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A PERSONALITY STUDY OF SUCCESSFUL

MALE AND FEMALE: ATHLETES AND

PROFESSIONALS

by

LOUISA W.

ZERBE

B.PE., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 19

A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF


THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

in
THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES
(Education, P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , U.B.C.)

We accept t h i s

t h e s i s as conforming

to the r e q u i r e d

standard

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA


AUGUST 1982

( c ) L o u i s a W. Zerbe, 1982

In p r e s e n t i n g

this

thesis i n partial

f u l f i l m e n t of the

r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e
of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that
it

freely

the L i b r a r y s h a l l

a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .

agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive


for

University

s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may

for

financial

of

The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h
1956 Main M a l l
V a n c o u v e r , Canada
V6T 1Y3

DE-6

(3/81)

Columbia

my

It is
thesis

s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my

permission.

Department

thesis

be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f

copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s

gain

further

copying of t h i s

d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .
understood that

make

written

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The i n v e s t i g a t o r extends her s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o


her a d v i s o r Dr., Sharon W h i t t a k e r - B l e u l e r , f o r h e r unending
p a t i e n c e , without whose a s s i s t a n c e t h i s work would never have
been

completed.
The thanks o f the experimenter a l s o goes t o my c l o s e

f r i e n d s whose support was a c o n t i n u a l source o f s t r e n g t h . But


most important, thanks goes t o my parents f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u e d
support,

(investment i n an e l e c t r i c t y p e w r i t e r f o r i n c e n t i v e

to f i n i s h ) and g e n t l e prodding.

With t h e i r love they were a

constant source o f encouragement.

ABSTRACT

The
differences
law,
and

hypotheses t h a t t h e r e would be no s i g n i f i c a n t
between s u c c e s s f u l male and

medicine and

a t h l e t i c s on

female i n d i v i d u a l s i n

six selected personality

f i v e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s were t e s t e d by

C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF Form C. and

a socio-cultural

traits

administering

questionnaire.

C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF data o b t a i n e d from:

twenty-eight

male a t h l e t e s , twenty-nine female a t h l e t e s , twenty male


professionals

and

being lawyers and

twelve female p r o f e s s i o n a l s

(professionals

doctors),

a one-way

a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e .
significant differences

Results

analyzed u s i n g

i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were no

among the

p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s examined:
conscientiousness,

was

four groups on the

emotional s t a b i l i t y ,

six
assertiveness,

tough-mindedness, s e l f - a s s u r e d n e s s

and

self-

sufficiency.
A C h i Square s t a t i s t i c was
from the

used to analyze the

s o c i o - c u l t u r a l questionnaire.

t h a t t h e r e were no

The

s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the

on b i r t h o r d e r , f a m i l y

s i z e and

culture.

experience

(p^.008).

indicated
four

groups

Significant differ-

ences were observed f o r a t h l e t i c experience


educational

results

data

(p^. 000.01) and

These d i f f e r e n c e s , however,

were a n t i c i p a t e d as the c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s
based on t h e i r achievement i n a t h l e t i c s and

education.

was

VITA

May 1977

Bachelor of P h y s i c a l

Education,

U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia
1979-82

Instructor

and Coach, The

University of Lethbridge

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. . . . .

........ ..... . . ..... . . . . . .'. . . . i i

ABSTRACT

i i i

VITA

iv

LIST OF TABLES

vi

LIST OF FIGURES

v i i

CHAPTER
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.

INTRODUCTION. . . . .

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

10

PROCEDURE AND ANALYSIS...

29

RESULTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . . . . .".". . . . . . . . .


DISCUSSION. . .

.49

SUMMARY

59

APPENDIX
A

64

72

C.

. . .

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

. .88

98

LIST OF

TABLES

TABLE
I
II

PAGE
Tested S i x P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s

from the 16PF

Form C

33

Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s , Sten Scores and


F R a t i o s f o r F a c t o r s C,E,G,I,0 and Q

36

III

Frequency Count and Percentages


B i r t h Order

of Groups on

42

IV

Frequency Count and Percentages


A t h l e t i c Experience

of Groups on

43

Frequency Count and Percentages


Culture

o f Groups on

44

VI

Frequency Count and Percentages


Family S i z e

of Groups on

45

VII

Frequency Count and Percentages


E d u c a t i o n a l Experience

of Groups on

46

VIII
IX
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I

S u b j e c t s i n Each of Groups a t V a r i o u s L e v e l s of
A t h l e t i c Experience

47

S u b j e c t s i n Each of the Groups at V a r i o u s L e v e l s


of E d u c a t i o n a l Experience

48

Anova Table f o r Emotional S t a b i l i t y


Anova Table f o r A s s e r t i v e n e s s
Anova Table f o r C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s
Anova Table f o r Tough-mindedness
Anova Table f o r Assurance
Anova Table f o r S e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y
Chi-Square Table f o r B i r t h Order
Chi-Square Table f o r F a m i l y S i z e
Chi-Square Table f o r C u l t u r e

89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97

vi

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE

PAGE

P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Female A t h l e t e s
Group

P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Male A t h l e t e s
Group

P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s
as a Group

40

P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s
as a Group

41

vii

as a

as a

38
39

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Presently,

within

t h e r e i s no c o n s i s t e n t
personality.
personality

the f i e l d o f p e r s o n a l i t y

psychology,

agreement as t o the d e f i n i t i o n o f

D e f i n i t i o n s u s u a l l y emphasize t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s
i s what makes one unique.

d e f i n i t i o n s also depict personality

The m a j o r i t y o f

as a h y p o t h e t i c a l

internal

process o r s t r u c t u r e .
A c c o r d i n g t o Lazarus

(1971:1) "the p s y c h o l o g i s t

of p e r s o n a l i t y as a study o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l

processes

thinks

that

o r g a n i z e human experience and shape a person's a c t i o n s and


reactions

t o h i s environment."

There a r e b a s i c a l l y two r i v a l s c h o o l s o f thought i n


p e r s o n a l i t y psychology:
"Individual Theories"

the " S o c i a l T h e o r i e s "

(Bavelas, 1978).

and the

The s o c i a l

theorists

emphasize the environment as having the most i n f l u e n c e on


personality.

These t h e o r i s t s assume t h a t the study o f

p e r s o n a l i t y must i n c l u d e the s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s

and p r o c e s s e s

t h a t surround the i n d i v i d u a l .
Individual theories,
theories,

a r i v a l paradigm o f the s o c i a l

are based on the assumption t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y i s

i n f l u e n c e d mainly by the t r a i t s ,
t i o n s t h a t are w i t h i n

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or d i s p o s i -

an i n d i v i d u a l .

There are a wide v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l t h e o r i e s .

One

such t h e o r y i s the " T r a i t Approach" which i s perhaps the most


enduring approach t o the study o f p e r s o n a l i t y

(Mischel,

1976).

The

t r a i t approach-

conceptualizes

t r a i t s as

relatively-

s t a b l e q u a l i t i e s , p r o p e r t i e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or f a c t o r s
e x i s t w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l .
as

Lazarus

(1971:28) d e f i n e s

that

traits

" . . . d i s p o s i t i o n a l concepts t h a t i s , they r e f e r to tendencies

to r e a c t or a c t i n c e r t a i n ways.

Psychological

dispositions

are presumably c a r r i e d around by the person from s i t u a t i o n to


s i t u a t i o n , they imply a c e r t a i n l i k e l i h o o d of h i s behaving i n
some given

way."

Not

o n l y has

the t r a i t approach been a dominant approach

w i t h i n p e r s o n a l i t y psychology, but

a l s o w i t h i n the f i e l d s

s p o r t psychology as r e l a t e d to p e r s o n a l i t y and

of

athletic

performance.
Henry (1941) , one
area of p e r s o n a l i t y and

of the e a r l i e s t workers w i t h i n

the

a t h l e t i c s , r e l i e d on the t r a i t

approach.

T h i s approach t o the study of p e r s o n a l i t y and a t h l e t i c s


p e r s i s t e d through the 1950's (Johnson, Hutton and
and

Johnson

r e p r e s e n t e d the dominant approach i n the 1960's

1954)

(Cooper,

1969).
W i t h i n the s p o r t l i t e r a t u r e , r e s e a r c h e r s
to d e s c r i b e

an a t h l e t i c p e r s o n a l i t y i n terms of

personality t r a i t s .
COoper (1969) and
described

have attempted
various

For example, i n review a r t i c l e s

Ogilvie

as p o s s e s s i n g

(1970) the

high

"successful" athlete

l e v e l s of aggression,

toughness, emotional s t a b i l i t y ,

by

assertiveness

and

was

mental
self-

sufficiency.
The

p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s which " s u c c e s s f u l "

possess may. a l s o be p r e d i c t i v e of
life.

Bachtold

and Werner

athletes

"success" i n o t h e r walks of

(1970), f o r example, found

" s u c c e s s f u l " female p s y c h o l o g i s t s t o be independent, secure,


as w e l l as e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e , m e n t a l l y tough, a s s e r t i v e and
self-sufficient.
Up u n t i l the 1970's p e r s o n a l i t y p s y c h o l o g i s t s

relied

mainly on the t r a i t approach i n t h e i r study o f p e r s o n a l i t y .


In

the e a r l y 1970's however, t h e r e emerged a g e n e r a l

of

the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the t r a i t approach.

awareness

While the t r a i t

approach i s important i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r , i t i s ,


however, f a r from p e r f e c t
The awareness

(Hogen e t a l 1977).

t h a t the t r a i t approach does not

fully

p r e d i c t b e h a v i o r , but t h a t the behavior i s a f u n c t i o n o f the


person and the environment i s known as the " I n t e r a c t i o n i s t
Approach".

Kane (1970), Smith

(1970) and Morgan (1972,

1980)

c o n s i d e r the i n t e r a c t i o n i s t approach a more powerful p r e d i c t o r


of

b e h a v i o r than person or environment c o n s i d e r e d a l o n e .


I n t e r a c t i o n i s m i s not a new mode o f t h i n k i n g .

Lewin suggested t h a t b e h a v i o r was

In

1935

a f u n c t i o n o f both the

d i s p o s i t i o n s o f the person and the v a r i a b l e aspects o f the


environment.

Moreover, C a t t e l l

leading t r a i t theorists

(1957) who

(Mischel 1976)

i s one o f the

has suggested t h a t

p e r s o n a l i t y i s a f u n c t i o n o f both the i n d i v i d u a l and the


environment

(Bavelas 1978).

The importance o f c o n s i d e r i n g both the " I n d i v i d u a l "


and the " S o c i a l " approach t o the study o f p e r s o n a l i t y i s
examined
emphasize
the

i n Bern and Funder's 1978

a r t i c l e i n which they

t h a t b e h a v i o r i s a f u n c t i o n o f both the person and

environment.

For the f u t u r e , experiments w i l l have to c o n s i d e r


c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f both i n d i v i d u a l
( H j e l l e and Z i e g l e r 1976).

d i f f e r e n c e s and the environment

In f a c t , Sarason, Smith and Diener

(1975) found t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n


dispositional

the

o f s t u d i e s i n which both

and s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s are i n c o r p o r a t e d

the experimental d e s i g n appears t o be

into

increasing.

Statement o f the Problem

The purpose o f t h i s study was

t o determine i f

" s u c c e s s f u l " male and female a t h l e t e s and " s u c c e s s f u l " male


and female p r o f e s s i o n a l s possessed c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y
to the same degree.

The t r a i t s i n v e s t i g a t e d were:

ness, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y ,
conscientiousness

and

emotional s t a b i l i t y , mental

traits

assertivetoughness,

self-assurance.

" S u c c e s s f u l " p r o f e s s i o n a l s and " s u c c e s s f u l "

athletes

were a l s o examined t o see i f they possessed s i m i l a r

background

characteristics

cultural,

educational

such as:

b i r t h order,

family size,

and a t h l e t i c e x p e r i e n c e .

The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were advanced:


1.

That there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n

between groups o f s u c c e s s f u l male and female a t h l e t e s

and

and

s u c c e s s f u l male and female p r o f e s s i o n a l s on the f o l l o w i n g


personality t r a i t s :
tiousness,

assertiveness,

self-sufficiency,

tough mindedness,

self-assurance

conscien-

and emotional

stability.
2.

That there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n

between groups o f s u c c e s s f u l male: and female a t h l e t e s

and

and

s u c c e s s f u l male and
areas of concern:
and

athletic

female p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f o l l o w i n g
b i r t h order,

family size, culture,

five

education

experience.

Delimitations

The

sample was

Canadian and

by the

d e l i m i t e d by the a t h l e t e s

being

" s u c c e s s f u l " p r o f e s s i o n a l s being

selected

by a panel o f "judges" c o n s i s t i n g of e i t h e r f o u r male lawyers


or f o u r male d o c t o r s .

Limitations

I t was

a l s o necessary to c o n s i d e r

t i o n s are i n e v i t a b l e when q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
(1958) has

found t h a t s u b j e c t s may

are used.

respond to a

i n a manner t h a t i s s o c i a l l y accepted.
Tatsuoka

that c e r t a i n l i m i t a -

education

and

questionnaire

C a t t e l l , Eber

(1970) b e l i e v e t h a t the r e s u l t s may

l e v e l of c o - o p e r a t i o n ,

Whitla

and

be a f f e c t e d by

honesty o f the

subjects.

Another v a r i a b l e which c o u l d not be c o n t r o l l e d f o r


the wide age

range of the s u b j e c t s .

a f f e c t e d the r e s u l t s .
by Stagner 1977,

T h i s age

range may

There i s evidence however, as

t h a t t r a i t s show high c o n s i s t e n c y

of ten, twenty and

thirty

the

was

have

suggested

over

periods

years.

S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study

Support f o r the hypotheses may

help to e s t a b l i s h a

new

trend

i n the

study of p e r s o n a l i t y and

a t h l e t i c performance.

would seem t h a t i n our h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e


so much emphasis on the p u r s u i t o f and

s o c i e t y which

places

reinforcement of

"success", i n d i v i d u a l s " s u c c e s s f u l " i n other walks of l i f e


w e l l as

" s u c c e s s f u l " a t h l e t e s might be d e s c r i b e d

tough minded, c o n s c i e n t i o u s ,
emotionally

It

as:

as

assertive,

self-assured, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t

and

stable.

I t would t h e r e f o r e

seem a p p r o p r i a t e

to compare

" s u c c e s s f u l " a t h l e t e s w i t h those " s u c c e s s f u l " i n o t h e r walks o f


life

as w e l l as a t h l e t e s of one

s p o r t w i t h a t h l e t e s of another

sport.
As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned,
Sarason, Smith and Diener

( H j e l l e and

(1975)) r e s e a r c h

p e r s o n a l i t y psychology has

w i t h i n the f i e l d

begun to emphasize the

the i n t e r a c t i o n between the

i n d i v i d u a l and

approach to p e r s o n a l i t y must t h e r e f o r e
and

Z i e g l e r (1976)

and
of

importance of

the environment.

consider

An

both i n d i v i d u a l

environmental v a r i a b l e s .
The

p r e s e n t study has

taken t h i s approach by

t e r i n g C a t t e l l ' s 16 P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e
Appendix B)

and

a Socio-Cultural Questionnaire

designed by the r e s e a r c h e r
b i r t h order,

adminis(See

(See Appendix

B)

t o examine f i v e areas of concern:

f a m i l y s i z e , c u l t u r e , e d u c a t i o n and

athletic

experience.

D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms

P e r s o n a l i t y - " i s a s t a b l e s e t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and
t h a t determine those commonalities and

tendencies

d i f f e r e n c e s i n the

p s y c h o l o g i c a l behavior

(thought, f e e l i n g and a c t i o n s ) o f

people t h a t have c o n t i n u i t y i n time and t h a t may o r may not


be e a s i l y understood i n terms o f the s o c i a l and b i o l o g i c a l
pressures

o f the immediate s i t u a t i o n alone."

(Maddi, 1968:10)

C a t t e l l Sixteen P e r s o n a l i t y Factor Questionnaire


an a n a l y t i c a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e

(16PF) - i s

designed t o measure s i x t e e n

independent dimensions o f human p e r s o n a l i t y .

(See Appendix B

f o r Form C)

An A t h l e t e - i s any i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n
competitive

s p o r t s , where s p o r t i s considered an

i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d game.

S u c c e s s f u l A t h l e t e - a Canadian a t h l e t e c u r r e n t l y competing
at the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l o f c o m p e t i t i o n .

P r o f e s s i o n a l - a doctor

o r lawyer c u r r e n t l y p r a c t i s i n g w i t h i n

the boundaries o f B r i t i s h Columbia.

S u c c e s s f u l P r o f e s s i o n a l - a p r o f e s s i o n a l who i s s e l e c t e d by
three o f f o u r p a n e l "judges".

Judges f o r t h e lawyers w i l l be

four lawyers and judges f o r the d o c t o r s w i l l be f o u r

Assertiveness
others.

- defined

doctors.

as a d e s i r e t o i n f l u e n c e o r c o n t r o l

I t i s measured by the F a c t o r E s c a l e on C a t t e l l ' s

16 P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .

T h i s dimension o f

p e r s o n a l i t y ranges from submissive behavior, humble and

conforming t o dominant behavior,


( C a t t e l l et a l

a g g r e s s i v e and

competitive.

1970)

Tough-mindedness - t h i s t r a i t r e p r e s e n t s a tough, p r a c t i c a l
mature and r e a l i s t i c behavior.

I t i s measured by F a c t o r I

on C a t t e l l ' s 16 P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .

This

dimension ranges from tender-minded behavior, which i s dependent


and

s e n s i t i v e to toughs-minded behavior, which i s r e a l i s t i c

self-reliant.

( C a t t e l l et a l

1970)

Self-assuredness

- i s d e f i n e d as behavior

tough, expedient

and v i g o r o u s .

that i s r e s i l i e n t ,

T h i s t r a i t i s F a c t o r 0 on

Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire.

Conscientiousness

and

the

( C a t t e l l et a l 1-970)

- d e f i n e d as being p e r s i s t e n t , being able to

continue even i n the face of o p p o s i t i o n .

T h i s i s F a c t o r G on

the S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,

a dimension

d e a l i n g with behavior which ranges from expedient


and r u l e bound behavior.

( C a t t e l l et a l

to p e r s i s t e n t

1970)

S e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y - d e f i n e d as being r e s o u r c e f u l , p r e f e r r i n g
one's own

d e c i s i o n s r a t h e r than being a j o i n e r .

on the F a c t o r
Questionnaire.

I t i s measured

scale of C a t t e l l ' s Sixteen P e r s o n a l i t y Factor


T h i s dimension d e a l s with behavior

ranging

f o l l o w i n g the group to r e s o u r c e f u l and p r e f e r r i n g one's


decisions.

( C a t t e l l et a l

1970)

own

from,

Emotional s t a b i l i t y -

t h i s t r a i t represents a r e a l i s t i c , stable,

calm, t h o u g h t f u l behavior.

I t i s measured by F a c t o r C on

C a t t e l l ' s Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire.


dimension ranges from r e s t l e s s ,
behavior

changeable and n e u r o t i c

t o e m o t i o n a l l y mature and p e r s e v e r i n g

( C a t t e l l e t a l 1970)

This

behavior.

10

CHAPTER I I
REVIEW OF THE

The

major r e s e a r c h t h r u s t , w i t h i n the area

p e r s o n a l i t y and

athletics

of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s .

has

been aimed at the

(1)

a t h l e t e s and

a t h l e t e s of d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t y

different

identification

levels

f o l l o w i n g review i s l i m i t e d

administering C a t t e l l ' s

non-athletes,
and

(3)

a t h l e t e s from

questionnaire

to o n l y those s t u d i e s

16 P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r

This p e r s o n a l i t y inventory

by those r e s e a r c h e r s

i n t e r e s t e d i n studying

examination of the present

by comparing i t with other

Questionnaire.

i s the most f r e q u e n t l y used

a t h l e t i c p e r s o n a l i t y (Morgan 1980).

t h a t are s i m i l a r

the

I t i s also f e l t that

an

study c o u l d be made o n l y

studies administering

the 16

Examination o f the s t u d i e s not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s review


results

dealt

s p o r t groups.
The

accurate

of

Research w i t h i n t h i s f i e l d has

with the comparison o f :


(2)

LITERATURE

to those found i n the 16 PF

PF.
revealed

studies.

A t h l e t e s compared to Non-athletes

In a review of l i t e r a t u r e Cooper

(1969) suggested t h a t

the male a t h l e t e compared to the male non-athlete


described

as:

(1) more outgoing

(2) more outgoing


and

leading,

and

socially

s o c i a l l y aggressive,

(4) higher

self-confidence,

and

be

confident,

(3) more dominant

i n s o c i a l adjustment,

(6) more c o m p e t i t i v e ,

could

(5) higher

(7) more

in

emotionally

11

stable,
and

(8) having g r e a t e r

pain tolerance,

(9) l e s s anxious

(10) l e s s compulsive.
T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of a male a t h l e t e was found among the

research
states

s t u d i e s p r i o r t o 1969.

In f a c t , Cooper (1969:19)

"...the most s t r i k i n g aspect of the r e s e a r c h

i s the

coherence o f the p i c t u r e o f the a t h l e t e which emerges."


An example o f a study concerned w i t h the p e r s o n a l i t y
of male a t h l e t e s i s t h a t o f K r o l l

(1967) .

16 PF was administered t o n i n e t y f o u r
-

collegiate wrestlers.
were d e s c r i b e d

In t h i s study the

(94) male amateur and

When compared to the norm, the w r e s t l e r s

as being s i g n i f i c a n t l y more tough-minded and

self-reliant.
Omizo

(1979) a l s o found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between

a t h l e t e s and n o n - a t h l e t e s .

The a t h l e t e s were American male

World C l a s s Olympic contenders who were more r e s e r v e d , .


intellectual, critical,
when compared t o

aloof, conservative

and t r a d i t i o n a l

non-athletes.

In a more recent

study s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between

a t h l e t e s and n o n - a t h l e t e s were a l s o observed i n a study by


Tripathi

(1980) .

The a t h l e t e s were male c o l l e g e p a r t i c i p a n t s

i n hockey, c r i c k e t and f o o t b a l l .
more outgoing, e m o t i o n a l l y
shy,

A t h l e t e s were

significantly

stable,: a s s e r t i v e , sober, expedient,

tough-minded, p r a c t i c a l , c o n s e r v a t i v e ,

group dependent,

u n d i s c i p l i n e d and r e l a x e d when compared w i t h 30


In the 1950's and 1960's t h e m a j o r i t y
J

non-athletes.

of studies

p e r t a i n i n g to p e r s o n a l i t y and s p o r t performance, were concerned


w i t h the male a t h l e t e

(Cooper 1969).

During the 1970's

12

researchers

a l s o became i n t e r e s t e d i n studying

athletic personality

female

profiles.

For example, Marks

(1971) administered the 16

f o r t y female v a r s i t y c o l l e g e a t h l e t e s i n v o l v e d

Results

to

in basketball,

bowling, f i e l d hockey, g o l f , gymnastics, l a c r o s s e ,


swimming, t e n n i s and v o l l e y b a l l .

PF

softball,

of the 16

PF

i n d i c a t e d t h a t the female a t h l e t e s compared to the norm were


more a s s e r t i v e , s u s p i c i o u s , experimenting, c o n t r o l l e d , stubborn,
competitive,

liberal,

In 1974,

s o c i a l l y p r e c i s e and

independent.

Brasher administered the 16 PF to women

p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n extramural a t h l e t i c s at Brigham Young


University.

The

a t h l e t e s were i n v o l v e d i n b a s k e t b a l l ,

hockey, s o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l , t r a c k and

field,

badminton, gymnastics, s k i i n g , swimming and

archery,

tennis.

Results

i n d i c a t e d t h a t the a t h l e t i c group i n t h i s study c o u l d


described

as e m o t i o n a l l y

f o r t h r i g h t , conservative,
While there

reserved,

happy-go-lucky.

are a l s o some d i s c r e p a n c i e s

evident.

i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of a t h l e t e s and

For example, i n a

non-athletes.

year study on a group of three hundred: and

f o r t y U.S.

cadets a l s o found no evidence t h a t c o l l e g e a t h l e t i c


(over a f o u r year period) s i g n i f i c a n t l y

p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e as measured by the 16
Darden

in

o f a t h l e t e compared t o n o n - a t h l e t e ,

l o n g i t u d i n a l study Werner (1966) found no s i g n i f i c a n t

tion

be

appears to be a degree of c o n s i s t e n c y

the p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h
there

stable, self-controlled,
i n t e l l i g e n t and

field

difference
This

four

male
participa-

influences
PF.

(1972) a l s o found the a t h l e t e i n his. study to

be

13

w i t h i n normal o r average range on t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s


as measured by the 16 PF Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .
to twenty-two c o m p e t i t i v e
competitive

The 16 PF was

given

male body b u i l d e r s and t h i r t y

male weight l i f t e r s .

The r e s u l t s showed no

s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the s u b j e c t s and the normal


population.
Seventy-one male k a r a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n K r o l l ' s
study were a l s o administered

the 16 PF.

(1967)

K r o l l concluded t h a t

there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between h i s s u b j e c t s and


the normal p o p u l a t i o n .
In summary i t becomes apparent t h a t there are
d i s c r e p a n c i e s w i t h i n the f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g
the p e r s o n a l i t y of a t h l e t e s as compared t o

with

non-athletes.

Perhaps one o f the major reasons f o r the d i s c r e p a n c i e s


is

the way i n which r e s e a r c h e r s

have d e f i n e d

"athlete".

The

term " a t h l e t e " has been d e f i n e d so t h a t i t encompasses


i n d i v i d u a l s o f a wide range o f s k i l l ,

and c o m p e t i t i v e

level.

For example, i n Darden's study, one might wonder i f


body b u i l d e r s are c l a s s i f i e d as a t h l e t e s .

While i n K r o l l ' s

(1967). study, amateur and c o l l e g i a t e w r e s t l e r s may vary i n


s k i l l l e v e l , i n competitive

l e v e l , as w e l l as i n experience

p r i o r to college or u n i v e r s i t y

A t h l e t e s of d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t y

competition.

levels

The concept t h a t high l e v e l , champion or s u c c e s s f u l


performers i n a t h l e t i c s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p s y c h o l o g i c a l

14

p r o f i l e s which d i s t i n g u i s h them from lower l e v e l

performers,

i s a view which has c r e a t e d a great d e a l of c o n t r o v e r s y .


A r e s e a r c h e r who
between h i g h and

significant differences

low l e v e l competitors

t h i s study the 16 PF was


females who

has found

i s Bushan (1978).

administered to f i v e males and

In
five

r e p r e s e n t e d I n d i a a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l events i n

badminton and t a b l e t e n n i s , as w e l l as f i v e male and


female a t h l e t e s who

five

had never achieved any d i s t i n c t i o n

badminton and t a b l e t e n n i s .

in

Bushan found t h a t the s u c c e s s f u l

p l a y e r s when compared w i t h the remaining

s u b j e c t s scored

s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on dominance, e x t r o v e r s i o n and

surgency.

W i l l i a m s e t a l (197.0) a l s o found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s
between h i g h and low l e v e l competitors.
PF, Form B of Jackson*s

In t h i s study the

P e r s o n a l i t y Research Form and Edward's

P e r s o n a l P r e f e r e n c e Schedule

were administered to t h i r t y

female amateur f e n c e r s t o determine i f t h e r e was


between p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s : and l e v e l s

any

Williams et a l

found t h a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l c o m p e t i t i v e f e n c e r was

ambitious,

a s s e r t i v e , a g g r e s s i v e , independent,

s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and r e s e r v e d .

The

one p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t d o m i n a n c e ,
high: and low l e v e l competitors

authors however, found

at the championships.

three male and female p l a y e r s i n v o l l e y b a l l


achieved a h i g h l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n

S t a t e l e v e l ) were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d

only

which d i s c r i m i n a t e d between

A more r e c e n t study by Dowd and Innes

had

correlation

of achievement i n the

196 8 N a t i o n a l American F e n c i n g Championships.

intelligent, analytical,

16

from lower

(1981) o f n i n e t y -

and

squash

(training

who

a t the

l e v e l p l a y e r s by

15

a combination of f a c t o r s .

The

i n t e l l i g e n t , experimenting and
low

high a c h i e v e r s
conscientious

were more
when compared w i t h

achievers.
The

p r e v i o u s l y mentioned s t u d i e s are examples of

s t u d i e s which have found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between


a t h l e t e s of d i f f e r i n g s k i l l a b i l i t y .
found t h a t a t h l e t e s of v a r i o u s

Kroll

(1967) however,

achievements had

differences in personality variables.

few

K r o l l administered

16 PF to twenty-eight c o l l e g i a t e male w r e s t l e r s
a b i l i t y , thirty-three c o l l e g i a t e wrestlers
average a b i l i t y .

Results

i f any

of

the

superior

of average to below

of t h i s study showed no

personality

d i f f e r e n c e s between groups.
In another study by K r o l l

(1967), seventy-one male

amateur k a r a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o advanced,


intermediate

and

novice.

the sample s t u d i e d
the three

Using the 16 PF,

K r o l l found t h a t

showed no p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s between

groups of p a r t i c i p a n t s .

Results

o f a study by R u s h a l l

(196 7) a l s o showed no

p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s between s u c c e s s f u l and
male a t h l e t e s .
1967

and

1968

Rushall

administered the 16 PF to the

Indiana U n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l teams.

i n d i c a t e d t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y was
t h e r e was

age

Results

not r e l a t e d to success,

and

those on a l o s i n g f o o t b a l l team.

In another study by R u s h a l l

and

1966,

no d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s when comparing those

on a winning f o o t b a l l team and

swimmers:

unsuccessful

NCAA and MD

(1970) three

l e v e l s of

n a t i o n a l q u a l i f i e r s , c o l l e g e swimmers

group swimmers were given

the 16 PF to i n v e s t i g a t e

the

16

p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which enhance s u p e r i o r performance


in

swimming.

R u s h a l l , however, concluded t h a t success i n

swimming i s not dependent upon p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s


In summary, i t i s apparent t h a t there are
w i t h i n the f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h

d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of competition

subdivided

may

the

levels.

major reason f o r such d i s c r e p a n c i e s

skill ability.

discrepancies

studies dealing with

comparison of a t h l e t e s of d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t y
One

alone.

i s that

not be i n d i c a t i v e of

For example, i n s t u d i e s where a t h l e t e s

into v a r s i t y , intramural

are

and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s ,

d i v i s i o n i s o f t e n based on p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t h e r than

the

skill

level.

Athletes

from d i f f e r e n t s p o r t s

Two
controversy

groups

hypotheses t h a t have c r e a t e d
are:

a great d e a l

(1) t h a t s p e c i f i c s p o r t groups can

d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the b a s i s of p e r s o n a l i t i e s , and

(2)

of
be
that

d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s o f a t h l e t e s
i n v o l v e d i n i n d i v i d u a l and

team s p o r t s .

In a study d e a l i n g w i t h a comparison of i n d i v i d u a l and


team s p o r t a t h l e t e s , Peterson
e i g h t female U.S.
s p o r t s and

(1967) gave the 16 PF t o

thirty-

Olympic a t h l e t e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i n d i v i d u a l

f i f t y - n i n e female U.S.

p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n team s p o r t s .

Olympic and AAU

Results

athletes

showed t h a t women

engaged i n i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s when compared

w i t h those

team s p o r t s were more dominant, a g g r e s s i v e ,

adventurous,

in

17

s e n s i t i v e , imaginative,

r a d i c a l , , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and

resourceful.

Another study comparing p e r s o n a l i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l


and

team s p o r t s a t h l e t e s was

the 16 PF Malumphy

done by Malumphy

(synchronized
s o f t b a l l and
i n team and

Using

compared the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f seventy-seven

i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e female a t h l e t e s i n :
g o l f , competitive

(1968) .

i n d i v i d u a l sports

(tennis,

swimming, a r c h e r y ) , s u b j e c t i v e l y judged

swimming and

gymnastics),

f i e l d hockey) and

team s p o r t s

team-individual

sports

(baksetball,

sports

(active

i n d i v i d u a l sports) as w e l l as f o r t y - e i g h t non-

participants.

R e s u l t s of the 16 PF i n d i c a t e d t h a t

the

i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s were l e s s anxious, more venturesome,


more e x t r o v e r t e d

and had more l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s than the

other s p o r t groups.

P a r t i c i p a n t s i n s u b j e c t i v e l y judged

sports

were l e s s anxious than team p a r t i c i p a n t s , and were a l s o more


conscientious

than the t e a m - i n d i v i d u a l

group and more e x t r o -

v e r t e d than the team and t e a m - i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s .


S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between male a t h l e t e s o f
s p e c i f i c s p o r t groups were found i n a study by K r o l l
Crenshaw (1970).

The

16 PF was

administered

and

t o eighty-one

male c o l l e g i a t e f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s , n i n e t y - f o u r w r e s t l e r s ,
seventy-one k a r a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s and one
gymnasts.

hundred and

forty-one

R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s

and

w r e s t l e r s e x h i b i t e d p r o f i l e s which were homogeneous but


s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those who

were gymnasts: and

karate p a r t i c i p a n t s .

karate p a r t i c i p a n t s were

The

gymnasts: and

more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , more r e s e r v e d and detached than w r e s t l e r s


or f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s .

The

p r o f i l e s of the gymnasts and

karate

18

p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t
from each o t h e r .
conscientious,

Karate p a r t i c i p a n t s were more

r u l e bound and

tense,

independent when compared w i t h

gymnasts w h i l e the gymnasts were more r e l a x e d than the


other

three

groups.
Another study d e a l i n g w i t h the comparison o f

of various

s p o r t groups was

administered

done by O'Connor (1976).

O'Connor

the 16 PF to f o u r groups of i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e

female a t h l e t e s and one


competitors.

athletes

The

c o n t r o l group c o n s i s t i n g of

s u b j e c t s were:

non-

thirteen basketball

s i x gymnasts, nine t e n n i s p l a y e r s , t h i r t e e n swimmers


f o u r t e e n non-competitors.

A n a l y s i s o f the data found

f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on four of the s i x t e e n p e r s o n a l i t y
i n t e l l i g e n c e , r a d i c a l i s m , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and
A more r e c e n t

signitraits:

study by D o l p h i n et a l (1980) a l s o found


groups

Cross country runners were d e s c r i b e d

sober, w h i l e Judo p a r t i c i p a n t s were very


Rowers and

and

self-control.

p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s a t h l e t i c
i n t h e i r study.

players,

as

very

happy-go-lucky.

c r o s s country runners were very c o n t r o l l e d w h i l e

Judo p a r t i c i p a n t s were found u n d i s c i p l i n e d .


tended t o be more r e s e r v e d
c r o s s country runners and
Despite

Judo p l a y e r s

i n c o n t r a s t to the other

group of

rowers.

many s t u d i e s which have found

significant

d i f f e r e n c e s among s p e c i f i c s p o r t groups, Alderman


suggests t h a t the d a t a does not support the two
p r e v i o u s l y mentioned:

also

(1974)

hypotheses

(1) t h a t s p e c i f i c s p o r t groups can

d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the b a s i s of p e r s o n a l i t i e s , and

(2)

that

be

19

d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s o f a t h l e t e s
i n i n d i v i d u a l and team s p o r t s .
by s e v e r a l s t u d i e s .

T h i s view has been supported

F o r example, the 16 PF was a d m i n i s t e r e d

to two hundred and seventy-eight

male a t h l e t e s

representing

twenty d i f f e r e n t s p o r t groups

(four team s p o r t s

i n d i v i d u a l sports)

female a t h l e t e s

and e i g h t y

e i g h t d i f f e r e n t s p o r t groups
sports)

and s i x t e e n
representing

(two team sports and s i x i n d i v i d u a l

a l l o f whom were members o f C z e c h o s l o v a k i a n n a t i o n a l

teams and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the f i n a l t r i a l s


( K r o l l e t a l 1973).

f o r the Olympics

The purpose o f the study was t o make

comparisons o f the p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s o f the t h r e e


and

involved

eight athletes.

Results

hundred

o f the sample s t u d i e d d i d not

support the premise t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a s p e c i f i c s p o r t have


similar personality
Results

profiles.

o f a study by Marks

(1971) a l s o i n d i c a t e d no

evidence o f a d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as
measured by t h e 16 PF between i n d i v i d u a l and team s p o r t
participants.

The 16 PF was given t o f o r t y female c o l l e g i a t e

a t h l e t e s s e l e c t e d from the s p o r t s :

b a s k e t b a l l , bowling,

hockey, g o l f , gymnastics, l a c r o s s e , s o f t b a l l ,
and

swimming,

field
tennis

volleyball.
The 16 PF was a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d by F o s t e r

fifty-six

female b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s

s o f t b a l l players.

Results

(1971) t o

as w e l l as f o r t y female

i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e

or no p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d
between the two groups
A recent

studied.

study by T r i p a t h i (1980): a l s o found no

20

s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s associated with p a r t i c u l a r sport

groups.

In t h i s study c o l l e g e male a t h l e t e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n f o o t b a l l ,
c r i c k e t and hockey were examined.
Upon reviewing

the r e s e a r c h

s t u d i e s comparing the

p e r s o n a l i t y o f a t h l e t e s i n d i f f e r e n t s p o r t groups, i t i s
obvious t h a t they have been unable t o come t o any c o n s i s t e n t
agreement.

One o f the reasons f o r the i n c o n s i s t e n c y

experimental design

o f many o f the r e s e a r c h

i s i n the

studies.

In Mark's (1971) study, f o r example, f o r t y a t h l e t e s


were spread over t e n groups.

T h i s meant t h a t t h e r e was an

average o f f o u r s u b j e c t s per group, making the experiment l e s s


s e n s i t i v e t o d e t e c t i n g experimental e f f e c t s .
I t i s a l s o important t h a t the a t h l e t i c groups
s t u d i e d a r e as homogenous as p o s s i b l e .

being

When comparing a t h l e t e s

of d i f f e r e n t s p o r t groups, c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be made as t o


whether t h e a t h l e t e s are a l l w i t h i n t h e same s k i l l
competitive

The

level.

successful non-athletic personality

Despite
few

l e v e l and

the importance our s o c i e t y p l a c e s on

"success"

p e r s o n a l i t y s t u d i e s have examined s u c c e s s f u l i n d i v i d u a l s

i n o r d e r t o determine whether a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i g h
achieving
An

i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d be a s c e r t a i n e d .
exception

and Werner (1970).

t o t h i s i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n by B a c h t o l d
I n t h i s study s u c c e s s f u l female p s y c h o l o -

g i s t s were given t h e 16 PF and found t o be independent,

21

a s s e r t i v e , e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e , tough-minded, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t
and

secure.
In a more r e c e n t study by B a c h t o l d

and

(1976) e i g h t hundred

s i x t y - t h r e e women o f d i s t i n c t i o n were administered t h e

16 PF.

These women were s c i e n t i s t s , a r t i s t s , w r i t e r s ,

p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p o l i t i c i a n s .

When compared with the norms

the four groups were a l l more i n t e l l i g e n t , a s s e r t i v e , adventurous and l e s s c o n s e r v a t i v e .

A l s o t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t

d i f f e r e n c e s between the f o u r groups on any p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s


as measured by t h e 16 PF.
Henney (1975) a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d success u s i n g the 16 PF.
The

sample i n t h i s study was l i m i t e d

t o t h i r t y - s i x male

managers d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o d u c t i o n a t the Longbridge


f a c t o r y o f B r i t i s h Leyland.

Each manager was d i r e c t l y

respon-

s i b l e f o r roughly: 400 people and each manager had experience i n


e n g i n e e r i n g and 3 t o 5 years experience

a t the managerial

level.

R e s u l t s o f the study i n d i c a t e t h a t the s u b j e c t s c o u l d be


d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g :
mentally

a s s e r t i v e , e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e , outgoing,

tough and e x t r o v e r t e d .
Morgan

(1973) compared s u c c e s s f u l female a t h l e t e s ,

a t t o r n e y s and p h y s i c i a n s .

The 16 PF was administered

t o eleven

p r o f e s s i o n a l female g o l f e r s and t e n n i s p l a y e r s , eleven


a t t o r n e y s and twelve

female p h y s i c i a n s .

female

Results o f t h i s

study

i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between
the t h r e e groups i n p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e .
d i f f e r e n c e s however, were observed

Significant

when t h e t h r e e groups

combined were compared t o the p o p u l a t i o n norms.

As a combined

22

group of s u b j e c t s compared to the norms the a t h l e t e s , a t t o r n e y s


and p h y s i c i a n s were d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g more:

intelligent,

a s s e r t i v e , tough-minded, independent, r e l a x e d , r e s e r v e d ,
e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e , i m a g i n a t i v e , experimenting

and

controlled.

In summary the few

s t u d i e s presented here have

examined the p e r s o n a l i t i e s

of s u c c e s s f u l i n d i v i d u a l s .

study found d i f f e r e n c e s between the s u b j e c t group and

Each
the

p o p u l a t i o n norm.
An

important

comparisons i s how

aspect to c o n s i d e r when making these

the term "success" has been d e f i n e d .

D e f i n i t i o n s of "success" range from success i n terms of


monetary achievement to success i n terms of p o p u l a r i t y to
success i n terms o f employment p o s i t i o n or success i n terms
of

seniority.

Factors influencing

success

A review o f the l i t e r a t u r e on environmental v a r i a b l e s


such as b i r t h o r d e r and f a m i l y s i z e has produced a l a c k o f
consistent findings.

For example, Adams (1972) suggests

g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made about b i r t h order while


(1972) d i s p u t e s t h i s f i n d i n g and suggests
r e l i a b l e evidence
and Schroers

o r d e r e f f e c t s have been found,

Schooler

t h a t t h e r e i s no

s u p p o r t i n g b i r t h order e f f e c t s .

(1973) a l s o conclude,

that

Mitchell

t h a t while some g e n e r a l b i r t h

the l i t e r a t u r e tends to d i s p l a y

a p i c t u r e of confusion.
Much of the r e s e a r c h i n the area of b i r t h order

has

23

d e a l t w i t h the comparison o f f i r s t born t o l a t e r - b o r n


For

example,

children.

Sampson e t a l (1967) s t u d i e d the d i f f e r e n c e s

between f i r s t

and l a t e r born c h i l d r e n on need achievement.

They c o l l e c t e d data from two hundred and f i f t y - o n e h i g h s c h o o l


students o f two s i b l i n g f a m i l i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l p o s s i b l e
combinations o f o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , s u b j e c t sex and s i b l i n g sex.
R e s u l t s o f the m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f the Winterbottom s c a l e
i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f i r s t borns had h i g h e r need achievement than
l a t e r born c h i l d r e n .
Karabenich

(1971) a l s o found no s i g n i f i c a n t

differences

between s e l e c t e d b i r t h order groups on need achievement.

In

t h i s study one hundred and seventy male i n t r o d u c t o r y psychology


c o l l e g e students were d i v i d e d i n t o sixty-two f i r s t borns, s i x t y one second borns and f o r t y - s e v e n l a t e r borns.
study were o b t a i n e d from two t e s t s :
a n x i e t y TAQ

Results of t h i s

the TAT and the t e s t

scale.

Another study t h a t found no s i g n i f i c a n t

differences

between b i r t h order groups on need: achievement was


(1973).

Strumpfer

The Holmes-Tyler s e l f - p e e r r a t i n g t e s t and the

Mehrabiam R e s u l t a n t measures

o f achievement m o t i v a t i o n were

g i v e n to one hundred f i f t y - e i g h t female u n i v e r s i t y students and


one hundred and s i x t y male u n i v e r s i t y students.

The

subjects

were grouped i n terms o f sex, o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n and f a m i l y


The evidence f o r b i r t h order d i f f e r e n c e s on

size.

intellectual

a b i l i t y i s somewhat, s t r o n g e r than t h a t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n need


achievement.

Lunneborg

(1968) f o r example,

s t u d i e d 2,878 males

and 2,52 3 females who were h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s .

The

subjects

24

took a p r e - c o l l e g e b a t t e r y o f t e s t s and a n a l y s i s o f the data


r e v e a l e d t h a t among t h e f i r s t borns, t h e mean grades i n
E n g l i s h , f o r e i g n language,

mathematics, s o c i a l s t u d i e s , n a t u r a l

s c i e n c e s and e l e c t i v e s were always h i g h e r when compared w i t h


the l a t e r born s u b j e c t s .
others

S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have been found by

(Adams and P h i l l i p s 1972; Burton 1968; B r a d l e y and

Sanbon 1969; L e s s i n g and Oberlander

1967).

F a m i l y s i z e as w e l l as b i r t h order has been a h e a v i l y


researched t o p i c .

Masterton

(1971) f o r example, a d m i n i s t e r e d

the Marlowe-Crowne S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y S c a l e t o one hundred


and f i f t y - f i v e i n t r o d u c t o r y psychology

students c o n s i s t i n g o f

t h i r t e e n o n l y c h i l d r e n , t h i r t y - s e v e n w i t h one s i b l i n g ,

forty-

e i g h t w i t h two s i b l i n g s , f i f t y - s e v e n w i t h t h r e e o r more.
S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s f o r f a m i l y s i z e and sex i n d i c a t e d
t h a t s u b j e c t s w i t h s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s showed lower need a p p r o v a l
and t h a t females

i n g e n e r a l showed h i g h e r need a p p r o v a l .

Migliorino
socio-economic

(1974) a l s o s t u d i e d f a m i l y s i z e as w e l l as

l e v e l and i n t e l l i g e n c e .

was found between socio-economic


ment o f t h e s u b j e c t .

A positive

correlation

l e v e l and the mental

develop-

I n g e n e r a l , t h e h i g h e r t h e socio-economic

l e v e l , the g r e a t e r the mental development.

There was however,

a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between mental development and f a m i l y


size.

F o r example, c h i l d r e n from s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s tend t o

have h i g h e r l e v e l s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e w h i l e c h i l d r e n from

larger

f a m i l i e s tend t o d i s p l a y lower l e v e l s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e .
In summary, disagreement

among i n v e s t i g a t o r s i s q u i t e

e v i d e n t i n the l i t e r a t u r e concerning the e f f e c t s o f b i r t h order

25

and

family

s i z e on i n t e l l i g e n c e , need achievement and need

approval.
I t might be expected t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y
development would be a f f e c t e d by i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r
members.

family

T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n would be determined by o r d i n a l

p o s i t i o n and s i z e o f f a m i l y .

However, the evidence f o r such

e f f e c t s i n g e n e r a l i s weak.
Warren

(1968:48) d e s c r i b e s

the f i n d i n g s o f s t u d i e s

r e l a t i n g t o b i r t h order as a "confused but i n t r i g u i n g concept".


Perhaps a major reason f o r t h i s c o n f u s i o n l i e s i n the v a r i o u s
modifications
defined

o f the b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n o f b i r t h o r d e r .

b i r t h order i s "the s e q u e n t i a l

among h i s o r her s i b l i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t
(Warren 1968:48).
all

p o s i t i o n o f a person
t o order o f b i r t h "

Some i n v e s t i g a t o r s compare f i r s t born w i t h

l a t e r born c h i l d r e n .

children.

Simply

Others compare e l d e s t w i t h youngest

Some i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n s i d e r

o n l y c h i l d r e n t o be

f i r s t borns, w h i l e o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s e l i m i n a t e

only

children

from t h e i r study.
Another reason f o r the c o n f u s i o n among b i r t h order
studies

i s presented by Masterton

(1971) who suggests t h a t many

authors have f a i l e d t o c o n t r o l f o r e f f e c t s o f s u b j e c t ' s sex.


In a d d i t i o n s u b j e c t s

from l a r g e r f a m i l i e s who are f o u r t h and

f i f t h born a r e o f t e n e l i m i n a t e d

from

studies.

Chapter Summary

Upon review o f the l i t e r a t u r e presented i n t h i s

26

chapter, i t becomes apparent t h a t there


agreement among the r e s e a r c h
the comparisons o f :

i s no c o n s i s t e n t

findings of studies dealing with

(1) a t h l e t e and n o n - a t h l e t e ,

(2) a t h l e t e s

o f d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t y l e v e l s and (3) a t h l e t e s from d i f f e r e n t


s p o r t groups.
Perhaps one o f the major reasons f o r the d i s c r e p a n c i e s
w i t h i n the r e s e a r c h

f i n d i n g s i s the manner i n which the term

" a t h l e t e " has been d e f i n e d .

Researchers have d e f i n e d

t h e term

" a t h l e t e " i n such a way t h a t i t i n c l u d e s a v a r i e t y o f


i n d i v i d u a l s i n a wide range o f s k i l l
competitive

level, participation level,

l e v e l and l e v e l o f e x p e r i e n c e .

Another reason f o r the i n c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g s i s t h a t


d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f competition
ability.

may not be i n d i c a t i v e o f s k i l l

F o r example, an a t h l e t e p a r t i c i p a t i n g a t the c o l l e g i a t e

l e v e l i s not n e c e s s a r i l y more s k i l l e d than an a t h l e t e competing


at the amateur l e v e l .
only

Researchers r a t h e r than

considering

l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n should a l s o c o n s i d e r

l e v e l s of

achievement: accomplished by the a t h l e t e .


Another aspect i s the experimental d e s i g n which may be
a reason f o r t h e i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s o f r e s e a r c h
d e a l i n g w i t h the a t h l e t i c p e r s o n a l i t y .
number o f s u b j e c t s

i n a research

studies

F o r example the g r e a t e r

study, the more s e n s i t i v e

t h a t study i s t o d e t e c t i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s .

Researchers

should a l s o concern themselves w i t h making t h e i r s u b j e c t


population

as homogenous as p o s s i b l e .

Consideration

should be

g i v e n as t o whether the a t h l e t e s are a l l w i t h i n t h e same


l e v e l , p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l , competitive

skill

l e v e l and l e v e l o f

27

achievements.
Unlike

t h e s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h the a t h l e t i c

p e r s o n a l i t y , few d i s c r e p a n c i e s

were presented i n the review

of l i t e r a t u r e f o r the s u c c e s s f u l n o n - a t h l e t i c
T h i s i s an area i n p e r s o n a l i t y where l i t t l e
occurred

r e s e a r c h has

d e s p i t e our s o c i e t y ' s continued emphasis on s u c c e s s .


Studies

Henney

personality.

by B a c h t o l d

(1975) and Morgan

and Werner

(1970), B a c h t o l d

(1976),

(1973) were a l l presented and showed

t h a t c o n s i s t e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s have been found


within

s u c c e s s f u l male and female i n d i v i d u a l s when compared t o

the p o p u l a t i o n

norm.

An important aspect t o c o n s i d e r

when s t u d y i n g

i n d i v i d u a l s i s how the term "success" has been

successful

defined.

D e f i n i t i o n s o f success have a wide range o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s and


researchers

should make an attempt t o c l e a r l y s t a t e

their

definition.
While few d i s c r e p a n c i e s

were found w i t h i n the r e s e a r c h

s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h the s u c c e s s f u l n o n - a t h l e t i c
the

personality,

l i t e r a t u r e on the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g success produced a

lack o f consistent

findings.

reason f o r t h i s c o n f u s i o n
b i r t h order.

I t i s suggested t h a t the main

l i e s i n how r e s e a r c h e r s

Another reason f o r the c o n f u s i o n

from l a r g e f a m i l i e s have o f t e n been e l i m i n a t e d


research

have

defined

i s that children
from many

studies.
I t i s important t h a t t h e experimental d e s i g n be

c a r e f u l l y examined when studying

f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g success,

as w e l l as s t u d i e s concerned w i t h p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f s u c c e s s f u l

28

non-athletes
The

and s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h the a t h l e t i c p e r s o n a l i t y .

d e f i n i t i o n o f terms must be c l e a r l y s t a t e d , the number o f

subjects c a r e f u l l y

considered

as w e l l as the s t a t i s t i c a l

procedure used t o analyze the data.

29

CHAPTER I I I
PROCEDURE AND

ANALYSIS

Subject P o p u l a t i o n

The s e l e c t i o n o f s u c c e s s f u l p r o f e s s i o n a l s u b j e c t s f o r
t h i s study was performed

by f o u r male lawyers and f o u r male

p h y s i c i a n s who v o l u n t e e r e d as "judges".

These i n d i v i d u a l s

were a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d by the experimenter and asked i f they


would l i s t male and female c o l l e a g u e s whom they c o n s i d e r e d
successful.
for

The "judges" were not p r o v i d e d w i t h any c r i t e r i a

identifying

"success".

I f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s name appeared

on t h r e e o f the f o u r "judges" l i s t s , t h i s person was

included

i n the sample p o p u l a t i o n .
From the judges' l i s t s
seven

(27) male d o c t o r s , e i g h t

twelve

(12) female and

twenty-

(8) female lawyers and twenty

(20) male lawyers were s e l e c t e d .

M a i l i n g addresses f o r these

p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s were o b t a i n e d from the "Medical D i r e c t o r y :


C o l l e g e o f P h y s i c i a n s and Surgeons o f B.C." and from the
" B r i t i s h Columbia

P r o v i n c i a l Directory of Attorneys".

The s u c c e s s f u l s u b j e c t s i n the a t h l e t i c group were


c o n t a c t e d through the N a t i o n a l V o l l e y b a l l Sport Governing Body
and through m a i l i n g l i s t s o f b a s k e t b a l l , gymnastics,
hockey and w e i g h t l i f t i n g n a t i o n a l team members.

field

From these

l i s t s the f o l l o w i n g number o f a t h l e t e s were i n c l u d e d i n the


sample p o p u l a t i o n :

twelve

(12) female and twelve

volleyball athletes, fifteen

(12) male

(15) female, and t h i r t e e n

(13)

30

male b a s k e t b a l l a t h l e t e s , s i x t e e n
(18) male gymnasts, s i x t e e n
and

(16)

female and

eighteen

(16) male f i e l d hockey a t h l e t e s

twelve (12) male w e i g h t - l i f t e r s .


Once the m a i l i n g

l i s t s f o r the a t h l e t i c group and

p r o f e s s i o n a l group were complete, each candidate was


l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n
16 PF Form C and

(See Appendix A)

(See Appendix B).

envelope was

a l s o enclosed

The

subjects

A stamped

f o r t h i s study were given one

had

envelope.

sent to those s u b j e c t s who

two

month p e r i o d .

population
male and
one

of t h i s two

(See Appendix A ) ,

had

A final

along w i t h a

l e t t e r of reminder

s t i l l not responded a f t e r a

month p e r i o d , the

subject

f o r t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of e i g h t y - n i n e

female s u b j e c t s

subjects.

The

month

not y e t responded were sent a second

was

At the end

subject.

month to

A f t e r the one

the S o c i o - c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e

stamped, s e l f - a d d r e s s e d

from a p o s s i b l e one

s u b j e c t s were:

1)

successful

hundred and

Twenty-eight

lifting
2)

(9), f i e l d hockey (7) and

(4),

weight

(3);

Twenty-nine (29)

basketball
3)

(5), gymnastics

eighty-

(28)

s u c c e s s f u l male a t h l e t e s from the s p o r t s of b a s k e t b a l l


volleyball

the

self-addressed

t e s t package c o n s i s t i n g of a reminder l e t t e r
16 PF Form C and

designed by

f o r the convenience of the

respond to the i n i t i a l t e s t package.


p e r i o d , a l l those who

mailed a

along w i t h C a t t e l l ' s

a S o c i o - c u l t u r a l questionnaire

experimenter

the

s u c c e s s f u l female a t h l e t e s from the

(6), v o l l e y b a l l

Twenty (20)

(11)

and

gymnastics

(12);

s u c c e s s f u l male p r o f e s s i o n a l s c u r r e n t l y

sports

31

p r a c t i s i n g law

(8) or medicine

(12)

i n the p r o v i n c e of

B r i t i s h Columbia;
4)

Twelve

(12)

p r a c t i s i n g law

successful

female p r o f e s s i o n a l s

(5) and medicine

currently-

(7) i n the p r o v i n c e of

B r i t i s h Columbia.

Instruments

In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n the
included

a personality

inventory

a S o c i o - c u l t u r a l questionnaire

( C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF Form C)

f o r use

and

(See Appendix B).

C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF Form C.
selected

instruments which were used

This personality

i n t h i s study because i t met

the

inventory

was

following

requirements:
1)
inventory

The

16 PF

most used by p s y c h o l o g i s t s

the p e r s o n a l i t y o f
2)

3)

(1973),

interested i n

the

studying

athletes.

C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF has

f o r a l l four 16 PF

age

i s , a c c o r d i n g to C r a t t y

a well established

s e t of norms

forms.

Scores o b t a i n e d from the

16 PF can be c o r r e c t e d

for

differences.
4)

The

l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study r e q u i r e d

an o b j e c t i v e l y scored p e r s o n a l i t y
a p r o f i l e o f the

subjects

i n the

the use

instrument which would


short

give

l e n g t h of time a v a i l a b l e

for testing.
5)

The

questionnaire

16 PF

scales.

of

i s a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l set of
R e l i a b i l i t y o f the v a r i o u s

sixteen
factors

32

ranges from .50

to .85.

These r e l i a b i l i t i e s

roughly to the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t i e s
6)

I t has

Spielberger

correspond

( C a t t e l l 1953).

been e x p e r i m e n t a l l y demonstrated

(1970) t h a t s u b j e c t s may

by

tend to answer i n v e n t o r i e s

not h o n e s t l y but i n a manner which w i l l best r e f l e c t them.

This

type o f response i s known as "Response D i s t o r t i o n " .


Form C as w e l l as Form D of C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF are
o n l y forms which c o n t a i n a s c a l e r e f e r r e d to as the
D i s t o r t i o n " s c a l e or the

"MD"

scale.

the

"Motivational

T h i s s c a l e measures the

l e v e l of the s u b j e c t ' s response d i s t o r t i o n .


Presented
being

i n Table I are the s i x p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s

t e s t e d f o r u s i n g the 16 PF Form C.

emotional

s t a b i l i t y , assertiveness,

toughmindedness, s e l f - a s s u r a n c e and

These s i x f a c t o r s :

conscientiousness,
s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y have been

f r e q u e n t l y used i n d e s c r i b i n g " s u c c e s s f u l " i n d i v i d u a l s .


The
was

S o c i o - c u l t U r a l Questionnaire.

designed

This

questionnaire

t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on f i v e areas of

b i r t h o r d e r , f a m i l y s i z e , c u l t u r e , e d u c a t i o n a l and
experience.
t e s t items,

athletic

The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s composed o f twenty-three


f i f t e e n r e l a t e d to the s u b j e c t ' s own

the remaining
information.

concern:

background

e i g h t items r e l a t e d to p a r e n t a l background

and

33

TABLE I
TESTED SIX PERSONALITY TRAITS
FROM THE 16 PF FORM C

FACTOR

DESCRIPTION OF THE BEHAVIOR

A f f e c t e d by f e e l i n g s versus

emotionally

stable
E

Humble versus a s s e r t i v e

Expedient

versus

conscientious

. . Tough-minded versus

tender-minded

S e l f - a s s u r e d versus

apprehensive

Q~

Group-dependent versus

self-sufficient

A n a l y s i s Of the Data

As the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were returned by the


s u b j e c t s , each s e t was coded so t h a t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n on
s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d be kept t o g e t h e r .

The 16 PF was

scored by hand u s i n g s c o r i n g s t e n c i l s and f o l l o w i n g the


procedure d e s c r i b e d i n the Manual

( C a t t e l l 1972).

The raw

scores were then c o r r e c t e d f o r any age d i f f e r e n c e s u s i n g the


age

c o r r e c t i o n t a b l e s found i n t h e manual.
A tally

questionnaire

sheet was d e v i s e d

f o r the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l

(See Appendix B) and responses recorded

subject's return.

A l l s u b j e c t s were then mailed

f o r each

an e x p r e s s i o n

o f a p p r e c i a t i o n (See Appendix A) f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n
a 16 PF p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e o f t h e i r answers t o C a t t e l l s
1

16 PF Form C.

plus

34

The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t


d i f f e r e n c e s among means f o r male and female s u c c e s s f u l

athletes

and p r o f e s s i o n a l s on s i x dimensions o f the 16 PF (Factor C, E,


G, I , 0 and Q^) was analyzed u s i n g a one way a n a l y s i s o f
variance

on each f a c t o r .

To a v o i d the p r o b a b i l i t y o f one o r

more Type I I e r r o r s the .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was


established

f o r r e j e c t i o n o f the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s .

of s i g n i f i c a n c e (p=0.05) i s c o n s i d e r e d
l e v e l used
The

(Robson

This

level

t o be the c o n v e n t i o n a l

1974).

.05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d f o r

r e j e c t i o n o f the second h y p o t h e s i s which s t a t e s t h a t :

there

would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among male and female


s u c c e s s f u l a t h l e t e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s on f i v e areas o f concern:
b i r t h order,

family s i z e , culture, educational

experience.

A C h i Square s t a t i s t i c was used on the data

o b t a i n e d from the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l

questionnaire.

and a t h l e t i c

35

CHAPTER IV
RESULTS

T h i s study was designed t o i n v e s t i g a t e the s i m i l a r i t i e s


and/or d i f f e r e n c e s among f o u r groups o f s u c c e s s f u l i n d i v i d u a l s
w i t h regard

t o p e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l

information.

Data and r e s u l t s w i l l be presented a c c o r d i n g


type o f i n f o r m a t i o n
followed

obtained.

by the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l

t o the

Personality information i s
information.

P e r s o n a l i t y Assessment

C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF was used t o t e s t the f i r s t

hypothesis

t h a t there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among means f o r


male and female s u c c e s s f u l a t h l e t e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s on s i x
f a c t o r s , C, E, G, I , 0 and Q 2

Table I I c o n t a i n s
r a t i o s and sten scores
tested.

the means,- standard d e v i a t i o n s , F

f o r each o f the s i x p e r s o n a l i t y

factors

36

TABLE I I
MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, STEN SCORES AND
F RATIOS FOR FACTORS C, E, G, I , 0 AND

FACTOR

GROUP

STEN F RATIO

Male A t h l e t e s
Female A t h l e t e s
Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s
Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s

8 .39
8 .59
7 .60
7 . 66

2. 12
2. 08
2. 07
2. 70

6
7
6
6

1 .128

Male A t h l e t e s
Female A t h l e t e s
Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s
Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s

5 .86
4 .90
5 .95
6 . 92

1. 65
2. 74
2. 65
2. 50

6
6
6
7

2 .240

Male A t h l e t e s
Female A t h l e t e s
Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s
Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s

7 .07
6 .80
7 .65
6 .67

2. 45
1. 93
1. 90
3. 21

6
5
6
5

.684

Male A t h l e t e s
Female A t h l e t e s
Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s
Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s

5 .39
6 . 00
5 .03
.6 .85

2. 51
1. 83
1. 98
1. 77

5
4
5
5

2 .297

Male A t h l e t e s
Female A t h l e t e s
Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s
Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s

4 .83
6 .62
6 .03
6 .15

2. 39
3. 17
1. 60
0. 63

5
5
6
5

2 .550

Male A t h l e t e s
SelfIn \ Female A t h l e t e s
sufficient
Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s
Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s

4. .43

3. 01
1. 93
2. 61
2. 14

5
6
7
7

2 .375

Emotional
Stability

Assertiveness

Conscientiousness

(r)
i*-)

(v\
iw

(a\

ToughIT)
mindedness \ J-)

Selfassurance

(n\

4 .37
6 .10
5 .19

11
II
II

II
II
11

II
II
II

II
II
II

II

II
II

II
II
II

37

On F a c t o r C, the sten score f o r the female a t h l e t e s was


above the normal range o f 4.5 t o 6.5.
Q,
2

On F a c t o r s E, G, 0 and

the s t e n scores f e l l w i t h i n the normal range and f o r F a c t o r I

the s t e n score f e l l

below the norm as shown i n F i g u r e 1.

The sten score f o r the male a t h l e t e s on a l l s i x


p e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s C, E, G, I, 0 and Q
normal range o f 4.5 t o 6.5

were a l l w i t h i n the

as shown i n F i g u r e 2.

Male p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' s t e n scores were above the average


on F a c t o r Q

while they were a l l average f o r F a c t o r s C, E, G,

I and 0 as shown i n F i g u r e 3.
F i g u r e 4 shows the sten scores f o r the female
professionals.

On F a c t o r s E and Q

the normal range.

the sten scores were above

The s t e n scores were average f o r F a c t o r s C,

G, I and 0.
A n a l y s i s o f the p e r s o n a l i t y d a t a i n d i c a t e d no

signifi-

cant d i f f e r e n c e at the .05 l e v e l between the four groups on the


six

p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s examined.

Hypothesis one, was

therefore

supported.
Summary t a b l e s o f the one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r
a l l V a r i a b l e s C, E, G, I, 0 and Q

are presented

i n Appendix

C.

FACTOR

1 2

3
4
5
6
7
8
STANDARD TE]N SCORE (STEN)
If

10

/
G

RANGE OF NORMAL SCORES FOR THE GENERAL


POPULATION

F i g u r e 1 . P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Female A t h l e t e s
as a Group

FACTOR

1 2

STANDARD TI:N

6
SCORE

10

(STEN)

'-v. .. " '

* .

'

RANGE OF NORMAL SCORES FOR THE GENERAL


POPULATION

F i g u r e 2 . P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Male A t h l e t e s
as a Group

FACTOR

1 2

3
4
5
6
STANDARD T l:N SCORE

' ".I.'*;

' "

7
8
(STEN)

10

*.

'

\^

. . .

RANGE OF NORMAL SCORES FOR THE GENERAL


POPULATION

F i g u r e 3 . P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s
as a Group

RANGE OF NORMAL SCORES FOR THE GENERAL


POPULATION

F i g u r e 4 . P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s
as a Group

42

S o c i o - c u l t u r a l Assessment

B i r t h Order.

Table I I I shows t h a t the female

p r o f e s s i o n a l group had the h i g h e s t percentage o f f i r s t


compared w i t h the o t h e r t h r e e groups.

borns

S i x o f the twelve

female p r o f e s s i o n a l s , e x a c t l y 50%, were f i r s t born c h i l d r e n ,


w h i l e 30% o f the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s , 21.4% o f the male a t h l e t e s
and 10.3% o f the female a t h l e t e s were f i r s t

borns.

TABLE I I I
FREQUENCY COUNT AND

PERCENTAGES

OF GROUPS ON BIRTH ORDER


1

BIRTH ORDER
GROUP 1

6
21.4%

6
21.4%

7
25.0%

GROUP 2

3
10.3%

8
27.6%

11
37. 9%

GROUP 3
GROUP 4

3
10.7%

2
7.1%

2
7.1%

0
0.0%

2
7.1%

1
3.4%

2
6.9%

2
6.9%

1
3.4%

1
3.4%

6
6
30. 0% 30. 0%

0
5
0.0% 25.0%

3
15.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

6
50.0%

1
8.3%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

4
33 3%

1
8. 3%

GROUP 1 = MALE ATHLETES


GROUP 2 = FEMALE ATHLETES
GROUP 3 = MALE PROFESSIONALS
GROUP 4 = FEMALE

PROFESSIONALS

43

A t h l e t i c Experience.

A t the time the data was taken

one hundred percent o f the male and female a t h l e t e s , o n l y 8.3%


of the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s and 15% o f the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s
had

been o r were i n v o l v e d

i n international athletic

competition.

However, 80% o f the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s and 58% o f the female


p r o f e s s i o n a l s had been c o m p e t i t i v e

i n a t h l e t i c s a t e i t h e r the

university, national or i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l .
p r o f e s s i o n a l s 100% had been o r were s t i l l

Of the male

active i n athletics,

w h i l e 16.7% o f the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s had never p a r t i c i p a t e d


i n a t h l e t i c s as shown i n Table IV.

TABLE IV
FREQUENCY COUNT AND PERCENTAGES
OF GROUPS ON ATHLETIC

EXPERIENCE

GROUP 1

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

28
100.0%

GROUP 2

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

29
100.0%

GROUP 3

0
0. 0%

2
10.0%

2
10.0%

7
35.0%

6
30.0%

3
15.0%

GROUP 4

2
16.7%

3
25. 0%

2
16. 7%

2
16.7%

2
16.7%

1
8.3%

GROUP
GROUP
GROUP
GROUP

1
2
3
4

=
=
=
=

MALE ATHLETES
FEMALE ATHLETES
MALE PROFESSIONALS
FEMALE PROFESSIONALS

44

Culture.

T a b l e V shows t h a t 92.9% o f the male a t h l e t e s

were born i n Canada, while 93.1% o f the female a t h l e t e s , 70%


of the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s and 75% o f the female

professionals

were a l s o born i n Canada.


The male p r o f e s s i o n a l s compared w i t h the o t h e r three
groups had the l a r g e s t percentage
o f North America.

(30%) o f those born

outside

Only 6.9% o f the female a t h l e t e s , 7.1% o f

the male a t h l e t e s and 25% o f the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s were a l s o


born o u t s i d e

o f North America.

TABLE V
FREQUENCY COUNT AND PERCENTAGES
OF GROUPS ON CULTURE

CANADA

AMERICA

OTHER

(Place o f B i r t h )
MALE ATHLETE

26
92.9%

0
0.0%

2
7.1%

FEMALE ATHLETE

27
93.1%

0
0.0%

2
6.9%

MALE PROFESSIONALS

14
70.0%

1
5.0%

6
30.0%

FEMALE PROFESSIONALS

9
75.0%

0
0.0%

3
25.0%

45

Family s i z e .

Table VI shows t h a t none o f t h e male o r

female a t h l e t e s was an o n l y c h i l d .
came from three

child

Of the male a t h l e t e s 42.9%

f a m i l i e s , as d i d 44.8% o f the female

athletes.
The

female p r o f e s s i o n a l s were a l s o w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n

the three c h i l d

family

(58.3%).

p r o f e s s i o n a l s came from three

Only 15% o f the male

child families.

Ten percent o f

the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s were the only c h i l d as were 16.7% o f


the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s .

TABLE VI
FREQUENCY COUNT AND PERCENTAGES
OF GROUPS ON FAMILY SIZE

3
4
5
(Number o f C h i l d r e n

6
7
i n Family)

GROUP 1

0
4
0. 0% 14.3%

12
7
42. 9% 25.0%

1
3.6%

2
7.1%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

2
7.1%

GROUP 2

0
6
0.0% 20.7%

13
44.8%

7
24.1%

2
6.9%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

1
3.4%

0
0.0%

3
15.0%

4
20.0%

0
0.0%

1
5.0%

1
5.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

GROUP 3

2
10.0%

4
20.0%

GROUP 4

2
16.7%

2
7
16.7%. 58. 3%

0
0.0%

2
10.0%

3
15.0%

0
0.0%

1
8.3%

GROUP 1 = MALE ATHLETES


GROUP 2 = FEMALE ATHLETES
GROUP 3 = MALE PROFESSIONALS
GROUP 4 = FEMALE PROFESSIONALS

46

Educational

experience.

A l l o f the male and female

p r o f e s s i o n a l s had attended u n i v e r s i t y .

While 85.7% o f the

male a t h l e t e s and 62.1% o f the female a t h l e t e s had o r were


still

attending

still

i n high

school.

university.

Of the female a t h l e t e s 37% were

school with 10.3% o f these e n r o l l e d i n a p r i v a t e

None o f the 14.3% o f male a t h l e t e s s t i l l

school were e n r o l l e d i n a p r i v a t e school

i n high

as shown i n Table V I I .

TABLE V I I
FREQUENCY COUNT AND

PERCENTAGES

OF GROUPS FOR EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE

UNIVERSITY
HIGH SCHOOL
HIGH SCHOOL
PRIVATE
PUBLIC
( E d u c a t i o n a l Experience)
MALE ATHLETE

4
14.3%

FEMALE ATHLETE

8
27.6%

0
0.0%
3
10.3%

24
85.7%
18
62.1%

MALE PROFESSIONALS

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

20
100.0%

FEMALE PROFESSIONALS

0
0.0%

0
0.0%

12
100.0%

47

The C h i Square a n a l y s i s used t o compare the f i v e

areas

of concern on the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e showed a


significant difference
athletic

( x ^ = 89.81, p^.00001) when comparing

and e d u c a t i o n a l experience

Hypothesis

(x g= 17.48, p<.008).
2

two was, t h e r e f o r e , not supported.

Table V I I I i s a frequency t a b l e comparing the f o u r


groups f o r a t h l e t i c

experience, while Table IX i s a frequency

table f o r educational experience.

A l l other frequency t a b l e s

are found i n Appendix C.


TABLE V I I I
SUBJECTS IN THE GROUPS
AT VARIOUS LEVELS OF ATHLETIC EXPERIENCE

0
0.0
0.0
0.0

MALE ATHLETES

0
0.0

0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0.0
0.0
0.0

28
100
45.9
31.5

28
31. 5

0.0
0.0

0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0.0
0.0
0.0

29
100
47.5
32.6

29
32. 6

FEMALE ATHLETES

0
0.0
0. 0
0.0

0
0.0
0.0
0.0

MALE

0
0.0
0.0
0.0

2
10.2
40.0
2.2

2
7
10.2 35.0
50.0 77.8
2.2 7.9

6
30.0
75.0
6.7

3
15.0
4.9
3.4

20
22. 5

2
16.7
100.0
2.2

3
25.0
60.0
3.4

2
2
16.7 16.7
50.0 22.2
2.2 2.2

2
16.7
25.0
2.2

1
8.3
1.6
1.1

12
13. 5

2
2.2

5
5,6

4
9
4.5 10.1

8
9.0

61
68.5

89
100. 0

PROFESSIONALS

FEMALE

PROFESSIONALS

COLUMN
TOTAL
X

2
1 5

= 89.81, p <. .00001

48

TABLE IX
SUBJECTS IN THE GROUPS
AT VARIOUS LEVELS OF EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE

HIGH
SCHOOL
PUBLIC

MALE ATHLETES

4
14.3
33.3
4.5

FEMALE ATHLETES

8
27.6
66. 7
9.0

HIGH
SCHOOL
UNIVERSITY
PRIVATE
(Levels o f Education)
0
0.0
0.0
0.0

24
85.7
32.4
27.0

3
10.3
100.0
3.4

18
62.1
24.3
20.4

MALE PROFESSIONALS

0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0.0
0.0
0.0

20
100.0
27.0
22.5

FEMALE PROFESSIONALS

0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0
0.0
0.0
0.0

12
100. 0
16.2
13.5

12
13.5

3
3.4

74
83.1

COLUMN
TOTAL

= 17.48, p < .008

89
100.0

49

CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION

I t i s important when s t u d y i n g behavior


p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s be c o n s i d e r e d
variables.

along with

T h i s approach t o behavior

that
environmental

i s known as the

i n t e r a c t i o n i s t approach and i s a much more powerful p r e d i c t o r


o f behavior

than c o n s i d e r i n g t r a i t s o r environmental v a r i a b l e s

alone.
T h i s study has taken the i n t e r a c t i o n i s t approach and
an examination o f the r e s u l t s r e v e a l t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e o f the four groups, as w e l l as t h e i r s o c i o c u l t u r a l background appear q u i t e

similar.

For a l l four groups, two o f the p e r s o n a l i t y


F a c t o r G (conscientiousness)

and F a c t o r 0

(self-assurance)

were c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n norm.
(emotional

For Factor C

s t a b i l i t y ) , the female a t h l e t e s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d

as more e m o t i o n a l l y
three

traits

s t a b l e when compared with the remaining

groups.
Emotional s t a b i l i t y a l s o r e f e r r e d t o by C a t t e l l as

higher ego s t r e n g t h i s f r e q u e n t l y found among those who a r e


leaders

( C a t t e l l e t a l 1970).

T h i s above average emotional

s t a b i l i t y i s found i n those who must a d j u s t t o d i f f i c u l t i e s


or emergencies presented

t o them, from the o u t s i d e .

I t would

be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t those i n d i v i d u a l s c l a s s i f i e d as s u c c e s s f u l
or s u p e r i o r i n law o r medicine as w e l l as a t h l e t i c s would a l l
r e q u i r e t h i s higher than average emotional s t a b i l i t y .

The

50

r e s u l t s of the present

study as well: as the r e s u l t s of Morgan s


1

(1973) study are i n disagreement with t h i s argument.


present

In

the

study the female a t h l e t e s were the o n l y group which

c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as e m o t i o n a l l y

stable.

The

o n l y group i n

the Morgan study which c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as e m o t i o n a l l y


were the female p h y s i c i a n s .
attorneys

and

In Morgan's study the

stable

female

female a t h l e t e s were w i t h i n the normal or

average range f o r t h i s

trait.

C l o s e r examination of Morgan's study r e v e a l s t h a t


age

range f o r the female a t h l e t e s was

of age

to f o r t y

(40) y e a r s .

f o r Morgan's experiment was


B i l l i e Jean King, was

The

q u e s t i o n must be asked as t o
earnings

the

of the a t h l e t e s i n
This

may

the female a t h l e t e s i n Morgan's study were not


stable.

A l s o d u r i n g the l a t e

e a r l y 1970's the p r o f e s s i o n a l c i r c u i t

and g o l f p l a y e r was
The

data

gathered a female t e n n i s p l a y e r ,

were over t h i r t y years o l d .

d e s c r i b e d as e m o t i o n a l l y
and

years

During the time at which the

a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y , prominence and

e x p l a i n why

(23)

the o l d e s t female p r o f e s s i o n a l a t h l e t e

i n terms of prominence.

Morgan's study who

twenty-three

the

60's

f o r the female t e n n i s

very small as were the f i n a n c i a l

earnings.

time involvement and commitment c o u l d not p o s s i b l y compare

to the commitment of female a t h l e t e s of the 198.0." s or to


commitment of female p h y s i c i a n s of the 1960's and

the

70's.

I t would be expected t h a t the female p h y s i c i a n i n


Morgan's study c o u l d be described: as e m o t i o n a l l y

s t a b l e , as

o n l y 7% o f the p h y s i c i a n s a t the time the data was


were women (Morgan 1973:35).

Subjects

w i t h i n the

collected
female

51

physicians
Women.

group were obtained

from Who's Who o f American

These women had obtained

S t a t e s , and t h e r e f o r e

prominence i n the

United

i t would be expected t h a t they had h i g h

l e v e l s o f d e d i c a t i o n and s t a b i l i t y t o achieve such prominence


i n a male dominated p r o f e s s i o n .
While t h e female p h y s i c i a n s were t h e o n l y group i n
Morgan's study which c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d

as e m o t i o n a l l y

i t was t h e female a t h l e t i c group i n the present


c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d

as being

stable,

study which

above average on t h i s

trait.

Perhaps a reason f o r t h i s i s because o f the female a t h l e t e s '


o v e r a l l youth.

Many o f t h e female a t h l e t e s i n the

present

study hadn't l i v e d long enough t o experience a wide v a r i e t y


of f a i l u r e s o r disappointments.

A l s o the young female a t h l e t e

must d e f i n i t e l y have a support system o f f a m i l y , coaches,


teammates and f r i e n d s .
The

t r a i t o f a s s e r t i v e n e s s was: a l s o examained and

r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e female p r o f e s s i o n a l s were more


a s s e r t i v e than a l l remaining groups.
personality t r a i t
higher

Dominance, as t h i s

i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by

than average a g g r e s s i v e n e s s and competitive


C a t t e l l e t a l (1970) d e s c r i b e s

which d i s t i n g u i s h e s the sexes:

dominance: as a t r a i t

suggesting

t h a t dominant and

a c h i e v i n g behavior i s a b a s i s on which s o c i e t y
masculinity

and f e m i n i n i t y .

behavior.

defines

Women i n the f i e l d o f a t h l e t i c s

w h i l e they o f t e n compete w i t h men f o r equal r e c o g n i t i o n a r e


not

i n d i r e c t competition

w i t h men i n a t h l e t i c events and may

as a r e s u l t not e x h i b i t a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o r .

Female p r o f e s s i o n a l s

52

however are i n d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h men.

In t h e i r

selection

of law or medicine as a c a r e e r , the female a t t o r n e y and


p h y s i c i a n showed some degree o f courage and a g g r e s s i v e n e s s .
These c a r e e r s have i n the past been dominated by men
female a t t o r n e y and p h y s i c i a n w i l l
T h i s t o some e x t e n t may

whom the

c o n t i n u e t o compete a g a i n s t .

be the reason f o r the female

p r o f e s s i o n a l s e x h i b i t i n g a h i g h e r degree o f a s s e r t i v e n e s s .
Mental toughness was
was

another t r a i t examined and i t

found t h a t the female a t h l e t e s were more m e n t a l l y tough

than the remaining t h r e e groups.

C a t t e l l (1969:488) d e s c r i b e s

an i n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s i n g t h i s t r a i t as a " h a r d - b o i l e d ,

mature,

independent, unemotional, p o i s e d i n d i v i d u a l w i t h some smugness,


o v e r - p r e c i s i o n and b l i n k e r e d l o g i c . "
The female a t h l e t i c group i n the p r e s e n t study has an
average age o f 19 y e a r s .

T h i s average age was

male a t h l e t e s whose average age was


whose average age was

lower than the

24, the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s

41 and the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s who

an average age o f 40 y e a r s .

had

Because o f the necessary d e d i c a t i o n

to t r a i n i n g t h a t an a t h l e t e must pursue i n o r d e r t o compete


internationally

and because o f the o v e r a l l youth o f the female

a t h l e t e s i t might be expected t h a t the female a t h l e t e s c o u l d


be d e s c r i b e d as m e n t a l l y tough.
Another t r a i t which was
sufficiency.

a l s o examined was

self-

In the p r e s e n t study, s u b j e c t s i n the male and

female p r o f e s s i o n a l groups were found t o be more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t


than the male and female a t h l e t i c groups who
p o p u l a t i o n norm f o r t h i s

trait.

were w i t h i n the

53

S e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y may
own

be d e f i n e d as p r e f e r r i n g one's

d e c i s i o n s r a t h e r than being a f o l l o w e r or a j o i n e r .

C e r t a i n l y w i t h i n the f i e l d of law and medicine, male


female a t t o r n e y s

and

and p h y s i c i a n s are r e q u i r e d to make t h e i r

d e c i s i o n s about l e g a l or m e d i c a l cases.

own

In a t h l e t i c s however,

o f t e n the a t h l e t e i s t o l d what to do by other i n d i v i d u a l s


such as coaches.

T h i s may

e x p l a i n to some extent why

the

p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h i s study c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as more s e l f s u f f i c i e n t than the a t h l e t i c s u b j e c t s .


present

The

r e s u l t s of

the

study c o n t r a s t with the r e s u l t s of a study by Morgan

(1973).

In Morgan's study none of the s u b j e c t s i n law,

as w e l l as a t h l e t i c s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as
In summary i t was

hypothesized

medicine

self-sufficient.

t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y

of the f o u r groups s t u d i e d would be s i m i l a r but

i t was

also

a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s would d i f f e r

from

the p o p u l a t i o n norm.

The

subject population

i n the

present

study however, d i d not d i f f e r from the average range on two


the s i x p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s e x a m i n e d F a c t o r G
and F a c t o r 0

(self-assurance).

t r a i t s examined was

Not

one

of

(conscientiousness)

of the s i x p e r s o n a l i t y

found to be c o n s i s t e n t l y above or below the

p o p u l a t i o n norm or average range f o r a l l four groups.


The
assertive

female p r o f e s s i o n a l s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as more

(Factor E) compared with the other three groups

were w i t h i n the normal range.

Of the four groups the

who

female

a t h l e t e s were the o n l y group which c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as more


mentally

tough

(Factor I) and more emotionally, s t a b l e (Factor C ) ,

the remaining three groups were w i t h i n the p o p u l a t i o n norm f o r

54

these two t r a i t s .
described

The male and female p r o f e s s i o n a l s c o u l d be

as having a h i g h e r degree o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y

(Factor C^) w h i l e the a t h l e t e s i n t h i s study were w i t h i n the


average range.
While no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s

(p<.05) between the

groups were observed f o r the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , two s o c i o c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s a t h l e t i c experience


educational

experience

(p<.00001) and

(p<.008) were s i g n i f i c a n t .

A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups on the f a c t o r


of a t h l e t i c experience was a n t i c i p a t e d .

After a l l ,

the c r i t e r i a

f o r s e l e c t i o n o f the a t h l e t i c s u b j e c t s was t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n
at the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l .
and

One hundred precent of the male

female a t h l e t e s had i n t e r n a t i o n a l a t h l e t i c

experience,

w h i l e o n l y 15% o f the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s and 8.3% o f the


female p r o f e s s i o n a l s had ever competed a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l
level.
D e s p i t e the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups
on the factor: a t h l e t i c experience, 15% and 8.3% p a r t i c i p a t i o n
at the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l f o r the male and female
r e s p e c t i v e l y , seems q u i t e high

professionals

f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l groups.

I t appears t h a t the a t h l e t i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l groups i n t h i s


study are very sports minded as only two of the 89
had

never been i n v o l v e d i n a t h l e t i c s .

87%

had a t h l e t i c experience a t the u n i v e r s i t y , n a t i o n a l or

international

Of the 89

subjects

subjects,

level.

The male and female p r o f e s s i o n a l s who responded t o


the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s

were those i n t e r e s t e d or i n v o l v e d i n

55

athletics.

I t may be t h a t the remaining p r o f e s s i o n a l s who

were m a i l e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s might not have been a t h l e t i c a l l y


inclined.
of

T h i s might e x p l a i n the o v e r a l l a t h l e t i c

the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s

experience

study.

A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was a l s o observed
f a c t o r o f e d u c a t i o n a l experience.
of

While one hundred percent

the male and female p r o f e s s i o n a l s had attended

(which i s a foregone

f o r the

university

c o n c l u s i o n ) , o n l y 62.1% of the female

a t h l e t e s and 85.7% o f the male a t h l e t e s had attended


The remaining

university.

37.9% o f the female a t h l e t e s and the remaining

14.3% o f the male a t h l e t e s were s t i l l

e n r o l l e d i n high school.

D e s p i t e the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the prof e s s i o n a l and: a t h l e t i c groups on the f a c t o r o f e d u c a t i o n a l


experience, the s u b j e c t s as a whole appear to be w e l l

educated.

E i g h t y - t h r e e percent o f the s u b j e c t s have had a u n i v e r s i t y


e d u c a t i o n , but because o f t h e i r : age, the remaining
still

i n v o l v e d in: a h i g h s c h o o l program.

17% are

I t i s conceivable

t h a t upon g r a d u a t i o n these 17% w i l l attend u n i v e r s i t y , as


u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Canada o f f e r a h i g h l e v e l o f c o m p e t i t i o n f o r
the e l i t e

athlete.
B i r t h order, f a m i l y s i z e and c u l t u r e were t h r e e

other s o c i o - c u l t u r a l

f a c t o r s examined w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t

differences evident.

There was however a prevalence o f f i r s t

borns

(50%) among the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s . T h i r t y percent o f

male p r o f e s s i o n a l s were a l s o f i r s t , born, while 21.4% of the


male a t h l e t e s and o n l y 10.3% of the female a t h l e t e s were
born.

first

56

Occurrence of the f i r s t born, e s p e c i a l l y among the


p r o f e s s i o n a l groups, may
way

they were brought up.

bilities

be p a r t i a l l y , accounted f o r by the
C a l l e d upon t o take more r e s p o n s i -

around the house, the f i r s t born may

have had t o

s t r i v e t o l i v e up t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s of p a r e n t s .

Parents'

e x p e c t a t i o n s tend to be g r e a t e r f o r the f i r s t born, and once


t h a t c h i l d has reached an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of

achievement,

t h e r e appears to be l e s s p r e s s u r e put on younger c h i l d r e n t o


a t t a i n those same e x p e c t a t i o n s .
The h i g h occurrence of f i r s t borns i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l
groups and the low occurrence of f i r s t borns i n the a t h l e t i c
groups may

a l s o be due t o parents p r e s s u r i n g t h e i r f i r s t

borns

i n t o p r o f e s s i o n s l e a d i n g t o h i g h s t a t u s and prominence i n t h e i r
community.

A member o f the law or m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n achieves

g r e a t e r d i s t i n c t i o n , prominence and earns more money than the


m a j o r i t y of amateur a t h l e t e s .
For
experience.
of

many parents r a i s i n g the f i r s t


T h i s may

c h i l d is: a l e a r n i n g

be another reason f o r the low i n c i d e n c e

f i r s t borns i n the a t h l e t i c groups.

Many parents do not

become aware o f the a t h l e t i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s

( l i t t l e leagues,

dance c l a s s e s , etc.) f o r t h e i r young f i r s t born c h i l d .

The

l a t e r born c h i l d r e n b e n e f i t from the p a r e n t s ' l e a r n i n g


experience, as the parents w i l l probably be more aware of the
a t h l e t i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the community f o r t h e i r
l a t e r born c h i l d r e n .
The
groups may

lower i n c i d e n c e o f " f i r s t borns among the a t h l e t i c

a l s o have something

t o do with the sport

involvement

57

of the a t h l e t e s .

A c c o r d i n g to a 1980: a r t i c l e by H a l l , Church

and Stone, the s p o r t s e t t i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n s show t h a t

later

borns seek group a c t i v i t i e s and team s p o r t s more r e a d i l y


f i r s t borns.
two

W i t h i n the female a t h l e t i c group of t h i s

than

study

of the t h r e e s p o r t s are team s p o r t s while t h r e e of the

five

s p o r t s i n the male a t h l e t i c group are a l s o team s p o r t s .


Family

s i z e , another

i n c i d e n c e of male and
or more c h i l d r e n .

f a c t o r s t u d i e d , showed, a h i g h

female a t h l e t e s from f a m i l i e s of t h r e e

T h i s may

have something to do w i t h

having

a guaranteed supply of playmates and more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r


competitive

experience.

While t h e r e was

a high i n c i d e n c e of male and

female

a t h l e t e s from f a m i l i e s of t h r e e or more c h i l d r e n , t h e r e
also: a h i g h i n c i d e n c e of male and
f a m i l i e s of f o u r or l e s s .

female p r o f e s s i o n a l s from

M i g l i o r i n o (1974) found

a negative

c o r r e l a t i o n between mental development of the s u b j e c t


family s i z e .

was

In M i g l i o r i n o ' s study

i t was

and

found t h a t c h i l d r e n

from s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s tend t o have h i g h e r l e v e l s of

intelligence

w h i l e c h i l d r e n from l a r g e r f a m i l i e s tend t o d i s p l a y lower l e v e l s


of i n t e l l i g e n c e .

I t i s expected

t h a t those who

have

graduated

from a u n i v e r s i t y through a medical or law program must have a


high l e v e l o f i n t e l l i g e n c e .
u n i v e r s i t y has

As i t i s assumed anyone a t t e n d i n g

some degree of i n t e l l i g e n c e at l e a s t above the

average or p o p u l a t i o n norm.
Since c h i l d r e n tend t o surpass the l e v e l of achievement
a t t a i n e d by t h e i r p a r e n t s , i t i s a l s o important

t o c o n s i d e r the

e d u c a t i o n a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l and a t h l e t i c l e v e l s reached

by

the

58

parents.
Upon examination o f the p a r e n t a l background

information,

i t would appear t h a t s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study d i d not use the


parent

o f the same gender as a r o l e model i n c h o i c e o f c a r e e r

or s p o r t .

F o r example, w i t h i n the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s o n l y

33% o f the mothers were employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s


as t e a c h i n g ,

law o r medicine.

such

The female a t h l e t e s a l s o d i d not

use t h e i r mothers as r o l e models as o n l y 48% o f the mothers


were i n v o l v e d i n a t h l e t i c s and then mostly at the high

school

level.
The
achieve

p a r e n t s ' encouragement o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o

g r e a t e r h e i g h t s than they a t t a i n e d f o r themselves may

be a reason

f o r the s u b j e c t s o f t h i s study not s e l e c t i n g t h e i r

parents

as r o l e models.

J u s t as the female s u b j e c t s i n the

present

study d i d not s e l e c t the parent

o f the same gender as

a r o l e model, n e i t h e r d i d the male s u b j e c t s .

Only 40% o f the

f a t h e r s o f the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s were employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l


c a r e e r s , and 60% o f the male a t h l e t e s ' f a t h e r s had been i n v o l v e d
i n a t h l e t i c s but mostly at the h i g h s c h o o l and r e c r e a t i o n a l
level.
In summary, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n
obtained

from the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s q u i t e

f o r a l l s u b j e c t groups i n the present

study.

Subjects

similar
as a

whole can be d e s c r i b e d as w e l l educated and s p o r t s minded


individuals.

59

CHAPTER VI
SUMMARY

The purpose o f t h i s study was t o determine i f there


were any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female
s u c c e s s f u l i n d i v i d u a l s i n law, medicine and a t h l e t i c s on s i x
p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s : and f i v e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s .

Cattell's

16 PF Form C was administered by m a i l along with a s o c i o c u l t u r a l questionnaire

(designed by the experimenter) t o

twenty-eight male a t h l e t e s , twenty-nine female a t h l e t e s ,


twenty male p r o f e s s i o n a l s and twelve female p r o f e s s i o n a l s .

Summary o f the P e r s o n a l i t y Assessment

A one way: a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e

performed on the data

o b t a i n e d from the 16 PF showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t


the

.05 l e v e l , among the four groups on the s i x p e r s o n a l i t y

traits:

self-assurance,

s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , emotional

mental toughness, c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s
Hypothesis one was t h e r e f o r e

stability,

and a s s e r t i v e n e s s .

supported.

When the f o u r groups were compared i t was found t h a t


the

female a t h l e t e s were more e m o t i o n a l l y

s t a b l e and m e n t a l l y

tough when compared w i t h the o t h e r t h r e e groups.


p r o f e s s i o n a l s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d

as having h i g h e r l e v e l s o f

s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and a s s e r t i v e n e s s
three

groups.

The female

when compared w i t h the o t h e r

S e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was the o n l y t r a i t

exhibited

by the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s , w h i l e the male a t h l e t e s c o u l d be

60

d e s c r i b e d as w i t h i n the average o r normal range on a l l s i x


personality t r a i t s .

The s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n i n the present

study d i d not d i f f e r from the average range on two o f the s i x


p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s F a c t o r G (conscientiousness)

and F a c t o r 0

(self-assurance).

Summary o f t h e S o c i o - c u l t u r a l Assessment

No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among the f o u r


groups on the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s b i r t h order,
and

culture.

family size

While s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among

the groups on the f a c t o r o f a t h l e t i c


e d u c a t i o n a l experience

(p^. 008),

(p^.00001) and

these d i f f e r e n c e s were

a n t i c i p a t e d : as c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n o f the s u b j e c t s was
based on t h e i r l e v e l o f a t h l e t i c and e d u c a t i o n a l achievement.
Despite

t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e the s u b j e c t group

of t h i s study c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as: a s p o r t s minded and w e l l


educated group.

Only two o f the 89 s u b j e c t s i n the present

study had never been i n v o l v e d i n a t h l e t i c s .

While o n l y 17% o f

the s u b j e c t s , because o f t h e i r age, were s t i l l

enrolled i n a

h i g h s c h o o l program, the remaining 83% o f t h e s u b j e c t s a t t h e


time the data was c o l l e c t e d had attended

o r were

still

attending a u n i v e r s i t y .
R e s u l t s o f the C h i Squared s t a t i s t i c performed on the
s o c i o - c u l t u r a l data a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was: an occurrence
o f f i r s t born c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y among the p r o f e s s i o n a l
groups.

There was a l s o a high i n c i d e n c e o f a t h l e t e s from

61

f a m i l i e s of three or more c h i l d r e n , while t h e r e was

a high

i n c i d e n c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s from f a m i l i e s of four or

less.

LEAF 62 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING.

63

Recommendations f o r
F u r t h e r StudyAs a r e s u l t o f t h i s study, the i n v e s t i g a t o r
recommends c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g concerns f o r
further research:

1)

That the "judges" c o n s i s t o f an equal number o f men and

women when c o m p i l i n g a l i s t o f s u c c e s s f u l male and female


individuals.

2)

That each "judge" be g i v e n the c r i t e r i a

for selecting a

s u c c e s s f u l c o l l e a g u e and i f no c r i t e r i a i s g i v e n each
must s t a t e the c r i t e r i a they used f o r t h e i r

3)

"judge"

selection.

The s o c i o - c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed by the

experimenter was not v a l i d a t e d .

4)

That the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the p e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i o -

c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s u c c e s s f u l males and females i n


areas o t h e r than law o r medicine be undertaken t o determine
i f t h e r e i s a c o n s i s t e n t p r o f i l e f o r the s u c c e s s f u l

individual.

APPENDIX A

Correspondence

L e t t e r o f I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Doctors
L e t t e r o f I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Lawyers
L e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A t h l e t e
Reminder L e t t e r t o Doctors
Reminder L e t t e r t o Lawyers
Reminder L e t t e r t o A t h l e t e s
L e t t e r of A p p r e c i a t i o n t o Subject

65

August 1980

Dear Doctor,
I am c u r r e n t l y on f a c u l t y a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f
L e t h b r i d g e , but am s t i l l

i n the process o f completing my

master's t h e s i s from The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h

Columbia.

My t h e s i s i s a p e r s o n a l i t y study o f s u c c e s s f u l :

doctors,

lawyers and a t h l e t e s .
Because your time i s v a l u a b l e ,
questionnaire

t o you.

I am m a i l i n g the

The two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s

approximately t h i r t y minutes o f your time.


convenience p l e a s e r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
possible

require
F o r your
as soon as

i n the stamped r e t u r n envelope p r o v i d e d .


The

r e s u l t s are s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and a code

i s used merely f o r m a i l i n g purposes.

I f you a r e i n t e r e s t e d

i n your own p e r s o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e p l e a s e
below and r e t u r n t h i s l e t t e r along with the

indicate

questionnaires

to me.
Your a s s i s t a n c e
greatly

i n h e l p i n g me complete my t h e s i s i s

appreciated.

Thank you very much,

L o u i s a W. Zerbe
I n s t r u c t o r , The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e
PLEASE SEND ME MY PERSONAL PROFILE TO:

66

August 1980

Dear Lawyer,
I am c u r r e n t l y on f a c u l t y a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f
L e t h b r i d g e , but am s t i l l

i n the process o f completing my

master's t h e s i s from The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h


My t h e s i s i s a p e r s o n a l i t y

Columbia.

study o f s u c c e s s f u l :

doctors,

lawyers and a t h l e t e s .
Because your time i s v a l u a b l e ,
questionnaire

to.you.

I am m a i l i n g the

The two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s

approximately t h i r t y minutes o f your time.


convenience p l e a s e r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
possible

require
F o r your
as soon as

i n the stamped r e t u r n envelope p r o v i d e d .


The

r e s u l t s a r e s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and a code i s

used merely f o r m a i l i n g

purposes.

I f you are i n t e r e s t e d

i n your own p e r s o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e p l e a s e
below and r e t u r n t h i s l e t t e r along w i t h the

indicate

questionnaires

to me.
Your a s s i s t a n c e
greatly

i n h e l p i n g me complete my t h e s i s i s

appreciated.

Thank you v e r y much,

L o u i s a W. Zerbe
I n s t r u c t o r , The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e
PLEASE SEND ME MY PERSONAL PROFILE TO:

67

August 1980

Dear A t h l e t e ,
I am c u r r e n t l y on f a c u l t y a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f
L e t h b r i d g e , but am s t i l l

i n t h e process o f completing my

master's t h e s i s from The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.


My t h e s i s i s a p e r s o n a l i t y

study o f s u c c e s s f u l :

doctors,

lawyers and a t h l e t e s .
Because your time i s v a l u a b l e ,
questionnaire

t o you.

I am m a i l i n g the

The two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s

approximately t h i r t y minutes o f your time.


convenience p l e a s e r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
possible

require
F o r your
as soon as

i n the stamped r e t u r n envelope p r o v i d e d .


The

r e s u l t s a r e s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and a code i s

used merely f o r m a i l i n g purposes.

I f you are i n t e r e s t e d

i n your own p e r s o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e p l e a s e
below and r e t u r n t h i s l e t t e r along w i t h the

indicate

questionnaires

to me.
Your a s s i s t a n c e
greatly

i n h e l p i n g me complete my t h e s i s i s

appreciated.

Thank you v e r y much,

L o u i s a W. Z.erbe
I n s t r u c t o r , The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e
PLEASE SEND ME MY PERSONAL PROFILE TO:

68

September 198 0

Dear Doctor,
During the summer, you r e c e i v e d a package c o n t a i n i n g
two

(2) q u e s t i o n n a i r e s

( C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF Form C and a

Socio-cultural Questionnaire).

Success o f my master's

t h e s i s i s dependent upon the completion o f these


questionnaires.
Along with t h i s l e t t e r I have i n c l u d e d a second t e s t
package, a t your e a r l i e s t convenience c o u l d you p l e a s e
r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
time i s p r e c i o u s

t o me.

and I a p p r e c i a t e

I r e a l i z e t h a t your
your a s s i s t a n c e i n

h e l p i n g me.

Thank you very much,


L o u i s a W. Zerbe, I n s t r u c t o r
The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e

69

September 1980

Dear Lawyer,
During the summer, you r e c e i v e d a package c o n t a i n i n g
two

(2) q u e s t i o n n a i r e s

( C a t t e l l s 16 PF Form C and a
1

Socio-cultural Questionnaire).

Success o f my master's

t h e s i s i s dependent upon the completion o f these


questionnaires.
Along with t h i s l e t t e r I have i n c l u d e d a second t e s t
package,.at your e a r l i e s t convenience c o u l d you p l e a s e
r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
time i s p r e c i o u s

t o me.

and I a p p r e c i a t e

I r e a l i z e t h a t your
your a s s i s t a n c e i n

h e l p i n g me.

Thank you very much,


L o u i s a W. Zerbe, I n s t r u c t o r
The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e

70

September 1980

Dear A t h l e t e ,
During the summer, you r e c e i v e d a package c o n t a i n i n g
two

(2) q u e s t i o n n a i r e s

( C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF Form C and a

Socio-cultural Questionnaire).

Success o f my master's

t h e s i s i s dependent upon the completion o f these


questionnaires.
Along with t h i s l e t t e r I have i n c l u d e d a second t e s t
package, a t your e a r l i e s t convenience c o u l d you p l e a s e
r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s
i s precious

t o me.

I r e a l i z e t h a t your time

and I a p p r e c i a t e your a s s i s t a n c e i n h e l p i n g me.

Thank you v e r y much,

L o u i s a W. Zerbe, I n s t r u c t o r
The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e

71

Fall

1980

Dear S u b j e c t ,
Here are your r e s u l t s o f the 16 PF

(Cattell's

S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) t h a t you completed
d u r i n g the summer.

For your convenience, the r e s u l t s have

been put on a " p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e graph".


I a p p r e c i a t e your a s s i s t a n c e i n h e l p i n g me

complete

my t h e s i s and I would l i k e t o r e - a s s u r e you t h a t your t e s t


r e s u l t s w i l l remain c o n f i d e n t i a l .
Again, thank you f o r your speedy response.

Sincerely,
L o u i s a W. Zerbe
I n s t r u c t o r , The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e

APPENDIX B

P e r s o n a l i t y and

Socio-Cultural

Information

1.

Cattell's

16 PF Form C

2.

Socio-Cultural Questionnaire

3.

S o c i o - C u l t u r a l T a l l y Sheet

4.

16 PF P e r s o n a l i t y

Profile

"13.
DO NOT COPY PAGES -73-87

Form C
1969 EDITION R

WHAT TO DO: Inside this booklet are some questions to see what interests you have
and how you feel about things. On most items there are no "right" or "wrong"
answers because people have the right to their own views. All you have to do is
answer what is true for you.
If a separate answer sheet has not been given to you, turn this booklet over and
tear off the answer sheet on the back page. Write your name and other information asked for on the answer sheet.
First, read the four EXAMPLES below and mark your answers on (Ae answer
sheet where it says EXAMPLES.
Fill in the box completely:
EXAMPLES:
1. I like to watch team games,
a. yes, b. occasionally, c. no.

3. Money cannot bring happiness.


a. yes (true),
b. in between,
c. no (false).

2. I prefer people who:


a. are reserved,
b. (are) in between,
c. make friends quickly.

4. Adult is to child as cat is to:


a. kitten, b. dog, c. baby.

In the last example there is a right answerkitten. But there are very few such
reasoning items.
Ask now if something isn't clear.
When the examiner tells you, start with number 1 and answer the questions.
Keep these four things in mind:
1. Give only answers that are true for you. It is best to say what you really think.
2. Don't spend too much time thinking over each question. Give the Hrst, natural
answer as it comes to you. Of course, the questions are too short to give you
all the information you might like, but give the best answer you can under the
circumstances.
3. Answer every question one way or the other. Don't skip any.
4. You should mark the a or c answer most of the time. Mark the middle b
answer only when you feel you have to, because neither a nor c seems to be
right for you.

S-^r^

without p r r ptrmiMion in . n u n , from the publish.,-.

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1. I think my memory is better than it ever was.


a. yes

b. in between,

12. When friends play a joke on me, I usually


enjoy it as much as the others, without feeling
at ail upset.

c. no.

2. I could happily live alone, far from anyone, like


a hermit.
a. yes,

a. true,

c. no.

b. occasionally,

b. a saint,

a. true,

c. a cloud.

14.

4. When going to bed, I:


a. drop off to sleep quickly,
b. in between,
c. have difficulty falling asleep.

a. yes,
16.

c. no.

17.

7. It's important to me not to live in messy surroundings.

8.

b. uncertain,

b. sometimes,

c. false.

a. yes,

c. no.

b. sometimes,

c. false.

b. in between,

c. false,

c. no.

b. in between,

a. my good friends,
b. uncertain,
c. a diary.
20.

c. no.

I think the
"inexact" is:
a. casual,

11. In reading about an accident I like to find out


exactly how it happened.
a. always,

b. in between,

19. I would rather tell my innermost thoughts to:

I smile to myself at the big difference between


what people do and what they say they do.
b. occasionally,

c. no.

18. I have sometimes, even if briefly, had hateful


feelings towards my parents.

a. fencing and dancing,


b. in between,
c. wrestling and baseball.

a. yes,

b. occasionally,

(r.nd, column 1 on answer Mheet.)

9. I would rather exercise by:

10.

c. false.

I get impatient easily with people who don't


decide quickly.
a. true,

Most people I meet at a party are undoubtedly


glad to see me.
a. yes,

b. uncertain,

I consider myself less "high strung" than most


people.
a. true,

6. At a party I let others keep the jokes and


stories going.

a. true,

c. false.

15. When I plan something, I like to do so quite


alone without any outside help.

a. to remain behind most of the other cars,


b. in between,
c. only after I've reached the front of the line.

b. sometimes,

b. uncertain,

I like to "dream up" new ways of doing things


rather than to be a practical follower of welltried ways.
a. true,

5. When driving a car in a line of traffic, I feel


satisfied:

a. yes,

c. false.

13. When someone speaks angrily to me, I can forget the matter quickly.

3. If I say the sky is "down" and winter is "hot,"


I would call a criminal:
a. a gangster,

b. in between,

21.

c. seldom.

b. accurate,

of

the

opposite

of

c. rough.

I always have lots of energy at timoit when


1 need it.
a. yes,

opposite

b. in between,

c. no.

22. I am more annoyed by a person who:

32. I like to join with people who show lively group


enthusiasm.

a. tells off-color jokes and embarrasses people,


b. uncertain,
c. is late for an appointment and inconveniences me.

a. yes,

b. uncertain,

a. insurance,
b. in between,
c. good fortune.

c. false.

34. I can forget my worries and responsibilities


whenever I need to.

24. I feel that:

a. yes,

a. some jobs just don't have to be done so carefully as others,


b. in between,
c. any job should be done thoroughly if you do
it at all.

b. in between,

a. yes,

c. a colonel.

37. Which word does not belong with the other


two?
a. cat,

a. are efficient and practical in their interests,


b. in between,
c. seriously think out their feelings about life.

39. I am quite happy to be waited on, at appropriate times, by personal servants.


a. often,

9. It bothers me if I hear others expressing ideas


that are contrary to those that I firmly believe.

b. sometimes,

c. never.

40. I would rather live in a town:

c. false.

a. artistically laid out, but relatively poor,


b. uncertain,
c. that is rough, prosperous, and booming.

0. I'm over-conscientious and worry over my past


acts or mistakes.
b. in between,

c. sun.

a. to irritate me,
b. in between,
c. not to bother me at all.

8. I like friends who:

a. yes,

b. near,

38. Minor distractions seem:

b. occasionally, c. no.

a. true, b. in between,

c. no.

a. machinery or keeping records,


b. in between,
c. talking to and hiring new people.

11. If people cheat me in small things, I'd rather


humor them than show them up.
a. yes,

b. sometimes,

36. In a factory it would be more interesting to


be in charge of:

c. no.

b. uncertain,

c. no.

35. It's hard for me to admit it when I'm wrong,

It would be more interesting to be:


a. a bishop,

b. sometimes,

( E n d , c o l u m n 2 o n answer sheet.)

25. I have always had to fight against being too


shy.
a. yes,

c. no.

33. I put my faith more in:

23. I greatly enjoy inviting guests and amusing


them.
a. true,

b. in between,

41. People should insist more than they now do


that moral laws be followed.
a. yes,
b. sometimes,
c. no.

c. no.

1. If I were good at both, I'd rather:


a. play chess,
b. in between,
c. go bowling.

42. I have been told that, as a child, I was rather:


a. quiet and kept to myself,
b. in between,
c. lively and always active.
3

1L

43. I enjoy routine, constructive work, using a


good piece of machinery or apparatus.
a. yes,

b. in between,

53. I would rather be:


a. in a business office, organizing and seeing
people,
b. in between,
c. an architect, drawing plans in a quiet room.

c. no.

44. I think most witnesses tell the truth even if it


becomes embarrassing.
a. yes,

b. in between,

54. "House" is to "room" as "tree" is to:

c. no.

a. forest,
45. When I meet new people, I'd rather:

a. rarely,

c. no.

b. uncertain,

57. Some people may think I talk too much,


a. likely,

c. false.

tempta-

59. I make decisions:

49. I would rather spend two weeks in the summer:

a. faster than many people,


b. uncertain,
c. slower than most people.

a. bird-watching and walking in the country


with a friend or two,
b. uncertain,
c. being a leader of a group in a camp.
/

60. I am more impressed by:


a. acts of skill and grace,
b. in between,
c. acts of strength and power.

50. The effort taken in planning ahead:


a. is never wasted,
b. in between,
c. is not worth it.

61. I am considered a cooperative person,


a. yes,

51. Inconsiderate acts or remarks by my neighbors


do not make me touchy and unhappy.
c. false.

c. no.

a. yes,

b. in between,

c. no.

63. I prefer to:

52. When I know I'm doing the right thing, I find


my task easy.
b. sometimes,

b. in between,

62. I enjoy talking more with polished, sophisticated people than with outspoken, down-toearth individuals.

(End. column 3 on answer sheet.)

a. always,

c. unlikely.

a. clever, but undependable,


b. in between,
c. average, but strong to resist
tions.

a. military band marches,


b. uncertain,
c. violin solos.

b. uncertain,

b. uncertain,

58. I admire more people who are:

48. In music I enjoy:

a. true,

c. frequently.

a. taking a gamble,
b. in between,
c. playing it safe.

47. I never feel so wretched that I want to cry.


a. true,

b. occasionally,

56. In most things in life, I believe in:

46. I try to make my laughter at jokes quieter


than most people's.
b. in between,

c. leaf.

55. Things go wrong for me:

a. discuss politics and social views,


b. in between,
c. have them tell me some good, new jokes.

a. yes,

b. plant,

c. seldom.

a. keep my problems to myself,


b. in between,
e. talk about them to my friends.

64. If a person doesn't answer when I make a suggestion, I feel I've said something silly.
a. true,
b. in between,
c. false.

75. At a party, I like:


a. to get into worthwhile conversation,
b. in between,
c. to see people relax and completely let go.

65. I learned more in my school days by:


a. going to class,
b. in between,
c. reading books.

76. I speak my mind no matter how many people


are around.
a. yes,

66. I avoid getting involved in social responsibilities and organizations.


a. true,
b. sometimes,
c. false.

a. Columbus,
b. uncertain,
c. Shakespeare.
78. I have to stop myself from getting too involved in trying to straighten out other people's problems.

68. I get strong emotional moodsanxiety, anger,


laughter, etc.that seem to arise without
much actual cause.
a. yes,
b. occasionally,
c. no.

a. yes,

80. If people think poorly of me, I can still go on


calmly in my own mind.
a. yes,

70. I am happy to oblige people by making appointments at times they prefer, even if it is a bit
inconvenient to me.
a. yes,
b. sometimes,
c. no.

c. 7.

82. More trouble arises from people:


a. changing and meddling with ways that are
already satisfactory,
b. uncertain,
c. turning down new, promising methods.

c. no.

73. I would rather do without something than put


a waiter or waitress to a lot of extra trouble.
b. occasionally,

83. I greatly enjoy talking to people about local


problems.

c. no.

a. yes,

74. I live for the "here and now" more than most
people do.
a. true,

b. uncertain,

c. no.

a. just think they're in a bad mood,


b. uncertain,
c. worry about what 1 may have done wrong.

72. I have occasionally had a brief touch of faintness, dizziness, or light-headedness for no apparent reason.

a. yes,

b. in between,

81. If people seem cold and reserved to me, I


usually:

71. I think the proper number to continue the


series 1, 2, 3, 6, 5, is:

b. uncertain,

c. no.

a. design and do window displays,


b. uncertain,
c. be a cashier.

69. My mind doesn't work so clearly at some times


as it does at others.
a. true,
b. in between,
c. false.

a. yes,

b. sometimes,

79. In a store or market, I would prefer to:

(End, column 4 on answer sheet.)

b. 5,

c. no.

77. If I could go back in time, I'd rather meet:

67. When a problem gets hard and there is a lot


to do, I try:
a. a different problem,
b. in between,
c. a different attack on the same problem.

a. 10,

b. sometimes,

b. sometimes,

c. no.

84. Prim, strict people don't seem to get along well


with me.

c. false.

a. true,
5

b. sometimes,

c. false.

IS.

85. I guess I'm less irritable than most people,


a. true,

b. uncertain,

96. I think that even the most dramatic experiences during the year leave my personality
much the same as it was.

c. false.

(End, column 5 on answer sheet.)

a. yes,

86. I may be less considerate of other people than


they are of me.
a. true,

b. sometimes,

b. uncertain,

a. naturalist and work with plants,


b. uncertain,
c. public accountant or insurance salesperson.
98. I get unreasonable fears or distastes for some
things, for example, particular animals, places,
and so on.

c. false.

88. If the two hands on a watch come together


exactly every 65 minutes (according to an accurate watch), the watch is running:
a. slow,

b. on time,

a. yes,

a. yes,

b. occasionally,

c. seldom.

b. occasionally,

b. occasionally,

c. false.

a. yes,

c. no.

a. yes,

b. sometimes,

c. no.

103. I may deceive people by being friendly when


I really dislike them.

c. no.

a. yes,

94. I think that what people say in poetry could


be put just as exactly in plain prose.
b. sometimes,

c. no.

(End, column 6 on answer sheet.)

93. I am shy, and careful, about making friendships with new people.

a. yes,

b. occasionally,

102. If left in a lonely house I tend, after a time,


to feel a bit anxious or fearful.

a. use it chatting and relaxing,


b. in between,
c. arrange to fill it with special jobs.

b. occasionally,

c. no.

101. At night I have rather fantastic or ridiculous


dreams.

92. At home, with a bit of spare time, I:

a. yes,

b. in between,

a. you're on a team or have a partner,


b. uncertain,
c. people are on their own.

91. I find it wise to avoid too much excitement


because it tends to wear me out.
a. yes,

c. no.

100. I prefer games where:

90. People say that I like to have things done my


own way.
a. true,

b. sometimes,

99. I like to think out ways in which our world


could be changed to improve it.

c. fast.

89. I am bored:
a. often,

c. no.

97. It would seem more interesting to be a:

c. false.

87. I would just as soon let someone else have all


the worry of being in charge of an organization of which I am a member.
a. true,

b. sometimes,

b. sometimes,

c. no.

104. Which word does not belong with the other


two?

c. no.

a. think,

95. I suspect that people who act friendly to me


can be disloyal behind my back.

b. see,

c. hear.

105. If Mary's mother is Fred's father's sister, what


relation is Fred to Mary's father?

a. yes, generally,
b. occasionally,
c. no, rarely.

a. cousin,
6

b. nephew,
(End of test.)

c. uncle.

EXAMPLES:

'.-'-J.

I like to watch team gsmes.


. a. yen,
b. occasionally, c.

V'

,. & X prefer people who:


. ... a. are reserved,
'^"Q , b. (are) In between,
c. make frlenda quickly.

to*) o c c u r t n o i i

CM * a m u s u c

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( m i a CMS r

^ 8,. Money cannot bring happiness.


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j?4.


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io i l

c o o n l r i a i under the B e r n e U n i o n , B u e n o i A i r e i ,
P e r s o n a l i t y a n d A b i l i t y T e s t i n g , 1602-04 C o r o n o d o

16 P F - C D o - 9 A A

SOCIO-CULTURAL QUESTIONNAIRE

DATE:
SEX:

1980
MALE

FEMALE

PROFESSION: Lawyer
Doctor
Athlete

AGE:
PLEASE INDICATE YOUR ANSWER WITH A CHECK MARK ( y/) . IF THE
QUESTIONS DO NOT APPLY TO YOU PLEASE INDICATE WITH N.A.

1.

In what country were you born:


CANADA
OTHER

UNITED STATES_

EUROPE

( s p e c i f y country)

(specify)

2.

How many b r o t h e r s and/or s i s t e r s do you have:

3.

BROTHERS
SISTERS
I n d i c a t e the b i r t h o r d e r o f YOURSELF, your BROTHERS and
your SISTERS:
first

born:

second born:
third

born:

f o u r t h born;
fifth
others

4.

born:
(specify):

What type o f s c h o o l d i d you a t t e n d :


A.

P u b l i c School NAME:
GRADES ATTENDED:

B.

P r i v a t e School NAME:
GRADES ATTENDED:

81

A.

Have you o r a r e you a t t e n d i n g U n i v e r s i t y :

B.

I f yes, where was o r i s t h i s U n i v e r s i t y l o c a t e d :


CANADA

YES

NO

( s p e c i f y province)

UNITED STATES

( s p e c i f y state)

'

OTHER ( s p e c i f y country)
C.

Where d i d you take your p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g o r


your a t h l e t i c t r a i n i n g :
CANADA

( s p e c i f y province)

UNITED STATES

(specify state)

OTHER ( s p e c i f y country)

'

Who i n t e r e s t e d you i n i t i a l l y i n your p r o f e s s i o n o r your


sports:
MOTHER_

FATHER

GRANDFATHER

BROTHER

SISTER_

GRANDMOTHER

_OTHER ( s p e c i f y )

A.

D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s p o r t s program w i t h i n your


elementary s c h o o l : YES
NO

B.

I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :

C.

D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n an o r g a n i z e d s p o r t s c l u b o r
program o u t s i d e the s c h o o l program ( i . e . minor league
b a s e b a l l , p r i v a t e c l u b s , e t c . ) YES_ N0_

D.

I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :

A.

D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s p o r t s program w i t h i n your


high s c h o o l :
YES
NO

B.

I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :

C.

D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n an o r g a n i z e d s p o r t s c l u b o r
program o u t s i d e o f the high s c h o o l program ( i . e . minor
league hockey, p r i v a t e t e n n i s , e t c . ) YES_ NO

D.

I f y e s , i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :

A.

D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s p o r t s program a t your


U n i v e r s i t y : YES_ N0_

B.

I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :

82

10.

C.

D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n an organized s p o r t s c l u b o r
program o u t s i d e o f the u n i v e r s i t y program ( i . e .
p r i v a t e t e n n i s c l u b , v o l l e y b a l l , e t c . ) YES
NO

D.

I f yes, i d e n t i f y these

What i s the h i g h e s t l e v e l o f s p o r t competition


have p a r t i c i p a t e d a t :
INTERNATIONAL
UNI VERS ITY__

NATIONAL__
HIGH SCHOOL_

RECREATIONAL_
11.

activities:
t h a t you

PROVINCIAL (STATE)
ELEMENTARY

CLUB

OTHER ( s p e c i f y )

'

Are you s t i l l a c t i v e i n any a t h l e t i c o r sport a c t i v i t y :


( i . e . c u r l i n g , t e n n i s , swimming, jogging, v o l l e y b a l l , e t c . )
YES
NO
I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :

13.

A.

Do you work past your r e g u l a r business hours o r p r a c t i s e


your s p o r t past r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e hours: YES
NO

B.

Number o f hours per week you work past your r e g u l a r


business hours or p r a c t i c e hours:
1-4

14.

15.

4-7

10-13

13-16

16-20

more than 20

A.

Do you f e e l t h a t you are i n competition w i t h o t h e r s i n


your p r o f e s s i o n o r w i t h o t h e r s i n your s p o r t : YES
NO_

B.

I f yes, i n what way do you f e e l t h a t you are i n compet i t i o n w i t h others i n your p r o f e s s i o n o r your s p o r t
( i . e . s t a t u s , p l a y i n g p o s i t i o n , p l a y i n g time)

How would you d e s c r i b e your o v e r a l l h e a l t h :


EXCELLENT_

16.

7-10

GOOD

AVERAGE_

BELOW AVERAGE

POOR

In what country was your mother born:


CANADA

UNITED STATES_

EUROPE ( s p e c i f y country)

OTHER ( s p e c i f y country)
17.

In what country was your f a t h e r born:


CANADA
UNITED STATES_ EUROPE ( s p e c i f y country)
OTHER ( s p e c i f y country)

83

18.

D i d e i t h e r o f your parents a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y :
MOTHER:

19.

OTHER

FATHER:

Yes_

No

SALES PERSON

What was/is your f a t h e r ' s

OTHER

ENGINEER

LAWYER

DOCTOR

HOUSEWIFE

(specify)

TEACHER

21.

No_

What was/is your mother's o c c u p a t i o n :


TEACHER

20.

Yes

SALES PERSON

occupation:
ENGINEER

LAWYER

DOCTOR_

ACCOUNTANT

(specify)

A.

D i d your mother ever p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a t h l e t i c o r


sport a c t i v i t y :
YES_NO_

B.

I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s ;

C.

A t what l e v e l s d i d your mother p a r t i c i p a t e :


INTERNATIONAL^
HIGH SCHOOL

NATIONAL_
ELEMENTARY

PROVINCIAL_
CLUB

UNIVERSITY

RECREATIONAL

OTHER(specify)
22.

A.

D i d your f a t h e r ever p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a t h l e t i c o r
sport a c t i v i t y :
YES
NO

B.

I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :

C.

At what l e v e l s d i d your f a t h e r
INTERNATIONAL_
HIGH SCHOOL
OTHER

23.

NATIONAL_
ELEMENTARY

participate:

PROVINCIAL
CLUB

UNIVERSITY

RECREATIONAL

(specify)

A.

Do e i t h e r o f your parents s t i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n an
a t h l e t i c o r sport a c t i v i t y :
MOTHER: Yes_ No
FATHER: Yes_ No

B.

I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :
MOTHER: :
FATHER:

84

TALLY SHEET
SUBJECT:

ATHLETE

SUBJECT NUMBER:

FACTOR:

DOCTOR

SPORT:

CULTURE:

LAWYER

AGE:

Q
~2-

(QUESTIONS 1,16,17)

SUBJECT:

CANADIAN/AMERICAN/OTHER_

MOTHER

CANADIAN/AMERICAN/OTHER_

FATHER

CANADIAN/AMERICAN/OTHER

FAMILY SIZE

(QUESTION 2) (NUMBER OF CHILDREN) 1 2

3 4 5 6

7 8 9 10
BIRTH ORDER:

(QUESTION 3)
5th

EDUCATION:

6th

1 s t born_
7th

8th

2nd
9th

3rd

4th_

10th

(QUESTIONS 4,5,6,18) JUNIOR: PUBLIC_


SENIOR: PUBLIC
UNIVERSITY:

PRIVATE
PRIVATE

ATTENDING: Yes

ATTENDED: Yes
PROFESSIONAL OR ATHLETIC
TRAINING: PROV._
COUNTRY
INITIAL INTEREST
ATHLETIC EXPERIENCE:

(QUESTION 7,8,9,10,11)

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL:

YES

NO

ACTIVITIES
OUTSIDE CLUB:

YES_

NO_

ACTIVITIES:
HIGH SCHOOL:

YES_

NO_

ACTIVITIES:
OUTSIDE CLUB:
ACTIVITIES:

YES__

NO_

No
No_

85

UNIVERSITY:

YES

N0_

ACTIVITIES :
OUTSIDE CLUB:

YES_

NO_

ACTIVITIES:
HIGHEST LEVEL OF COMPETITION:
PROVINCIAL_
CLUB_

UNIVERSITY

INTERNATIONAL

HIGH SCHOOL

NATIONAL

ELEMENTARY

OTHER

STILL ACTIVE:

YES_

ACTIVITIES : '

NO_
'

PARENT'S ATHLETIC EXPERIENCE:


MOTHER:

YES_

(QUESTIONS 21, 22, 23)

NO_

ACTIVITIES:
LEVEL: INTERNATIONAL_
UNIVERSITY_

HIGH SCHOOL_

REC REATIONAL_
FATHER:

NATIONAL_

YES_

ACTIVITIES :

ELEMENTARY_

NO_

LEVEL: INTERNAT IONAL_


RECREATIONAL_

CLUB_

OTHER

UNIVERSITY_

PROVINCIAL_

:
NATIONAL_

HIGH SCHOOL_

PROVINCIAL

ELEMENTARY_

CLUB_

OTHER

DO THEY STILL PARTICIPATE OR COMPETE:

FATHER

YES_

NO

ACTIVITIES
MOTHER

YES

NO

ACTIVITIES_
INDIVIDUAL DATA

(QUESTIONS 12, 13, 14, 15)

OVERALL HEALTH : EXCELLENT_

GOOD_

AVERAGE_

COMPETITION: SUBJECT FEELS IN COMPETITION:


H O W :

BELOW
YES_

POOR
NO

WORK OR PRACTISE PAST REGULAR HOURS:


NO. OF HOURS: 1-4

YES_

4-7

7-10

10-13

HOLD ADMINISTRATIVE POSITION:

YES_

NO_

IF YES, IDENTIFY

NO_
13-16

16-20

20

PARENT'S DATA:

OCCUPATION (QUESTIONS 19, 20)

MOTHER'S: HOUSEWIFE_
DOCTOR_
FATHER'S: LAWYER

SALES PERSON_

TEACHER_
DOCTOR

SALES PERSON_

ENGINEER_

LAWYER

OTHER
MECHANIC

ENGINEER_

TEACHER_
ACCOUNTANT;

OTHER

DID YOUR PARENTS ATTEND UNIVERSITY


MOTHER:

YES

NO

FATHER:

YES

NO

16 Hr TtiT PROFILE
Raw

Scar*

Fon
F B

I A / C / E I

AFFECTED

(STEN)

10

4-4-4

BY FEELINGS,

H U M B L E , MILD, EASILY L E D . DOCILE.


ACCOMMODATING
(Submissivertess)

S O B E R . TACI1URN, SERIOUS
(Desurgency)

E X P E D I E N T . DISREGARDS RULES
(Weaker superego strength)

EMOTIONALLY

T R U S T I N G , ACCEPTING C O N D I T I O N S

P R A C T I C A L . "DOWN-TO-EARTH"
CONCERNS
(Pro-em.a)

F O R T H R I G H T , UNPRETENTIOUS,
GENUINE BUT S O C I A L L Y
CLUMSY
(Aniessness)

S E L F - A S S U R E D , PLACID, SECURE.
C O M P L A C E N T , SERENt
(Untroubled adequacy)

S T A B L E . MATURE,

A S S E R T I V E , AGGRESSIVE, STUBBORN,
COMPETITIVE
(Dominance)
H A P P Y - G O - L U C K Y , ENTHUSIASTIC
(S_tgency)
C O N S C I E N T I O U S . PERSISTENT,
MORALISTIC, STAID
[Stronger superego strength)
V E N T U R E S O M E , UNINHIBITED.
SOCIALLY BOLD

THREAT-SENSITIVE
(Threctiu)

ABSTRACT

F A C E S REALITY, C A L M
(Higher ego strength)

T E N D E R - M I N D E D , SENSITIVE,
CLINGING, O V E R P R O T E C T E D
(Prems.al

T O U G H - M I N D E D , SELF-RELIANT,
REALISTIC
(Homo)

O U T G O I N G . WARMHEARTED. EASYGOING. PARTICIPATING


[Atte.' tothymia)
IHINKING. BRIGHT
(Higher scholastic mental capacity)

EMOTIONAL-

S H Y . TIMID,

HIGH SCORE
DESCRIPTION

MORE INTELLIGENT.

CONCRETE-

LY LESS S T A B L E , EASILY UPSET


CHANGEABLE(Lower ego strength)

S U S P I C I O U S , HARD TO FOOL
(Pretension)

(Alaxia)

I M A G I N A T I V E , BOHEMIAN,
ABSENT-MINDED
(Aulia)
A S T U T E . POLISHED, SOCIALLY
AWARE
(Shrewdness)
A P P R E H E N S I V E , SELF-REPROACHING.
INSECURE, WORRYING, T R O U B L E D
(Guilt proneness)

Qi

C O N S E R V A T I V E , RESPECTING
TRADI TIONAL IDEAS
(Conservatism of temperament)

E X P E R I M E N T I N G , LIBERAL, FREETHINKING
(Radicalism)

Q.

G R O U P - D E P E N D E N T . A " J O I N E R " AND


SOUND FOLLOWER
(Group adherence)

S E L F - S U F F I C I E N T , RESOURCEFUL,
P R E F E R S OWN DECISIONS
(Self-sufficiency)

UNDISCIPLINED

C O N T R O L L E D , EXACTING WILL POWER,


SOCIALLY PRECISE, COMPULSIVE
(High strength of self-sentiment)

0.

SCORE

THINKING
(Lower scholostlc rrtentol capacity)

TEN

^hAverag

B / D

LESS INTELLIGENT.

STANDARD
LOW SCORE
DESCRIPTION

R E S E R V E D , O E T A C H E D , CRITICAL.
ALOOF. STIFF
(Sliothym.o)

F Q

Total

Stan*
dard
Scora

Q.

SELFCONPLICT,

LAX,

FOLLOWS O W N URGES, C A R E L E S S O F
SOCIAL RULES
(Lo.v integration)

T E N S E , F R U S T R A T E D , DRIVEN,
OVERWROUGHT
(High ergic tension)

R E L A X E D . TRANQUIL.
UNFRUSTRA1 ED, COMPOSf.D
(Low ergic tension)

Copyright 1956, 1973 by the Institute tor Personality and


Ability Testing, Inc., 1602 Coronado Drive. Champaign.
Illinois. U.S.A. 61820. All rights reserved. Primed In U.S.A.

of

by a b o r t

1
1 J %

1
4.4%

t . 1 % 15 0 %

11.1% I t 1%

7
15 0 %

I
9.1%

f
4.4%

10

1J%

U
af

obta'aoa*
adalri

APPENDIX C

N o n - S i g n i f i c a n t Anova Tables
and C h i Square Tables

1.

Anova Table f o r Emotional

Stability

2.

Anova Table f o r A s s e r t i v e n e s s

3.

Anova Table f o r C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s

4.

Anova Table f o r Tough Mindedness

5.

Anova Table f o r Assurance

6.

Anova T a b l e f o r S e l f - S u f f i c i e n c e

7.

Chi-Square

Table f o r B i r t h

8.

Chi-Square

Table f o r Family

9.

Chi-Square

Table f o r C u l t u r e

Order
Size

89

TABLE A
ANOVA TABLE FOR 16 PF V a r i a b l e C

Variable:

EMOTIONAL STABILITY
Analysis of Variance
Source

F-ratio

D.f.

Sum o f Squares

Mean Squares

395.3715

131.7905

85

5811.2812

68.368.0

88

6206.6526

F-prob,

Between Groups
1.928

0.1312

W i t h i n Groups
Total

TABLE B
ANOVA TABLE FOR

Variable:

16 PF VARIABLE E

ASSERTIVENESS
Analysis of Variance
Source
F-prob.

D.f.

Sum o f S q u a r e s

Mean S q u a r e s

38.4196

12.8065

W i t h i n Groups

85

485.9849

5.7175

Total

88

524.4045

F-ratio

Between Groups
2.240

0.0895

91

TABLE C
ANOVA TABLE FOR 16 PF VARIABLE G

Variable:

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS
A n a l y s i s of Variance

F-ratio

Source
F-Prob.

D.f.

Between Groups
0.684
Within
Total

Sum o f Squares

Mean Squares

10.8375

3.6125

85

448.9627

5.2819

88

459.8002

0.5643
Groups

92

TABLE D
ANOVA TABLE FOR 16 PF VARIABLE I

Variable:

TOUGH-MINDED
Analysis of Variance

F-ratio

Source
F-Prob.

Between Groups

D.f. Sum o f Squares

Mean Squares

30.2990

10.0997

W i t h i n Groups

85

373.6617

4.3960

Total

88

403.9606

2.297

0.0834

93.

TABLE E
ANOVA TABLE FOR 16 PF VARIABLE 0

Variable:

ASSURANCE
Analysis of Variance

F-ratio

Source
F-prob,

D.f.

Between Groups
2.550

Sura o f Squares

Mean Squares

48.2199

16.0733

6.3041

0.0611

W i t h i n Groups

85

535.8485

Total

88

584.0684

94

TABLE F
ANOVA TABLE FOR 16 PF VARIABLE Q

Variable:

SELF-SUFFICIENCY

Analysis of Variance
F-ratio

Source
F-prob.

D.f.

Between Groups
2.375

Sum o f Squares

Mean Squares

44.3347

14.7782

6.2231

0.0758

W i t h i n Groups

85

528.9655

Total

88

573.3002

95

TABLE G
A CHI SQUARE STATISTIC

FOR

THE SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTOR BIRTH ORDER


Count :
Row% :
Row :
Col% :
Total
Total % :

MALE
ATHLETES

FEMALE
ATHLETES

MALE
PROFESSIONALS

FEMALE
PROFESSIONALS

Column
Total

1st

2nd

3rd
4th
5th
( B i r t h Order)
7

6th

7th

8th

28
31.5

21.4

21.4

25.0

10.7

7.1

7.1

0.0

7.1

28.6

25.0

36.8

30.0

28.6

50.0

0.0

66.7

6.7

6.7

7.9

3.4

2.2

2.2

0.0

2.2

11

29

10.3

27.6

37.9

3.4

6.9

6.9

3.4

3.4

32.6

14.3

33.3

57.9

10.0

28.6

50.0 100.0

33.3

3.4

9.0

12. 4

1.1

2.2

2.2

1.1

1.1

20
22.5

30.0

30.0

0.0

25.0

15.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

28,6

25.0

0.0

50.0

42. 9

0.0

0.0

0.0

6.7

6.7

0.0

5.6

3.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

12
13.5

50.0

33.3

8.3

8.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

28.6

16.7

5.3

10.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

6.7

4.5

1.1

1.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

21

24

19

10

23.6

27.0

21.3

11.2

7.9

4.5

1.1

X*

= 29.71381, p< 0.0979

89

3.4 100.0

96

TABLE H
A CHI SQUARE STATISTIC

FOR

THE SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTOR FAMILY SIZE


Count
Row%
Row
Col%
Total
Total %

:
:
:
:
: 1

28
31.5

(Family Size)
0

MALE
ATHLETES

FEMALE
ATHLETES

14.3

42. 9

25.0

3.6

7.1

0.0

0.0

7.1

0.0

25.0

34.3

38.9

20.0

33.3

0.0

0.0

66.7

0.0

4.5

13.5

7.9

1.1

2.2

0.0

0.0

2.2

13

29

0. 0

0.0

3.4

0.0

32.6

0.0

20.7

44.8

24.1

6.9

0.0

37.5

37.1

38.9

40.0

0.0

o.o. 5 0 . 0

0.0

0.0

6.7

14.6

7.9

2.2

0.0

0.0

1.1

0.0

20
22.5

10.0

20.0

15.0

20.0

10.0

15.0

0.0

5.0

5.0

25.0

8.6

22.2

40.0

50. 0

0.0

50.0

33.3

2.2

4.5

3.4

4.5

2.2

3.4

0.0

1.1

1.1

12
13.5

16.7

16.7

58.3

0.0

0.0

8.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

12.5

20.0

0.0

0.0

16.7

0.0

0.0

0.0

2.2

7.9

0.0

0.0

1.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

16

35

18

89

4.5

18.0

39.3

20.2

5.6

6.7

0.0

2.2

3.4

100.0

FEMALE
50. 0
PROFESSIONALS
2.2

Total

12

0.0

MALE
50.0
PROFESSIONALS

Column

= 25.80316,

p<0.2141

97

TABLE 1
A CHI SQUARE STATISTIC FOR
THE SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTOR CULTURE
Count
Row%
Col%
Total

MALE ATHLETES

FEMALE ATHLETES

MALE PROFESSIONALS

:
:
Canadian
:
:

American

Other

26

28

92. 9

0.0

7.1

31.5

34.7

0.0

15.4

29.2

0.0

2.2

27

29

93.1

0.0

6.9

32.6

36.0

0.0

15.4

30.3

0.0

2.2

13

65.0

5.0

30.0

17.3

100.0

46.2

14.6

1.1

6.7

9
FEMALE PROFESSIONALS

Column
Total

75.0

0.0

25.0

12.0

0.0

23.1

10.1

0.0

3.4

75

13

84. 3

1.1

14.6

.=. .11. 34721, p<0.0782

20
22.5

12
13.5

89
100.0

98
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_________
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