strength

of the yoke.
20..1.8 Prrr'r.,drr f]lottcr-The perlbrmance of pow(ler hlowers used to apply the r,[ry magneric particles should be checked

TABLE 3 Minimum Yoke Lifting Force


20.3.2'l'imr:r' Cant*;l C'&r:r'i-On equipnrent utilizing a

limer to control the duratitrrr of the current f1orv. thc tirner
Copyright ASTM lnternalional
Provided by IHS under icense with ASTM
No reproduction or networkina permilted w

thout cense trom IHS

I grder Number: 02067709

Sold to:PT SERVOTECH INDONESiA [70016610528]1,
20T 5-08-04 07:33:28 UTC

Ycke Pole LeE Spacing


.{$|P ezoe


ror"rtine intelvals ol wheuevcl a rnalfurrclion is suspected.

The chet:k should be madc on a representaiive examination

part. The blorvcr shoul-l coat the area under evaluation wilh a
light, unilorm durt-like coatir':g ol'drv rlagnetic particles and
have sulficien[ l'orce to renor,e !.he exccss parlicle: rvilhoi-rt
disturbing those particles that arE evicience of inilications.
Neeess;rry adjustrnents to the blorvel"s flou, rate or air velocifv
-qhould l:le rnade in accordancre ivith the manufacturer''s recornnrendations.

?0.4 E.runirtati{}n Areu Light {,ev<:l

2$.4.1 Visiblc Ligltt {nt*tsit,^-Lieht int*nsity in the exarnination area shoukl be checked at specified intervals lvith the
designated light nreter at the surlace ol thc. palts being
L'\Jrninad. Scc


(lY-A (Bluck) f.ighr inrensir_y-UV--A (black) light

intensitir shoLrld he checkerl at the specified ilrl"ervals hut not to

exceecl one-week intcrvals, anci whenever a bLrlb is changc-cl,
rellectors ;u'rd filte rs shonld be cleaned iLnd checkecl i'or:

or brokcn f.lV filters should be replac:erl

immediately. Del'ective l.rulbs rnust also Lre replaced befiire
l'ut tlrcr u\c. Set' ,l ,- -.
integrity'. Cracked

20.5 Dri, Partitle Qudir.l' Contrctl C/lelks-In order to

ilssure unilonn ltd consiste nl pt-rrfonriance frorri thr dry
rnagnetic porvcler sr,lected lor use, it is ttlvisahle lhat all
incorning poivders be certified ol checked lbl contbrmaace
rvith quality control standards establisheil betr.veen the user and



tttrittot it'rt

20.5.1.I Degrtul*tiort F'tr.t'{ors Dry magnetic particles are

geuerallrv very ruggccl anci pellbrm rvith a high degree of
ccnsistency over a rvide process envelope. Their perlblmance.
horvever. is susceptible to clegradation lronr such contantillants
as moistule. grL)asr, oil. rust ancl mill scale particle\. nonmilgnetic palticles such iLs lbundry sanr-l. and e xcessive heai. These
contaminanls u,ill usually nranifest thomselves in tl-re lbrm ot
particle color chang* and particle agclomeration. tl-re rlegree ol
lvhich lvill detennine lurther use ol lhe powder. Over-heated
r-L'v particles can lose their c'olor, thereby ledr,rcing the color
contrast r,vith thc part and thus hinder pafi exalniltation. Particle
agglorncration L:an reduce particle inobiIit_v cluring processing.
and large parlicle agglomerates lnay not be retainr:d at an

Dry parlicles

shor-r1d n{}l he rec,vcled as

li"actionation. the subsecpent clepk:tion o1 llner particles fronl
the aggregatLr porvder composition" dcgradcs the cpralit-y o1'the

indir:ation. l::,nsLtring {}etrticle Quolitl*-To ensure against del-

eterious eft-er:ts frorl possible colltarninaots, it is recornnrended

that a ror-rtine perlornrance check be conrjucted (sec ,iti.1..l)"

24.6 \lbt Pu.rticle, Qu*lit-v Cotirol C/icr",t.i-The tirllowing

checks firr wet rnagnetic particle suspensions should bs conducted at startup and at regular" intet"r,als [o assure consistcnl
perlorrnance. See llri:ji': l. Since bath contarnination wiil occul'
as the baft is used. nronitoring the working hath at regular"

inlervals is essential.
'2$.6.1 l)etennini* g lltrth tonte.n! rutiou-I]alh conoentr;ttion aud sometirnes Lrath contairrination are deterrnined Lry
measuring its settling volnnre through the r"rse of a pear-shaped
Copyright ASTM lnlernational
Provided by IHS under I cense w th ASTM
No reproduclion or networking permitted withoul license lrom IHS

- rs

centriluge tube ivith a 1-nrl. slem (0.05-irrl- riir.'isions) lbr

fluolescent particie suspensions or a 1.5-rnl- stern (0. 1-mttlivisions) lor notilluorescent suspeilsions. (Set-: ;11:1:':r:,.11:r .!5.)
Befhr:* sarnpling, the suspension should be rLrn throLrgh the
recircr.rlating sy;lem lcl at leasl 3l) min to ensure thorough
mi.ring of all p;u'ticl*s ii,hich could l.rave setlled on the sump
scrcen ancl al*ng the sid.-s or bottonr of the tank. Take a
180-url- poflion of the suspension fronr the hose or nozzle into
a clean. non-fli:orescing centrilirgrl lLtbe, derragnetize and
allor.v it to settle lor approxinrately 60 rnir: u,ith petroleuill
distillate suspensions or' -l{) min rvitl.r rvater-based suspensions
belbre reading. Thesr'timer rrc &\cli-rsc tirner based r,rpon ihe
aclua] Limes should be adjusted
so thut the particles have substantially settied out uf'suspen-

r-nost Lrolnrn(}lrlv usr:el products:

sion.'lhe volurne settling orrt at the bottonr of the tubc

inilicative oi tlre particlc conct:nlration in thrr bath.


20.6.2 Santple {nttrpretulion- 11' t}re bat}r concenlr;rlion is

lou, in particle content. add a sutficient anrcunt of particle
m;rterials lo obiaiu l"hr' desired concentratirlr'r; il'thr' sr!spcnsi()lr
is high in particle conterr, arld suillcient vehicle to obtaitr the
desired coucenlralion. l1'the scttler-l particles apl)eiir {o be loose
a-qglornerntes rathrr thiln a sr;lid layer. lake a second sample. Il'
still agglomeratctl, lhe particles nral, have become magnetized:
replace thrr suspension.

20.6.1 Serlirry \/ -.For fluorescenl particles. the recomrncnded set.tling volume (see i'i.-') is fronr 0. I to 0.4 nrl- in
a li)0-ml-hath srunple and lrorn 1.2 to 2.4 uil-per 100 rnl-of
vehicle fbr- non-f'lLroresceul particlrs. unless otherwise approvecl L-r,v the Cognizant L,ngineeling Organization {CEO).
Reftr to appropriate AN{S doer-irnent (lt},l1, l()+1, .l{)+-t -1U+-},
304-5. andlor 30-16). Irol clual response particles, the recornmentL:d ,setiling volume shoi-rld ht-: deternrinecl by the perl'or,rrn('-s rc'quiremcnls and lightin-q environment of a givc:n
application as i'ecofirrnentlc'd by lhe niauLrlacturer" Sr:e x i.j"

24.6.4 Bath Cotttantitrrrtitra-Both flriorescent and nonflnorLrscent sirspensions shoukl be checked periodically

tarninants sLlch

iis dirt,


oil, lint"

fbr con-

loose flnorescent

pignrent, rvater (in the case of' oi1 sirspensions), ancl particle
ilgglornerates rvhich can adversely aff'ect the perlbnnance of
lhe magnetic parlicle crarniuation procL'ss. Sec '1:.r!-li l.
20.6.-1.I tlorricr Contomirrttliori-For fi uorescent births, the
liclLiid dilectly above the prccipiti,rte shoLrld ire evaluated rvith

UV'-i\ (hlacki light. Acceptable liquirl will have a little fluorescence. Its colol can be conrpaled r,vith a l'reshly niade-up
sarnple r.rsing the sanre malerials or rvill'r an unused sarnple
frorr lhe original bath that rr''as lelained lbr this purpose , Il the
"used" sarnple is noticcabll more lluorescent than lhe cr;mparison iitandard. lhe bath shoulci he replaced.
2CI.6.4.2 PaftitIt Corttuttrinltiorr-'Ihe gradr"raled portioil of
lhe tLrbe shoLrld be evaluatecl under UV-A (black) Iight if the
bath is fluoresr:ent and under visible light (for both I}-rorescent

and nonfiuolesccnt particles) l'or striations or hands, dili'erences in color or appearnnce. flands or striatiorls may indicate
con{anination. Il the total volume ol'the contaminales, ilcluciing hrnds or striatiorls exceeds 30



noticeably fluorescenl

,i{} lr .i.

or it the liquid is

of'the volume of rnagnetic

i), the bath shor-rld be replaccd.

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2{}.6.5 Parrit'lt Durcibiliry The durability r;lbr:th the fluorescerla anll tronl'llot"esconl rragnr-tic palticles irt rLtsp.'l]iiun
should be chr:cked p*riodically t{} ensltre thet the pariiclcs ltav*
not degrur-lcrri due to chernical attack froru the suspe:rding oil or

cor:ditionc:d r.r,aler vehicl*s cl mrrchanicalli, degrailcrl b-v the

rolation*l lblces ol'the recirculirling pLrmp in a .'r,el horizorttal
nagnelic particie unit. Fluoresccnt tnfignetic purticle breakdorvn in parricular can result in a decrease in sensitivity rtnd an
inclease in nonmag*eiic fluorescent backglounc[. ["osf l]uorescent pigmr'nl can prr-rclnce lalse indications lhat can interf'ere

with the eramination pro(ess.

20" f luorc.t<:ertl Bri,


inrportant that


brightness o1' l'luorrrscrnt r.nagnetic particle por,vder he maintained at the estahlisherl level so thai indication and hackgrouncl hrightne.*s can be kept at a rr'latively couslant 1er,r1.
\ruriaf ions in r:r'rntrast can noticeably afi'ect exarninltion results.
l.ack of atlequate contrast is gellci:al11' caused b1': An increase in contaminaticin level of the vchicle
increasing backgrounr-l lluorescence, or
2{).6.6.2 LLlss o1' vehicle ber-:ause rl1' r'vaporiltiort. i nt rcasitt g
concerltrati0n. or
2l)"1 L)*grt.litlion ol fluorescent particles. See -.r ' ;r, i l'ot'
adclitional guitlance.
20.6.7 Slstelt PerlrLxncutire-lraihtre to fiitd lr knoivtt tliscontinr-ritf il a palt or obtai* the specifiecl inrLicltir.rns on the
{est r-ing (see jiJ,l'r.-!.'} inclicates a need fclr changing o['tite eulire

bath. Il a pari u,as Lrsed, it ntust hale br'en cotnple'telv

clemagnetized and cleaned so thal ro lluorescertl backgrorlnr.l
can he deteclecl lvhen 1,iglr'gd urder" UV-A (hlack) light rvith a
sLrrlace iirtelsity of at l*ast 1000 pW/cnrr. Il lny hackgrounrl is
noted that intelt'eres rvith either cletection or interpretatir-rn. the
bath should be dr;Lined ancl a ne'.v suspensiort rnade.
2fi.6.8 l.)ctenninrttiut of Purticle 5ai,rirn,iry'-


"- ':' i


clescribes several devices that can clc-mortstrate the scnsitivity

of eithr'r rvet-methori or clry-method particles. Thr:sc derriccs

contain perilliucnt ntagrtetization in sonre form ancl are irtdependrrnt ol the rniigne tizing svstem. They shoulcl not be
rnagnclizeei or denragnetizeel be ftrre or al'let use. SLrch dcvices
can be uselul wheneve r pertomrance ol the particles are sulr.iect
to cpresiiou or neecl to be verifierl.
'2A.'i Bttrh C'haructe ristits Coillt'/)! :

Oil {i*t}t Fluitls-Properties ol' oil-bath fh-rids ;rre

described in i\il,IS 26,11 orA-A 59:30"
2{1.7 "2 Wcuet" 8*lt Fluids-Properl"ies ot- couditioned rvater20.7.1

hath {'luicis ale dr'scrihed in AS 4792.

211.7.3 lzTslo.l'il"y-The recommended viscosity ol' the suspension is not to e.rcee.l 5 mrn:/s (-5.0 cStt, al xny lenrperalure
at which the bath rnav he used, when verified in accorclance



"N'Iethod i],1,r1.

28.7.4 l:ltt,sh Poiill-The reconrnrended f'laslr p*int of rvet

rragnetic particle light petroleunr distillate strrpcnsion is ir
nrinirrtum of'200"F (93'-C); use Tesl N{eihtrd Il''-:.
2t)"1 .5 \lbte r Breuli Che ck.lbr Conditietted \Ynter \iehicle .s Properly c:onclitionecl u,ater '"vill provide proper \\L-tling. ptrticle dispersion. and corrosion protection. watel hleak
check should be perfornrerl b_v flooding a pnrt. sirnilar in

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sr.rrface {rnish to those unr;ier exarnination. u,ith suspeusion. and

then noting the appearance of the surface ol'the palt atter the
Ilooding is rtopped. It'the nlm ol' suspension is continuoLrs anri
even all orrer lhe i:urt, sulllcient rr,'cttiirg agtni is pr*sent. Il'the
flhn r.r['suspension br:eaks, exposing bare surlaccs ol the part,

and lhc

-cuspL-nsiar.! tror"ms many se parat. r-1ropL:ls tttt the

surface . rnore il,ettinr ageni is neederi or the ptrt ltas uol Lrcen
si,rilicientl3,. cleaned. When using the flr,rorescent nre*rocl" this

r-heck shrlr"rlcl he peribrmecl independently urlder both L;V-A

(hlai:k) light and visihle light.
20.7.6 1tH of Conditiotrcd \kLrer Vtltitles fhe recontrnentled pFI ol' the conciitionccl rvater lrath is betlveen 7.0 and
10.5 as deterrnined by a suitable pH nrctc:r or special pII peper'.
Ve ri.n' rg ^!,irsrern l) t rt'o rmunt: r:-Systern peribrnance
cks must be conilucted in accordunce rvith l lvritteu
procedure so that the verificatiorl is pL:rfonned in the srme
ffilniler each tir-rte.
2A.8.1 ItndLtttion Vcrifit:titit.ttt Part.v tv'ith
D ist'on titr ui titr.r-A practical r,vay to eval uate the perlbrntairce
and senriiiviiy oi the dr\ ,rl u 11 nr.igrrctic pilrticles or overall




svlicnr pcrtbrrnance. or both. is to ilse represerltative verificaliol parts r'r,ilh known discontinuities o1'the type anil severitr..
norriralll' enc{}unlereLl during ircllal produclion c-laminiLtion.
Horver,'er. the uscfulncss o[ sucl.r parts is lirriited hecause the
orientatior) and nragnitude of thi: cliscontinuities cannot be
conarollcd. fhe usc- of flar.ver"1 parts n,ith gross di.scontinuitit-s is
rlot recomnlencleci. (lYarning-Il such parts are nsecl. they
rnr"rst be tholouglrll,' denragnetizecl rnd cleaned alter each usr'.)
20.8.2 F ab rical e tl Te st Pa rts v, itlt Di sttstt t iu tti t ir'.s--Ol'len"
proeluction verihcation parts rvith kuorvu disconliuriilies ol
type and seleritv needed for evaluafion are not av:rilable. As an
alternative. fabricated ver-itlcation speci rnens rvith discontini,rilies of varfing degrcc aud severit) can be used to pt'ovide an
inclication o{ the eltectiveness of the rlry or \\'et rnrLunctic
parLicle rrxalrination process. 1l such Jlarts are Lrsed, they
should be thoroLrghll, denragnctize,"l and r:leancd a['ler each Lrse.
20.8.-l &,.rt Plittc-A rnlgnetic parlicle s),stel1l perfbrrnance
verilication plate. such trs sltor,vtt in l:i:r. ll is usc:tuI for'
c:hecking the ovelall perlornrarce of rvet or: dr3, ter-:hniclues
usirrg prods and ,vokes. Re,;ommencled minirnum dinrensions

irre ten inches pel sirle and nominal lhickness ol one incl't.
Discontinuities can be ftrrnred hy controllcd heatinglctioling.
EDN{ notches. artificial iliscontinuities in accordance with
I ,,1. ' I or other rneans. (11'arning-Notches should be lilled
tiush to the si"rrfhce with a noncondrrcting rnatelial. such as
eilox-v. to prevent the rnechanical holding of the indicating
20.8.:1 Ring Sltecitnrlr--A vrrificatior (Ketos) ring
spe:cimen rnav also he uscd in evalu;rting and conrpaling the

overall peribnnance anri sen-sitivity


both dry and


fluorescent and non-tlr.rorusecrlt mugnetic par ticle techniques

r.rsing a central conductor inagnetization technique. Ref'er to



tbr iurther inlblmatioit.




rtln,g-See ,1;:1:i'i:iilr


,qrder N!mbe.

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lor i'urther

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.: {


1:54,00 mml

*r ar *pecifi*d

lS" [?54.$$ r:'"*]

ar *s sBeeified

FlG. 13 Sample of a Magnetic Particle Performance Veritication Plate. Defects are lormed and located in accordance with plate manu-

facturers' specif ications.

20.8.5 lvla,qnetic F ield { it' rs :

20.1t.5.1 "Pie" Field Indicator-The magnetic llelcl indicator in 1;1g i-,i.rclies on the slots belween the pie shapecl
sogmenis to shOr.v lhe presence ancl ihc iipproximale di|ection
ol the extc'nral rnagnetic fielcl. Because "pie" held indicators
are constmcted ol highlv perrneable rnatelial w:ith l0A cit
thlough r.l,all flalvs, indications does nol nrean thal a suitable
Iielcl slren.eth is present l'or thr: location of relevant indications

in the part under exzrnrination. The "pie" field indicator is used

rvith thc magnelic particles applied across the coppr-r lacc ol'
the indicator (the slots are against- the piecc) simultaneor.rslv
rvith thc rr-iagnetizing force. 1-vpical "pie" field inclic;rtors shou,
a clear indication in a live ganss extemal field.
al'e generalll, used as irtstructional aids.
: Slotted,l/rims-Several lypes oi slolted shims exist.
Ret'el to r\S 537 I ancl to illustrati{rls in ,'\r;:r::.,, ^ li*.

Siqbt L$!Y e,3*]*n 5tr11l Pie Se{fic*s

Fur*acr Arazed T*q{.1hrr *iiir Cspp*r e*ck Pa*el








{*knjent L*n!{h :*d


i'lr*l9rr{E* Tr***l*ns

FlG" 14 Pie Field lndicator

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21. Procedures

,{$p ezoo - rs
23. I .f

2i.l When speciliecl a procedure -{hould he r,vlitten lbr all

nragnetic particle exarninations rtnd shorrld inclutle as a mininrr"rm lhe fbllorviug iniil'nraiior. A rketch is Lrsuallv used fbr
illustrating part gi'ometr3,'. techniqurs. anil areas lor' exarninalion. This sketch rrill, also he: r-rscd 1or recording localior.r ol'
magiletic lie ld inclicators rnrl lor lecording location ol discontinuities.
2 l. L i Area to be exainincd (e*tire part or specific area),
2l " I .2 T1,pe of rnagnetic particle rnaterial (ilry or lvet.
visible or' fl uoresct'nt).
21.1 .3 Magnctic parliclt' equipn:ent,
I i . I .-l P;u t \uIllit-i ilr('f.rriitir)n |cqttircmcrils2 i . I .,5 lv{agnitizin.g pl-oct: ss (conlinuous. trur'-u{ )ltirir(}u\.


1.6 N,lagnetizing (alternating. hali:rvave reclilie{l

AC, full-r.vave lectiiiecl i\C, direct),
21.1.7 N,leans of estirblishing part lna-gnefi/iliion idirect2 1.

procls, headltail stock cGniirct or cable u,rap. indirect-coillcable

wrap. voke. ccrntrill ccncLictor. rncl so lorth).

2 i " 1 .8 Direction of' magne tic tield icircr-rlal or lungitudinal),
21 .1.9 S,vstern perlolrnaucel.tensitivity che cks.
2LLl0 Magnelic: iield strength (ampere field tlensit,\'.
lnagnetizilr,.I ibrce . lnd number and dulation of airpiicaticn oi
rnagnelizillg cr,rn'ent),
2l.l .l I Application of exarnination nreclia,
21.I .12 lnterpretation anrl evaluation of indicerirrns,
21 .l .1-l Typc ol records inclurling accept/rejee t criteria,
21. I . l.t L)ernagnetizing techniqLre s. i[' reclLrircd, and
21. I .15 Post-e.xarninntion cle aning" if requirecl.

2l .2 lVrittut RrT.ror'1.r-Wlitlen reprirts should he preparecl


;:greed uptxr bet'uveeil thc testing agency/department and the

purclr trser/u ser.

22. Acceptance Standards

22.1 The acceptabilily o1'parls erirrninecl by ttiis method is
not specilied herein. ;\cceptiince staudards ilre a nlatter of
ilgreernient betr,veen l.lre inanuthcturer and the purchaser and
should be stated in a ref'erenced contract, specilication. or code.

23. Safety

involved 'ul,ith hands-on rurglelic parlicle examination exposure lo hazarris incluCe:

23"1 .1 l:lettrit Shr;ck unrl Burrts-f'.lectric short circuiis can
cau.ce shock and palticularly brirn-s fionr the high amperages at

relatively krr,; voltages that are used. Equiprnent handlin-g

water suspensions shouid lrave sood c'lectrical groLrnds.

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l:l,r'rrr l' nrt i t' I c s-Nlasnetic pai'ticles, particularly the

dr1' ones" dirt. t'ounclly sanrl. rr"rst. and mill sr-riilc cail enter"the
ey.'es and eals rvhen they are hlolvn oli the part rvhen appliiing
them to a vellical ur. overhead surflce or when clelning an
e.ramined sLrrface wil"h compressed air'. I)r,v plrticles are easy
to inh:ric and the Lrse of a dust respirator is lccorunrendcd.
13.1.3 f"ri1l.r-A 1h11 lrom a scaflold or lrdder il rvorking on
a large siructure in the lield or shop.
23.1 .4 l''ire-lgnirion of a petroleuni ilistillate bath.
23.1.5 l*tr,itr;nnnnt-f)oing ntagnetic pafficle exaniinalion
r'vhere llammahlc'vapots rru prr'srnt us in rt petrtrchemical plant
or: oil re finery. Undenvater i,r,ork has its orvn scrt of hazarcls and
shoLrkl he allck'essecl independentl-l'.



I'itr F/oo;r-Slipping on a I'kror *,cltsd rvith


23.1.7 ,\hiliirr,g or l)n4t1ting of [,arge {'ontponents-l-arge

conrponents, especiall-v thosc on temporlr'!" suppol'ts can shifi

dur-ing exlrnination or firll while heing liliecl. Ll addition,

operators slrould be alert to the possihilitv of injLrrv to bor-l1,
nrernbers being caught beneath a slingichaiu or hetrr,een
lre;rtiltlil .ttek rrnJ tlrc picct'.

23.1.8 Lrlrrzrv,iolet

Lisht Esposure-Llltr':rviolet light


edversely a1lect the eyes iinci skin. Saltty goggles tlesigned to

ahsolb Li\iA (black light; waveleugth ratliation are suggested
rlhere high intensiti,' blacklight is used.
23.I.9 Lftttet'ioIs und Ct)n{-airotes-The safe handlin.e ol

rnilgnetic paticles and conct:ntrale s are g0vernerl bl, tlre

sLrpplier's X'laLcrial Salct-v Deta Shec'ts iir,1SDS). The lvlSDS
contbrming to 29 CFR 1910. l200 or eqLrivrlent nrusl bc
b1.' the sLrpplier lo any user and must be preparecl in
accordance with FED-S1'D--] I 3.
21.1.10 Eqrtistmettt [lu:unl.v-Because of rhe large breaclth


of equipnrent


lilable. unique safit.y l:azarils rnay erist


shoulcl he adtiressed on a case b,v case hasis.

2J. Prccision and llias

l'1. I The methodolog,v describeii in the priictice rvill proilLrce le pealable results plovided the ficld has the proper
orienlation ivith respc-ct to the discoritinuities being sought.

24.2 lt must


rc-cognizell tl-ra[ thc: sLlrl'tct] conciiticrn o1'the

material br-ing examined, the nraterill's rnagntlie properties.

its slralre, and control of the factrirs listed in lii. ! influence the
results obtained.

25. Keywortls

d,ve; evaluation: exarl)ination: fluorescent: in:pcetiort:

rllJsrtClie p;rrtielc: n()n(\

lOrder Number: 0206770S

2015'08'04 07:3s:28 UTC

t7oo1 661 05281 L

t': lt'rtitlg



- ts


NIa*tlatorv Information



Al.l SLrrface <iiscontinuities rvith fei.v exceptions procluce

sharp and rlistinct r.nagnetic parriclc inrlications. Neil.surl'act:
discontinr-rities on thc other hancl produce less distincr or l'Lrzzv

sltorvn in l:ir.:;.

magnetic parlicle iuriications in comparison 10 surlice cliscontinuitie st thc magnetic particle indicatious are broird rather than
sh;rrp alcl the particles are less tightl-_v held.

in iiis:r.

Al.2 1,!i:r hlethod:

Al .2.l {'lrnn:.r'r'cnl-Iudications ol surfnce cracks.
inclications. and an indicatiorr
are shorvtt in i::l::.. .\ L i- i I-ir.

ol a near surlace


liorrt' <:,tl-Inclications
:r].;,iI :1.

surlaer. cracks


A i .-l Dry ,V{etlrct!-It-ttlications c1 surlace cracks are sho.,vn


i. I l-.'\


A1""1 Nonrelcvalt indications ar^e shown



FlG. A1.1 Axle with Circumferential Crack in Shoulder

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A1.2 Arm with Two Longitudinal lndication$

FlG. A.l .3 Hub with Both Radial and Longitudinal lndications

FlG. A1.4 Crankshaft with Various Longitudinal lndications

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FlG. A1.5 Valve with lndication on the Stem


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A1.6 Yoke Showing Balanced QQls


Number: 02067709
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A1.7 lndications of Surface Cracking (Produced by Central Conductor Magnetizalion DC Conlinuous)


A1.8 lndicalions ot Surrace Cracking {Produced by Circular Direct Magnetization DC Continuous}

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FlG. A1.9 lndications ol Surface Cracks (Produced by Central

Conductor MaEnetization DC Continuous)

FlG. A1.10 lndications of Surface Cracks (Produced by Circular lndirect Magnetization DC)

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41.11 lndications ol a Near-Surface Diseontinuity (Produced

by Circular Direct Magnetization AC Continuous)

A1.'t2 lndications of Near-$urface lndications (Produced by

Circular Direct Magnetization AC Continuous)

A1.13 Magnetic Rubber lndications ol Surface Cracks in Aircraft Fastener Holes {Produced by Yoke Magnetization DC Con-



Copyright ASTIVI lnternational

Provided by IHS under I cense w th ASTM
No reproduct on or networking permftted withoul license from IHS

Jqrder Number: 02067709

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A1.14 Magnetic Rubber lndications ot Surface Cracks in Aircraft Fastener Holes {Produced by Yoke Magnetization DC Continuous)


FlG. A1.15 Magnetic Sluffy lndications of Surface Cracks in Weldment (Produced by Yoke Magnetization, AC Continuous)

FlG. A1.16 Magnetic Slurry lndications of Surface Cracks {Produced by Yoke Magnetization. AC Conlinuous}

Copyrighl ASTM lnlernal onal

Provided by IHS under icense wilh ASTI\,4
No reproduct on or nelworking perm fted w thout cense from IHS

Number 02067709
So d lo Pl S. BVOtfCH NDO\ES|A [/001ob105281].
2015 08 04 07:33:28 UTC




- rs

FtG. A1.17 lndications of a Near-Surface Discontinuity (Produced by Prod Magnetization, HWDC Continuous)

FlG. A1.18 lndications of a Near-Surface Discontinuity (Produced by Prod Magnetization, HWDC Continuous)

FlG. A1.19 lndication of Surface Cracks {Produced by Circular

lndirect Magnetization, AC Continuous)

Copyright ASTM lnternational

Provided by IHS !nder llcense with ASTN,4
No reproduct on or networking perm ned without license from iHS

N!mber: 02067709
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FlG. A1.20 lndication of Surface Cracks (Produced by Prod

Magnetization, AC Continuous)



Copynght ASTM lnlernatiof al

Prov ded by IHS lnder I cense w th ASTM
No reproduction or networking permitted w thout

A1.21 lndications of Surface Cracks {Produced by Prod Magnetization, DC Continuous}

fOrder Numbe.02067709
I cense from IHS

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FlG. A1.22 lndications ol Surface Cracks {Produced by Circular

Direct Magnetization, AC Continuous)

of Surface Cracks (Produced by Central

Conduetor Magnetization, AC Continuous)

FlG. A'1.23 lndications

Copvr qht ASTM lnlernat onal

Provded by IHS under lrcense wnh ASTIM
No reproduction or network ng perm(led w{houl license Irom IHS


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l\DO\fSLA [/00'66'0 28

5'08'04 07r33:28 UTC


- ts

,{$}P ezoe


A1.24 Nonrelevant lndications of Magnetic Wrlting (Produced by Direct Magnetization, DC Continuous)

4* is?*rtB


* aa*sr*s *,t

** ifi


f- l:

A1.25 Nonrelevant lndications Due to Change in Section on

a Small Part (Produced by lndirect, Circular Magnetization, DC



Copyrlghl ASTM lnlernal onal

Provded by IHS under icense wth ASTIV
No reproductron or network ng permilted wilhout license from IHS


Number 02067709

rolo Io'P I SFRVO I I Ca l\DONESIA I/00 b6


5'08 04 07:33:28 UTC


.ffi ezoo - rs


t' 1:: :t t.::::.*





A1.25 Nonrelevant tndications of Junction Between Dissimilar Materials {Produced by Coil DC Residual Magnetization}

iNonnrand:rtt;rv l nforxration.)



Xl.l Irlexible laminilted strips are ty,picallrv used to ensure

proper tield direr":tion dr.rring magnetic particle testing. The
longitLrdinal rxis ol the strip shor"tlcl be placer'l peqreudicullr ttr
thc direction of ihe magnetic field rif inierest in order to
generate lhe strongest particle itrdications on the strip.

FlG. X1..1 The longitudinal lines represent the location of the
slots cut into the center steel layer of either the General or Aerospace flexible laminated strips.


"fhe strips are available in tu.n tvpes. {}eueru! Use

and;ttt't L/.se. Botlr types of sttip coniaitr a slr-rel layer
sandu,iched betrveen trvo brass plates that are 0"0020 ilt.
(0.0508 rntn) thick. The bottom br:ass layer acts trs a lili-off ol
{).0020 in. t0.0508 nrm) trorn the e.riaminalion sLirfiice. The
hrass is non-rnagne{ic and flnctions only to prol,ide lifi-off and
to protecl the steel lir-\,er. The enlire strip ma},. have a poll,rnc:ric:
co;rting lrrr' furtlur plolection.

Leakage Flux from Slots in

XL1.2 The longitudin*l dimrrnsion ri the srrips is L9-5 in.

(50 rnm) and the r,i,icith ol'rhr stlip is 0.'tr7 in. (12 mm).
XL1..1 [3oth typr's ol'silips conrain three longitudinai slots
in lhe center sleel la1'er.

FlG. X1.2 A cross-sectional view itlustrates the rnagnetic leakage

flux generated by the slots in lhe central sleel layer of a flexible
laminated strip exposed to a magnetic field perpendicular to the
strip axis.

X I .1 .3. I The widths ol'ihe slois in the Ce n<:rttl {.,'.r'r strip are
0 0075 in. t0.190-5 rnm), 0.0{}9 in. (0.2286 mm.}. anil 0.01{} in.
(0.254 mm).

XL1.3.2 The widths of the slors in the Ar:ror7;cr.'e, {Ar: stlip

in. (8.07{12 mm), {).004 in. (0.1816 mm), and 0.00-5
in. (0"127 mur).
ar"e ().(i{13

Xl.l.4 The center ster:l layer ol'the strips is made

";-r" magnelic rnaterial.

ola high

X l. 1.5 Su-ips shall be placed in the area(s) of interest ot- the

part or sultace being exemined. {..1se etror-rgh strips. or place the
strips in rtLrltiple areas. to ensure lhat propei' iield direr":tions
are obtainr:d.
Copyilg-l ASTV,^-ar-al o-al
Provided by IHS under icense wilh ASTN,
No reproduct on or networking permtned without license lrom IHS

XI.2 lnstructions for the

Use of Flexillle Laminated

X1.2.1 ,\ppli<atiort of Strilts*-tslexible larnir:rrrecl stlips. as
sltorvtt in i::l::. 1i..i and l':;:t. ..1, 1.,i., recluire specific iranLlling"
ilttachrnent, and care lbr accurate indication ot- rnagnetic lield

X t.2.2 Sh'ips are manufircturecl lrorn high pennt atrility

carbon sierrl ancl rnusl be protectecl frrun con'usion rvlren not in
Number: 02067709
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,{$fp rzoo

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600 series) that prevents tlre magnetic parficle suspension liom

entering betr,veen the strip and part.
X1.2..1.2 Tape ma1, he user-l to secure the strip and shall have

lhr iirllorr irtr: pnrpufli.'.:

X1. Good adhc'sion to sleel.

X1.2.-1.2.2 Impen,ious 1o lhe susp*nsion Lrsed. an.l
,\1.2.3"2..1 Taptr shall be non-fluorescent (lhr tluot'escent

FlG. X'|.3 Particle indications are strongest when applied magnetic field {H) is of sufficient strength and perpendicular to the
longitudinal axis ol the strip. No indications will form when the
longitudinal axis is parallel to the applied field or the strength of
H is insufficient.


X 1"2.3.3 lf the tape becomes loose, allorving the suspensien

to seep under tl:e strip. the tape and strip shall ho care{ul}}'
removecl" ihe strip ancl the part shall l-re cleancd, and lhe slrip
shall be lcattached.
X I .2.3""1 Any tape or"adhesive usrrd to sccuro lhe strip to thc
pa* shall neither covel' uor intertere with the visibility o1'the


X1.2.4 Re-use oi the strips is acceptable. provided thel' ale

not distorted rvhen lernover,l anrl intimate contacl is achievecl
r,vhen r"eplaced"

X I .2.-5 IJse car-e lvlren applying the suspensi*rt to the sti'ips.

Pr0per st|ip indicatir)ns miiy nol l<irm unless thr' \u\l]r'r1sir)n is
applied in a gentlc manndr.

X1.2.6 The lctive center layer of the strips are made of

lorv retentivelv and l'righ penneability malerial" Llse oi thc

sllips in verity'inu lhe presence o1 resiriual rnagnelic fields can
only br- rnade r.vith approval ol the Cognizaut Engineering

Xl .2.1 Deternt.itrirrg Fieltl Dirct'tiorr-Srrips provicie the

str{}ngesf particle indicatiorts on ttre three line s whcn positioned


\ \---\-..\\


FtG. X1.4 Weak particle indications can mean that the longitudinal axis of the strip is at an angle (0) lrom the applied magnetic
lield {H), or that the applied field is not strong enough to gener-

ate indications.
use. They should be storcd in a dry location. Before placing the
strip onto the pru1, both the strip and part shall be clean and dry.

X1.2.3 The strip shall be placed in intimate contact with

material to be examined. The strip may be held in place
manually or with the use of an adhesive or tape.
X1.2.3.1 If the strip is to be fastened to the part by using an
adhesive or tape, select one (such as Scotch brand 191, 471" or

Copyright ASTM lnlernalional

Provlded by IHS !nder license w th ASTII
No reproduction or networklng permitted wilhoul license lrom IHS

such that the longitudinal axis ot the strip is perpeudicular l"o

the applied rnagnetic field. A strip r.l'hose longituclinal axis is
parallel to tlie applied held rviil not provicle any particle
indications. to 1:19. 11..i and lrj::,. X l.-i.
Xi.2.7.1 To use strips 1o determine the held direction, hrsl
deternrine the krcation(s) fbr the strip(s) to be placed.
X1.2.7.2 Position ir strip oflto t.he sirrlace so that ia is
pcrpenciicuiar to tlle clirection ol the applied rnagnetic field.
X ! .2.7.2. I A second slrip rnay be placed perpendicr.rlar to
the firsl.
X1.2.7.3 Lisin.s the continuous nretl'rod, bcgin bi.' starting the
amperage selection at a minintum level and increasing
rmperitge slorvlv until the indications of the [ines in one or both
strip(s) are leadili' observcd.
X 1.2.7.,+ If both strips shorv particlc indications. the applied
lield is at an angle of hetween 30'' io 60'' to them. If un
indications are visible in either strip rvlren the lleld is applied,
the f iel-[ is not strong enough lo generale indicaLions.
X1.2.7.5 Actual fiekl strength rreasurements (in the air at
the point of ineasurenrent) can be obtained by plar:ing a Hall
EfI'ect probe adjacent to the strip or at a nearhy loc:ation r'vhere
prohe placernsnl cail easii_r" he leplicaled.

Number: 02067709
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X2.l Thrr fbllorving

standard flail,ed shims arc l;rpically

used to establish pxlper field r-lirection and r'nsule adeclLratc
Iieid strength dLrring lechnicpre rleveloprnent in rrtrt::iir-'tir prrlicls exarninatior.r. Tlre shinrs ol' i-rx. Il. 1 rnay be Lrsed to
erlsLlre the establi.shment of lields in the unitlirectional nrasnetization rllethod and tr: ensnre the establishment and Lrallnce of
lields in thc rnuiticlirectionul rnagn.tization nretl'rod.


Except tbr rl"rirns illustrated in lrig ,\2.3, thc shirns

are availahle in trv* thickr:csscs, {).002 in. (0.0-5 rnrn) and
in. t0.t0 mrll. Thinnt'r shinrs are usccl 1vfi1:p {[g thicker shinis
canr)ot uontbrm to l-l're part surl'ace in the area ol intrrrrst.

X2.1"2 The


i. The shinrs ol lii;:.. .\i..l arc cr"rL. b.v the user,

inlo lilur 0.lil,J in. (10 nrnr) sqnare shims fbr usc in resti:icteii

ol'i:,;. 11.


X:.1.1 Shirns should be klw carbon sfeel.

AN'[S 5062 or


X2"i.,1 Shinrs should be used as specilied in AS 5371.

Shims are 1:lacecl in tlre arca(s) of inter"est wilh notches torvard
llre sulfhce of the part heing examin*d. Usc enougl'r shitns or
piace the shirns

in r*ultiple



ensure prcper tield

direcliorrs ancl s{rengths are oblained.

are available in trvo sizes, {}.7.5 ir. (11)

.lrii l:: l and 0.79 in. (20 nrm)

rnln) sqrlare tbr i-tlr:,;. X-::.1

i19.*tr mm)

o rs"

_*i _____________+1

l, o .o.


i.t*7" tia. Cil

0.5Sr'' Eia.


*"1&l" Bia. C*
{9.71 Em}
*.15*" tliE.




{6.55 i:1*1}

*.25S'' Dr*.
{ii.55 mftl

r**Te*r DrtTlJ


l{i*,lx {l.e$S+"

:tl% *.{Hr**=

{*.*t* mil} al}


{0.St5 ffiffi} aenter

{0.*2C nnJ



]$% G-tfl1:"
{*.0.:r! me} aefttcr

l{lr+ l}.{}*+&''

4*Yc il.Xi)16'


{*.S{fi6 nr*}

Shir* ?ype 3C4-234

Shim Thickness S.0*4" {t}.10?
Shim Thiekness *.S0?" {*.S5 m*}
FlG. X2.1 Shim Thicknesses for Shim Types 3C2-234 and 3C4-234

Shirn Type 3C2-234

Copyright ASTNI lnternational

Provided by IHS under license with ASTM
No reproduction or nel@rk ng permilted w thout rcense lrom I HS


Jgrder N!mber: 02067709

Sold to:PTSERVOTECH INDONESIA [700]661052811,

20T5 08 04 07 33128 UTC}


,{$p ezos - rs
r.ti.!'5" {'FYF}

i fil?

lTr) !

- l{J% !.{{1I' {0.*3G m.*l

'l|Jll(l'i855 - 0,i]04*
18.10 ss"j

D*PTH - ]S4J+ !.Li*d{' {i.0tr nnJ

THjCKNF!5 - 0.04:. {[,05 $rnJ


Ef|iru Typ* {x(-430

Shirn Type CX-U3O

FlG. X2.2 Shim Types CX-230 and GX-430

0,790" [?0.07 mm]


p! (-q

0.235" [5.97 mmJ

0.700" {5.08 mrnl



o 0.255"

0,395" [10,03 mm]


6.48 mm]

0.006" [0.15 rnm]

{2) PtCs.


30% 0.0006"
1.01s mml
Shim Thickness .002" 10.051 mmJ
Sh'm Type CX4-230

FlG. X2.3 Shim Thickness for Shim Type CX4-230


X3.1 This appr'ndix has c:mpirical lormr.rlas tbr estlblishing

megnetic tield strengths; they are rules of thumb. As such. they
must be used with iudgrnent. 'lhe-ir use rna1, lead to:
X3. l.

Over nragnetizal.ion. which cluses excessive pilrticle

hackground that nrakes interpletation more difLcult




1.2 Pool cor.,erage.

X3.l^3 Poor choice of exarnination geomctlics.

X3.1.4 A combinatittn


the above.

X3.2 Guidelines .for Establis'hing tu{rtgnetiL- Fir,/rls-The

lollowing guir"lelines car.r be ellectively applied lor establishing
proper l*r,els ol circular and longitudinal m;rgnetizalion using
ertlIi Iierl f, rrnlrtlus.
X-].2. 1 Cit t Lth r bloentti:,rttiott
M u gn t: t it' {' i t' ltl S t rtt g th."

X3.1. l.1 l)irer:t Cin'uktr fu{agn<:ti:.u!iott

When nragnetizing by passing current directly thror-rgh the pnrt
3:iJ::X'i:lx,:'."::il".ll! ** o.,,
No reproduclron or network ng permitled wilhout license from IHS

the nominel currcrlt shor-rld generally be l0t)-800 Alin. ol part

diameter (11 to 32 A/mni). '['he diameter o1'the part should be
laken as the greatesi rlisliince benvren any two points on the
outside cilcumf'erence o1' the part. Currents will nonnally be
5il0 A/in. (20 A/mrn.i cI lor.ver. with the highcrr currtnls Lrp to
8{10 Alin. (.12 A/nrm.t being used to eranrine 1'or irtclusirins or
lo eranrine lor.v-permeability alkr-vs. Arnperages ol' less liran
300 A/in. rnay' be usecl rvhen parl con,'iguration dictates anci
approval is ohtained liom {hi: Level III alrd the Cognizanl
Engineering Organizalion" 'I'he tie lcl strengths generateil
through the use ot' empirical lbnnulas should be verilied rvith
a Hall eft'ect gaussrneter or AS 5-l7i shirns.
X3"2"l.2 Central Contluctrtr Indut'et! Lltrg,ntti:utiort
When using olfset ccnllal conductors the couductor passirig
lhrough the inside of the palt is plac:ed against an iuside rvtll of
cument shoulti he fronr 12 A per lllm of part
the part.
diameter to -32 A pef rnrn ol part cliarneter (300 to 8tJ0 A/in.).
'fhe diarnc-ter: of tlre part shor"rlcl be taken as the distartce
belu,een rny two points {]n the outsirle circumf'crencr' r)f the
par1. fienelally. curronls rvill be 5{}0 A/in. (20 A per nrnr) or

Number: 02067709



ES A 1700



8 1

,ffi ezos - rs
lou,er witli the higher cll.rents (np to 800 A/in.) being r.rsecl to
exanrine lor inclr.rsions (!l. to exarnine lurv pernreal-'rilit;r alloys
such as precipitation-harciening steels. For exarninalicns used

outside rlitmeter has an Lill ratir; ol l5l5 or 3. Accor:r,iing13,, the

alnpe!'e turn rcquirement (.,\I =.1-r 000r'3i lo proi,ide arlequate

t{l locate inclusions irr precipitaticir-h*rrlening

live-iLrrn coil or cahle is userl" the coil anrpelagr' rrcprirL-mcirt\

rvouXri be (I = 15 000./5) =.lU(X) A ( i 10 %). i\500 tum coii
lvouli-l rcquile l0 ;\ i-1- 10 t? ).
i2)['urts witlt u {r;tt' lt'ill-F'uctor Posiriotret} itr tke {enrer

steels evr'n

highrr curren{s. up to 1{llXl A/in. (40 A pcr"rrmJ l}}ay be use,-l"

The distance llong the part circumlere-nce. r.l'hiclr nla-l hc
eff'ectively exarlined shoulcl be taken as approrinratell' f our
tinres the di:rureter of the ceutral condur:tor. as iilLrstlatecl in
l:i;:. ilribi. The entirc circurnfelence shoul-l he examined b-v
r*tatin.rl thr: part {in the cL}nductor, {br approxirnatell,
a l0 9i magnetic iicld over-lap. Lesr ,rvellap. rlitf'erer.rt cilrrcnl
levr'ls. anil larger ell'ective regions iup to 36{}") ma-v be used il
the pr*se ncc ot' suitehle ficld l*r,e ls is i'eritiecl.

X3.2.: Air-Care Coil futu.gitutlino! l$rLgnetiitttit'tt

LongitLrdinal part nragnetization is pr"oduced h.v pa.rsing a
current through a rnulti-tuln coll encircling the plit. or \L'ction

of the part to be exarninr:d .A magnetic tield is producecl

pai'allel to the axis ol the coil. The unit of nreiLrrnerneni i:
arnper. tunrr {NI) (thr ar:tual amperage rnultiplit-:d by t}rc
ol iurns in lhe er:circling coil or cablc:). The ellective
is variable and is a hrnction ol the f ill factor and lreki extencls
on e ither sicle ol'the coil.
ei'fuclive distance can easily be

cletermined by use o1'a Gauss (-fesla) nleter to idc:ntil,v lvhere

the I'lLrr lines are leaving 1o complete their return loop"
parts shoirld bc exarnined in sections lhat do not erceed this
len-uth. There are ftrnr e:mpirical longitudinal rnagnetization
tonnulas employecl lirr r,rsing encircling coils, the tornrula ao be
used cleirending on thr: fill ltrctor. The 1'ormulas are inclucled lrir

Il usecl its Lrse shoirld be lir.niler-l tr,r

l.:e quicker and more accurate to
use a Gauss {Tesla) meler, la}, its probe on thc: part and measure
the field rilther than to calculilte r,rsing the ibrmulas.

field strength iu

Ir)l lr1i1 111r


{l) Purts vt,ith l-tsvt' Fil!-Foclor

N/: (R/1i6r/r) -,5li:


ar]1pere tunls.

lfllpere turns.

exarnple. a part l5 in. (-18.1 crn) Iong r,vith 5-in.

(12.7-cm) r"rLrl:icle dianrel-er hus a LID rati{} L}l l5i5 i:r 3. Il'a
five -lur-n l2-in. diarrrctcr' (f:-in. radius) (3().8-cm diamrte r
(15.4-cm radius)j coil or cahle is used, (1) tht: arnpere tums
requir"er.nent *,or-rld be as l'ollows:




t Thcsr equrtii,Lrs ere incltirled ior histr.ricrl ronrinuitl' rrr:lv. It is i:itLer t{r lru_! tr
ln ihc part antl ne;rsrii'e ihe lield !trengtli thrn calculrLinrr
rrring the eiltul:ili:s.

Copyright ASTM lnternational

Provlded by IHS !nder I cense with ASTN,4
No reproduction or network ng permrned wilhout I cense from IHS

_ ]l


and (2) the coil arrpelase requirenrent rvoulcl be as tbllor'vs:

19 Ei16

Xl.l.l I


i !6-t) A i ::: 10'l i

ltttennetliLtte Fill-Foctor Cails

When the cross section ol'the cr:il is grealer than lw'ic* ancl lcss
than ten times the cross section ol the part be ing examined:


(A,I)i, i



(N/i., (y



.3 )



vitlne of NI calculated lbr high till-lirctor coils using

I .rt


NI,l =


rirtio of the cross-sectional alea ri1'thc coil to the cross

section of the pail. For cxample. if the coil has an
inside diernreter of 10 in. t25.rl cnr) anel pafi (r bar) has
an outside diametr.'r ol 5 in. ( 12.2 cnrl.

of NI calculatecl lbr lorv lill-tiictor coils

:t \ i rrr : ,. , r. l. ltttrl


I -



X3.2.2.3 High ftill-l;u<:tor Coil.t

ln lhis case. r,vhen trxerl coils or cable \,vraps are used anci
closs-seclion:rl area ol' the coil is lcss lhan trvice the crosssectional area (including hollorv portions) o1'the part. lhe coil
lrl. a high hll-l-rctt;r
(ll Itrr Parts Within a Fligli Fill-Factor Positioned Coil anll
tbr Palts rvith an 1/D ratio r-qual to or greater than 3:

\1 =

'l'e-sla rneter. lay thc prohc


For exarnple, a part 15 in. (i8. I crn) long with 5-in. 1 12.7-cm)




AI1 =



= nLlnrber o1'tnrns in Lhe coil.

* cilil L:urrent to be used. ar.r.r1:eles (A).
= 45 000 (ernpilic;rl11, deriveil constant).
part, iength, in., (see Note).
*= part cliamc:ter'. in.; for hollorv parts, see \,i.-1.-1. i, and

= nurnber ul lurns 'in the coil.

= coil cur.renl lo be used, A.
= '13 000 iempirically derivetl coilstanl).
= coil radiLrs. in."
par'l length, in. isee Nllle),
* parl diantelcr. in.. fr;r hcllcw pilrts (see -:."-j.1.: .ii, and

llLtll o{ {'oil:




Positioned Close tr; Inside

Nt- KilLtD) i:t0tLl

rmptrLr tLrrns.

15 {}{10

of rlut Coil:

historical continuity only.

X3.2.2" I {.otr }iil!-F-ttttor Coil.t

In this case. the cross-sectional area ot'the firc:d encircling coil
greatll' excer-ds the cross-sr:ctional area of the part (lc'ss than
l0 9'c coil insicle dianreter.i. For proper pan magnetization. such
parts shoukl be placed rvell within the coils ancl ckrsc: to the
inside wall of the coil. With this lorv fill-tactor, adequate lieLi
stlcngth lor *ccentrically positioned p;rrts ra.,ith a length-ovcr'rliaineter ratio tUD'l between 3 and l5 is calculated liom the

part u,ould h*



,:-r- I Ior,


N =

nuurber of tui'as in the coil or cable rvlap.

Number: 02067709
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,{$}p ezos



= coil eun'ent,.,{.
= 35 i)00 (empirically derived constanl).
= part length, in..
- part cliarneter. iu., anil




15 shoLrld be Lrscrl

ior all

lorrnLri:is cited ahole.

X1"2.2.4 UD Ratio frtr a Ho!lovy, Piect,

\\rhen calculating the {JD ltrtio fbr a hollow piece. D should
leplacecl wilh arr effbctive ciiameter /)^,,,, calculaterl using:

= alnlpefe tilflr$.
For exatil:le . the application ol l::r; !' i..i can he illustrateil as
fbllorvs: a prirt l0 in. (25.,{ cnrJ long-with i-in. (5"08-cnr)
cutsir-le cliarneler woLrlcl have 'a* IJD laiio ol'5 anri an amperr'
turn recluiremenls oi' NI = 35 00i1.,(5 + 2i or 5{}00 (-- l{l 9i,}
ampere tur:ns. It a live-lLrrn coil orcablr *'rap is er-nplorved.
arlrperage requirement is -500015 or 1000 A (* lL) 'r'i).

- rs


Nirii: X3.l --[;or {tD lttii;-c ]ess tlran 3. a pr>le piccc (lirrornitgnetic
th. sxnlc tli;uleter as part) shoulil be u,red tu
cllcctir,r:ly incrr-ase thc UD r[1tio o!' utilizL] ;lr altcrn;ltirc nrrgncti/irtir]n
mellxxl such rs indueed current. Iror I"z7l r,rli{)s *l'L':itcr than l-5. iL
maLcriai applr:rimrtrl3,


A, =
Ai, =


total clr.rss-sectional arca




the part. and

cross-scctional at'*a ol'lhe hollorv porlion{ s) of'l-he parl.

l) =ir()!| - t//)l jr '


OD = olrtside diametcr ol'thc cylindel and

lD = iusirle dianreler ol'ihe cvlinder'.




X,1. l.l lhis appendir illr-rstrate-c several types r:f devices

that can he Llsed [o evaluate, or c(]rnpale the pertonnance of
both wet anii dry rlr&guctic particle testir.lg materials. Palticle
perlbnrane-e evalLration devices rn;ry he used to: check I'or
nralerill clegrarlalion, couipzire dillerence materials, check rhe

visibility o1' an1,' rnaterill(s) uncler varying illuminltior.r

cotrditions, and othel types of cnmparisons.
Nolr. X:|" l-The devices rlise u:sed in this section shall not be
in ;inv rnlLnnr-r' ol tlerl;rgnctizcd in an,v rrranner. Thov


lllagnetic stripe card) can be uslrd as an indicator of rnagnefic

parlieie perfornralce. l-;:: {-1. } illLrstralos holv particlcs can be
attrarte.i to the encoded strip on lhe nragnetic stripe carcl. Fcr
u.i1S.' ;nlunniltiurr. :cc
X4.2. 1. 1 C ltu ro t' te ristir'.i-lVlagnetic st.r'ipe carrls shor-rld be
madc in accordance with lS0 78i0-ldentiircalion CardsPh;-siual Characleristics. The magnetic strip ma3' be mirde of
eithc'r lorv-cocrcir,'ity (lo-co) or high coercitivty thi-co)
lnaterial. as clesiquated b-v thrr manufircturer.
X"l.2.i.1 Ertcotling Puttent-A constant eucor'ling pattern.

contlin some lcriil

o1' permellent rnr*netizition. \\rith -cuitilbie care, the

rragnetiz!r1ior1 r.vilirin each device shoulil no{. he subirct Lo c}xtnge over
time .

dccal-ing encoding patter. reverse decaf ing patlern. or other

pattem nral be encocleci into the rlrip. Sr:e l:il:. )i,:!.j tirr a
photograph of flr"ror-escent particle indicators o{ decaying and

X4.2 Devices

l.e r

X4.2.1 btu;drtl il{ngnetic Mediu '-The r-nagnetic t':ncoelinll

process can generale rnagnt:tic gradients in a highl-v controlled
rnanner. These grirdie nls. rvheu rncnded into r nreclia (that is. a

cr-re Jccrrr ing rrrcL).lirrg


X:i.2.2 Pennarrcntly Magna.ti.:.ed Di,rc.r-Cracks irr pernranentll rnagnetizcd clisks provicle the flux leakage lecluirod firr
macnetic parlicle inrlic:ations. Observation ol the intensity and

FlG. X4.1 Particle indications appear where magneiic gradients have been encoded in the magnetic strip of the card, ln this case, the
gradients decrease in value from "0" {strongest} to "X" {weakest). Particle performance can be graded on the basis of the weakest


Copyr qhl ASTM lnlernational

Provded by LHS under I cense wrth ASTIV
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{$}p ezos - rs
hrightness of indiciition allorv l comparison or evaluatittr of
particle pelfiri'mance. i:rit !-.1. I illuslraies clacks that have
been fbrrnr'd in the ilisk.

X;|.2.3 Pe nntmtntl.t' l,{ugne.ti:.t,1 Bl;x l.E-The seam ht-ln 1wo magnrtically coLrpled blocks ;:rol ick the f'lux
leakage requir"crl lirr magnetic particlc inr-lications. The flux
densit-t' dccreases as the distance lrorr-r the mlgrtct irtcrcuscs
iind lhe resLrlting magnetic particle indicetion rccluces. I l:.
ia --l illustrates horv a pe rnlanent il1agl1et can he trocatecl to
result in a particle indicrrtion along the seanr betr.r,ecn trvo
precision llrmed steel blor,rks. The seam clrn be increnrcnted so

X,l.3.rl Porticle. Aytplrr.ttirut-\!et nrethoil urd r-1ry ruethod

malerials shor"rld be conslste nt ivith the method ot application
lh.rt ir ill Lru urc,.l tirl cmnrinatioLt>.

Wet N{ethi;tl fu!t'tteriolr f:luorescent or noflin a liquid velricie at the

lluoresceirt particlrs sr-rspended

requirerl concentr:rlion -rhonlel be appliecl as fhe.v tvould be Lrsed

lor exar-nination. b-v gentil' spraying or flolving lhe suspcnsion
over llre iirea lo be eranrinecl or by irlilnersion ol'the devicc in
thr: sr-rspension. Excess bath shall he ailorvt-'d to llorv all'ay 1i'om
the device. Tlre cier,ice shall be observe(l under approprintf

illurr:ination for tire f'ornration of particle indications. Ohset

shlll be noled as to the quality ol pllticle indications


that the pallicle perfirrrnance can be gr"adcrl.

antl the clarily thereol.

X4"-1 Prccedures Consicleratious

X, Drt

X4.-1.1 Prcpnra{ion-The sur-lace ol the device nlus1 be

dr'1,'. lncl free ol any piirliclcs liorn pr"eviorrs tr:sts, 1lui11.
rl1' other contatrinauts ol conditions thal rlight interltre r.vith
the e{licienc,u- of the evaluntion priol to the application of the
tesling rnaterial.


X4.3.: l)evict: Verit'iLtttiou-llevice should he checkeil rvilh

e llew llraterial or knorvn nraterial priol to ilse, i{) r,eri1,'i thc
devicc has no{ treen magnelicallS, allerecl. 11' thc le st indicales
the rnagnetic plopcrties ot the ciel,ice have heen aiter,:d, it
shoLrld he leplaced. Conlacl thcr device martLrijrctuler rvith
regard to any lnaguetizilri()il or perlormiince i-r-r*es.
X.+.3.3 Etlrtipnrent

und ProcedLtre.;-Thc

requirements, test condition ancl

testing procecl-rres firr particle

evalu*tion shciulti be estabiisl'red and docurricnted to the exteut

required in or-rlel to provide a stanclarclized evalurtion. The
requirernenls ma-v cover sLich things as Lr\'-A distance anr-l
i1 [u n'rinatiern requirenlents. vi sihlc light lerlLr i rcrncnls. pxrtic] e

irpplicator irrtd applir-:al,ion prrtccclLtre. thLr use ul collh'arl

backgror.rnds. Lerroval of exce ss parlicle and mu:thod o1'docLrrnenting rL'sulls.

No'li: X-l.l-Nrxr-{'hrtrcscent particlc resnlls a.e parliculi.rrl} lmpactr'd

backgroLurd color. A thin coating siurulating tcst condition backg,r"ouncl


considcred in ordcr to provide an :Ldr-litional rid

Ie perilrnrancL' uuder ilctllal le-\t conditions.

nra1, be




fu'ltfferirtl.r-Apply dr-y porvcler so that

a light. uniforlr. clust-like coating settles L)n the surface of thc

ilevice. applicltors shoukl introcluce the particles into the
;iir in a rnanncr sllch lhat the1, reach tlie part surface in a
runii'olm cloud *,ith a minimum o[' lorce. Excess parlir;lcs
shitull be rem,tvell b1, a gt:ntle air current. The r-levice shall he
ol'rserved undel appropriate il]r-rrnination tbr tl're tbrmation of
pailicle inclicaticlns. Ohservaiion shall be noted as to the quality
o1'palticle inclications anci clarity lhereol'.
X4.3.-5 Rccoir/.r Particle in,"lications may be recorclccl in
accorclance rvith Section


X-1.3.6 t)Iutct"ioI Nt.::L {)nry)!iillce-Evaluation ol malerials

nol meeling conrpan! standard should not bs used lbr era*tination.

X,l 3.7 Lo:s oj httlicotirttt.s' ttt <t {'ernanentlt' iV{ugneti:,ed

Dclrlr'-Therc are several cilcumslances in rvliich magnetic
pruticle inclicatious nia,\" nol be visible on the device and u,hen
intlicatitrns irre rrot r.isib1e, the sub.ject particles should nr.rt br:
used for erarnination unless being veritied as acceptable using
a suitable altenrate methodology.
X,+.3.7. 1 Cont:ttttrotiori-The subject rvet urethod parlicles
ma! not have a sulhcicnt le ve1 of cone-entralion. [n this case.
ircrerse the concentrntion level of the hath alld re-pcrform the
check until the palticles dernonstrate suitable perlix'mance.


Figrre A

FlG. X4.? Typical dimensions {in millimetres) or a disk containing surface cracks that has been permanently magnetized. ln this case,
{1) indicates larger cracks formed by grinding and (2) indicates finer cracks caused by stress {induced by quenching).
Copyright ASTM lnternal onal
Provded by IHS under icense with ASTM
No reproduct on or nelwork ng permitted wilhout I cense lrom IHS

4qrder Number 02067709


20T5 08 04 07:33:28 tlTC



ffi ezoo - rs





Perm;:nenl FlagneI

FlG. X4.3 One type ol device containing a permanent magnet held next to two precision lormed steel blocks with a brass cover. The
seam between the steel blocks act$ as a discontinuity; particles form an indication on the seam that is slrongest close to the magnet
and weakens vrrith distance away from the magnet.

X.l.3.7.I Sr,ri.sirii'irl'-The suhject particles rnry r)ot provide

necess;rry sensitivi4r. In this crse, replace the araterial rvith a
suitrhly sensitive rnaterial and le-perfonn the cl-reck until the
particlcs denronstrate suitable peltbrmance.
X-'e-fhe delice lras becotne rnagnetically
eraserl. ln this case, no discernible purticlo indication will
allpealr. Repeat the check rvith anoth*r device. or scnsitir it_r'
check, or hoth. Lrntil the particles dernonstrate suitahle prrformance. Either clestroy the device Lrr report it to the nratul'arcturer ancl f-olloiv the manul acturer's recofirlnentlations.


HtuilLitrg-After the visual exarninalion has


lhe sr"rrface of the device shoLrld be cicaneci ol renrainin;1

fluid arrd par"ticles in zr manner non-detrimental to the device.
\Vhen not in use, the clevice shoulcl be stor:ed arv;ry tiom
e.rc:essive heat attd strilng aagnetic ficlds. L-ontact the r-ler.,ice
r-nanular-:turer witlr regard to any magnetizalion or perltirmance
nrarie ,




X5.l Centriluge

tuhes shor.rld be pear-shaped, made tl'orn

tholoughly annealed glass. and conlorm trr the dimensions

Copyr ghl ASTM lnternallonal

Provded by IHS under icense with ASTM
No reproducl on or nelwork ng permilled without icense Irom IHS

) as applicahle. The grarluations.

nurnbered as shou,n" shoLrld be clear anti distinct.




Number: 02067709
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,($|p ezoe

- rs



1$*2 !{iil



$AHlBr"&S?tS SP{IT

1t3 ?a 116

157 Ts



t** !|il

4*T* 4? i414


la 43 t'lH

FlG. X5.1 Pear Shaped Centrifuge Tube

Copyriqhl ASTM lnlernational

Provided by IHS under I cense w lh ASTM
No reproduct on or networking permifted w thout lcense Irom IHS

Fluorescent Bath

4qrder Number: 02067709


2015 08 04 07:33:28 UTC

17001 661 05281 l,



- rs


FtM r.O-


958*1HM 0.D.


113 To t

t6 Mill

I57 To 15O !,tM

44 To 47 MM

36 To 43 MM

FlG. X5.2 Pear Shaped Centriluge Tube

Non-Ftuorescent galh


X6. I Sonre ntateriills are ftrr il]ord suitalrle llr magne{ic
particle testing than others^ In sorno cases, liquicl penetrant
testing rnay be .l more reliahle testing nteihod.

X6.2 Sorne ol the precipitation hardening (PII) steels are

austenilic in the annealed or Ir;r,v hLraa treat ranges. Austenitic
nraterials cannot be examinr.ll by the magnetic parlicle resting


X6.3 Care rnust be taken with loiv perrnealrilitv steel.r. such

as the PH steeis, to use a high enough ampcrage to prtvidr:
proper lir:kl strength.
X6.4 Steels with

ver1, high ptrrrneability are easily tragne-

Copyrlghl ASTIV nternal onal

Provided by IHS !nder icense wth ASTN,4
No reproducl on or neiworkrng permited wdhout I cense lrom IHS

tized but should noi


eramineil wilh the lesiclual mothod"

X6.5 fl*. .ll-t;. I is a tahulation ol' stainless and corrosion

lesistant slt:els &n.t their sr-ritability lbr erantination r,vith the
magnetic pailicle tesling rnethod.
X6.6 AlLrnrinurn anrl aluminLtnt-basecl allo;*s, copper ancl
coppel-haseri allo-vs. ancl nickel-based allo1,'s catlrlot he examined by the magrietic particle resting inethori.
X6.7 All iou,-alloy cnrbon steels, 100(l series


{ 102(1. 1050,

1340, clc.).,t000 series (4130.,1310.4340tu{, and so

tbrlhl. 5000, 6000, 8000, 9{100 serir:s, HY 80, }lY 100,
9t\i-rlCo, anri X,laraging strels rrre lerro-masnetie and can be
elamined with the tlagnetic pnrticle testing method.

llErder Number: 02067709

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ffi eroo - rs
Stalnl*ss a.ld

C0rr*sion Rriistanl

Chrgmiurn t\icksl

ilanganese Type









Inc0l0y 80S,




















801, S{l?.


eilrtom {5C





Custonr 455




$ 10

( 0


HaynEr ?5,
Stellit* 68
All Hastsloy
A1l Inconel
Alt t',Jimnntc
AII Udimet
Rene 41,
95, 10fi






_)l I



4{ila, 8,










l7- 1,{C*-1.10


FlG. X6.1 Tabulation of Stainless and Corrosion Resistanl Steels


X7.l A ling specimen sirnilar to f:ig. 1r i rnav he used itr

perlonn the syst*m pertormance veriirc:alion oi trl .j.
X7.2 lYet Particle Tesi (Conrlucted in accrirdance with

rvlitten procedur.e )

Dernagnetizc the ring.

X1 .2.2 Place a uon-ferronragnetic coniluctor rvith a cliamcler hL-twl.-cn l.0 and L25 in. (25.4 artd 31.75 mnti through th*
center of the ling.

X} .2.2.1 Center: tire ring on the conductor.

X7.2.3 L'lagnetize the ling circularl3,'by passing the requileti

crlrrent lhrough the c:onriLrctor. Use the curent levels of r.tiri,'
Xl.l or l-lrl-.1r.1"1.i as applicable to the r:ing being user-1.
Xl .2.1 Apply the

sr,rspension to the ring using the continu-

ilus melliod.

Copyright ASTM lnternat onal

Provlded by IHS under llcense wth ASTM
No reproduction or nelwork ng perm fted wilhout I cense lrom IHS

X7 1.5 Erar.nine the ring lvithin

i'rtirt al'tc'r currcnt zrppli-


X7.1.5.1 Non[]ourescent baths s]iall bc e ritmined uuder'

visible light of not less than 100 lc (107{r 1.rt.
X7.1.,5.2 lrlourescent baths sltall he ,:xanrined rrnder black
light of not le-ss than lil00 prW/c:rn: lncl an tnrbient $,hite light
level not greafer than 2 l'c (12 lx).
X7.2.-5.3 'I'he nunlber of hole inilications visible shall rtreet
or exceecl thosr: specificd in'l;rr,l,:,{;.1 or r :'r,' i.l ris
applicable to the ring being used.
X1 .2.6 I)enrasnetizc rirrg.



Particlc'lbst (Conductecl in accorchnce with

rvritlcn proccdure)
X7.3.1 Place a ron-felromagr-retiu conduclor rvith a cliarneterlretween 1.0 and 1.25 in. (25.4 anri 31.75 nrn-r) through the
cenler of tire ling.

Number 02067709
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07:33:28 UTC


,{$fp ezos

- rs


5.*C" f 127.0C

ftml *


FlG. X7.1 AlSl KETOS Tool Steel Ring


0.07 in. {1.78


0.14 in. (3.56


0.21 in. (5.33



0.07 i:1. (1.78 mn)

0.07 in. {1.78 nm)
0.07 in. (1.78 mm)
0.49 in. (12.45 mm) 0.56 in. (14.22 mm) 0.63 in. (16.00 mrr)


0.42 in. (10.67 rirm)

0.07 ln. ('1.78 mm) 0.07 in. (1.78 ilim)

0.70 ln. (17.78 mrn) 0.77 in. (19.56 mm)

0.07 in. {1.78 mm}

0.E4 in. (21.34 rnrn)

0.28 in. i7.11



0.35 in. (il.Bg



',qll hole dierneters are t0.005 !n. (r0.13 mm). Rings',vitl] holes 10 ihrough 12 are aptioiai.
n'clerance on the D distance is r0.005 in. (t0.13 mm).
cuilless speciiied, all dimensions are t0.03 in. (10.76 mm)

TABLE X7.2 Amperage and Hole lndication Requirements for AS

5282 Hings


nrnperage fW 0r

Flu0rescent Oxide



1 500

Visible Oxides {Wei)

TABLE X7.3 Amperage and Hole lndication Requirements for

Ketos 01 Tool Sleel Ring Specimen
Type cf Siispension

Holes lndicated


Amperage FW or



FlLroresceni Oxide
(\ '/etl


trisible Oxides (Wet)


Dry Powder



L4rnimun] Number of

Holes lndrcated

1 500

Dry Powder

X7.1.2 Cenler lhe ring on the conductor.

X7.3.3 L{agnetize the ring circularly by piissing rhe lequired

c[n'ent throrrgh the conductor. {-lse the applicahle currellt levels
of l:Lll.'Xl.! or'i; .\;.1 as applicable to the ritrg bc:ing
Copyright ASTIV lnlernational
Provided by IHS under license wth ASTM
No reproduction or networking permitted wfihout I cense from IHS

X7.3.4 Apply the prrticles io lhe ling using a squreze bulb

or other suitable applicilter lvhile the cnrrt:nl is florving.
X7"3.5 Eramine the ring within I min al'[er currenl application under a minimuni oi 100 t'c (1076 lx) o1'visible light"
X7.1.5.1 The nr-rmber of hole indications i,isible shall meet
or exceed those specified in i-;iri,.: I, l.l or'i:r1:l': \,:.i. or the
ivlilten procedure, ol both.
X7.3.,5^: Current levels used and nurnber oi'holes ob.served
rtt,rr he limite,l h.\ \'rluilrntnt r'ulri'fl1 ('illu('it-\.
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{flP ezoo- rs
X7.3.6 l)enragnetize thc ring.


X8.l 'fhe lerluiremer:ts shoukl he usc'd to induce

residuai magncrtic ticlds in oilfleld tubular"s (tLrbing. ca.sing" line
pipe. ancl ilrili pipe).


X8.2 Uircular Magnetism

X8.2. 1 lVhr:n capacitor.r-lischalge units ale used as ma:lnelizirrg soulccs, the oilfi*ld tubLrlars shoulcl ber insulaterl from
melal racks and adiaeent oiltield tr.rbulars [o prerent trc but'ns.

X8.2.: Par:tial ilemagnelizalion nright occur in a r-nagnetizell

lcngth of oilfielcl tubulars if it is not sr-rifir:ientl,y separater-l prior

a<.ljacent length. 'I'he r-lisiance usecl

shoLrld he at least 36 inches or as detcnninerl b3, the fblniLrla i
(0"t)061. rvhichevel is grr-atcr". u.'herc I is the arnperage appliert.

to niagnetizing the next

X8.2.3 For

baitell or

Xll.l.{. tioL liill cilcuilriererce inspeclion ilf material rvith a

specitied outside diarneier oi' l6 inches and snralicr. cenfralizatirn ol'the central coniluctor- is not requircd during magne-

three-phase rectified-AC power

ol 3tltl Anrpslin ol

supplies. a nrininrr"rm magnelizing cllrreflt

specilicr"l outside riiarneter should be Lrsecl.

Xii.2.5 For capacitor-discharge r:nits. see




ilg t rr rr!'rtl

|c,"1t"t i


i, :: ."



XS.2.6 'I-hc ahovc requirements lt:r',t b*cu dernonsttiled by

enrpirical data and do not reqr-rire verification. horvever, the
alnpelage shoukl he rnonitored ch.rring cun'ent application.

X8.3 Longitudinal 1\"[agnetizatiou

X8.i.L -fire nunrbel ol coil trrrrts and ctirretlt required


irnplecise but shoulcL not be le-cs than -500 arnpere-turtls per

inch of specified eLltside diarneter. The crlrreut shoLllil be set as
high as possible. buL noL so high rs to cause liu-r'iag ol rfu'y
mlrgn*tic prirticles or irr}rnobilil-\,' of' wet ntagnetic particlcs.

TABLE X8.1 Capaciior Discharge Minimum Current

Number of


Capacrtor Discharge Amperage Requirernents

]61 times speciiied \,veight per mel"e n kg/;ti
121 times sp6crfied weight per met:'e in kg/il]
180 t;nres speciiied \ryeight per foot ,n icr'ft
145 times specified ,^reight per foot in ibift
,q7 trmes specified weight per metre rn kglm



[]ournrittee E07 h:rs irlenti{ierl the location rrl seleclerl changt-rs to {l.ris stanelard since the last issue (E709-t4)
that nray inrpact the Lrse ol this slanriard. (Approved June l, 20Li.r

(1j "Dual-color" changed to "rlual response"

thror,rghoLrt stan-


Cominittee lr07 has iclentifierl the location of selected change s to this rtandard siirce the last issue (E7U9-tl8)
that rnay irnpact the use ol-lhis standard. (Approvecl llllrch l. 20 l-1.)

/,r SLrbstituted "l-i!'-A (black li-rht)" lor "biack iight" thloughout standard.
ll.l Reviscd ianguage throLrghout staaciard to hriug doe:ument
into harmony rviLh L i-i++ii:. i.,i.l.-"1i.'i- 12.

Copyright ASTM lnternationai

Provded by IHS under I cense with ASTM
No reproduction or networking permifted w

(37 Replaced

(5) Additional revisions made throughout standard.

]qrder Numbe'
thout cense from IHS

IiiS. 9, F'rig. ,l.1, and Fig" X2.-i.

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