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Monitoring Media Coverage of the 2016 Elections Final Report

Monitoring Media Coverage

of the 2016 Elections

Final Report

Monitoring Media Coverage of the 2016 Elections Final Report
Monitoring Media Coverage of the 2016 Elections Final Report

Overview

Introduction and explanation of the methodology. Findings from pre-election day period, starting September 2015 to 16 February 2016. Findings from election day and post-election coverage.

Findings from social media usage by presidential candidates during

elections.

election day and post-election coverage.  Findings from social media usage by presidential candidates during elections.

BACKGROUND

Why monitor media coverage of elections?

The goal of ACME’s project is to contribute to accurate, fair, impartial and balanced coverage of the 2016 elections. ACME’s specific objectives are:

To monitor, document and share trends in media coverage of the 2016 general elections. To monitor media compliance with election reporting guidelines and

regulations.

To influence journalists, editors and media owners to provide information that is more accurate, impartial and fair. To empower civil society and the public to demand adherence to professional standards in media coverage of elections.

 To empower civil society and the public to demand adherence to professional standards in media

Methodology (1)

Scope of study A purposive sample of print and electronic media. September-March coverage of presidential and parliamentary elections by newspaper, television and radio. Media content types: News, current affairs, and commentary. Social media usage by presidential candidates during elections.

Data collection method Story/article is the unit of analysis. Content analysis. Key informant interviews.

Data collection method  Story/article is the unit of analysis.  Content analysis.  Key informant

Methodology (2)

Sampling 9 newspapers 5 televisions channels 33 radio stations

Twitter profiles of presidential candidates Yoweri Museveni, Kizza Besigye and Amama Mbabazi. The choice of Twitter was informed by the frequency of use of the platform by the

three presidential candidates during elections, compared to

Facebook, for instance.

of use of the platform by the three presidential candidates during elections, compared to Facebook, for

Methodology (3)

Sampling

PRINT PUBLICATIONS (9)

TELEVISION (5)

Dailies - New Vision, Daily Monitor, Red Pepper, Bukedde

Public channels UBC & Bukedde

Weeklies - The Independent,

Private channels NTV

 

Etop, Rupiny and Orumuri

Uganda, NBS & WBS

Tri-weekly - The Observer

SOCIAL MEDIA/TWITTER

 

@kagutamuseveni @amamambabazi

@kizzabesigye1

Methodology (4)

Sampling

RADIO (33)

Languages: English, Luganda, Ateso, Luo, Lumasaba, Lusoga, Lugbara and Runyakitara

Stations: UBC, Bukedde, Arua One, Baba FM, Buddu FM, Bushenyi FM, Capital Radio, Central Broadcasting Services, Dokolo, Kagadi

Broadcasting Services, Kasese Guide, KFM, Kioga Veritus FM, Mighty

FM, Nenah, Nile, Open Gate FM, Radio Amani, Radio pacis, Radio Rhino, Radio Sapienta, Radio West, Rock FM, Rukungiri FM, Signal FM, Simba, Spice FM, Sun, Top Radio, Voice of Africa FM, Voice of Kigezi, Voice of Life, Voice of Teso, Voice of Toro

FM, Simba, Spice FM, Sun, Top Radio, Voice of Africa FM, Voice of Kigezi, Voice of

Monitoring/Research Questions (1)

What topics do the media focus on in their coverage of the elections? What type of reports do the media produce [news, commentary/opinion, features/special reports, etc]? What is the nature of the reporting [conventional, interpretive, investigative, enterprise]?

Who are the sources in media coverage [ordinary people, party

officials, candidates, regulators, civil society, diplomats, religious leaders, central government officials, local leaders, police/security, etc]?

What is the number and gender of the sources?

central government officials, local leaders, police/security, etc]?  What is the number and gender of the

Monitoring/Research Questions (2)

Which political parties are focused on in media coverage?

Which presidential candidates are focused on in media coverage? How much time or space is dedicated to each party? How much time or space is dedicated to each presidential candidate?

What is the tone of coverage?

How often do news stories interrogate candidate or party promises? How often do news stories include background and context? How did presidential candidates use Twitter?

promises?  How often do news stories include background and context?  How did presidential candidates

THE RESULTS

September 2015 16 February 2016

THE RESULTS September 2015 – 16 February 2016

Type of election

Presidential election most covered by all three media types; -Newspapers (65%) -TV (70.8%) -Radio (53.8%)

Observation: Radio covered the parliamentary election more than newspapers and television.

-TV (70.8%) -Radio (53.8%) Observation: Radio covered the parliamentary election more than newspapers and television.

Type of election by media type

Type of election (%)

13.3 15.4 22.7 13.8 21.7 23.5 70.8 65.0 53.8
13.3
15.4
22.7
13.8
21.7
23.5
70.8
65.0
53.8

Newspaper

of election (%) 13.3 15.4 22.7 13.8 21.7 23.5 70.8 65.0 53.8 Newspaper Presidential TV Parliamentary

Presidential

TV

of election (%) 13.3 15.4 22.7 13.8 21.7 23.5 70.8 65.0 53.8 Newspaper Presidential TV Parliamentary

Parliamentary

of election (%) 13.3 15.4 22.7 13.8 21.7 23.5 70.8 65.0 53.8 Newspaper Presidential TV Parliamentary

Both

Radio

Type of election by newspaper

Type of election (%) N=4,116

5.9 11.4 11.6 10.6 15.6 16.5 19.7 19.5 18.8 17.1 10.7 23.0 15.4 36.8 11.1
5.9
11.4
11.6
10.6
15.6
16.5
19.7
19.5
18.8
17.1
10.7
23.0
15.4
36.8
11.1
33.3
40.2
50.0
71.5
72.8
69.0
70.1
66.4
55.0
57.4
40.2
30.3

Both23.0 15.4 36.8 11.1 33.3 40.2 50.0 71.5 72.8 69.0 70.1 66.4 55.0 57.4 40.2 30.3

Parliamentary10.7 23.0 15.4 36.8 11.1 33.3 40.2 50.0 71.5 72.8 69.0 70.1 66.4 55.0 57.4 40.2

Presidential10.7 23.0 15.4 36.8 11.1 33.3 40.2 50.0 71.5 72.8 69.0 70.1 66.4 55.0 57.4 40.2

Type of election by television

Type of election (%) N=2,274 14.5 15.0 14.9 17.7 16.0 12.9 8.0 10.3 15.2 20.9
Type of election (%) N=2,274
14.5
15.0
14.9
17.7
16.0
12.9
8.0
10.3
15.2
20.9
72.2
74.3
73.7
69.9
64.7
Bukedde
NBS
NTV Uganda
UBC
WBS
Presidential
Parliamentary
Both

Type of content by media type

Type of article (%)

89.6 96.1 98.0 10.4 3.9 2.0
89.6
96.1
98.0
10.4
3.9
2.0

Newspaper

Type of article (%) 89.6 96.1 98.0 10.4 3.9 2.0 Newspaper TV Commentary News Radio

TV

Commentary

Type of article (%) 89.6 96.1 98.0 10.4 3.9 2.0 Newspaper TV Commentary News Radio

News

Radio

Total space/time to election coverage

Newspaper: A total of 3,005,615cm² space allocated to election

coverage. Of the total, Daily Monitor provided most space (26%), followed by New Vision (25.1%).

Television: A total of 10,873 minutes allocated to election

coverage by TV stations monitored. NBS topped (31.5%) in providing time to election stories.

Radio: Radio stations monitored allocated 10,257 minutes to

election coverage.

in providing time to election stories. Radio: Radio stations monitored allocated 10,257 minutes to election coverage.

Space to election stories - newspaper

Space by publications (%) Area=3,005,615cm2 Monitor 26.0 New Vision 25.1 Red Pepper 19.5 Bukedde 12.9
Space by publications (%) Area=3,005,615cm2
Monitor
26.0
New Vision
25.1
Red Pepper
19.5
Bukedde
12.9
The Observer
9.1
The Independent
3.5
Etop
1.8
Rupiny
1.2
Orumuri
0.9
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0

Time to election stories - television

Time by station to elections (%) Time=10,873 minutes

NBS

NTV Uganda

UBC

Bukedde

WBS

31.5 26.4 17.1 13.4 11.5
31.5
26.4
17.1
13.4
11.5

Radio time to election coverage per region

Time to news stories per region (%) Time=10,257 minutes

Central

Kampala

Eastern

Western

West Nile

South-Western

Northern

20.3 17.7 12.3 11.9 8.5 4.5
20.3
17.7
12.3
11.9
8.5
4.5

24.9

Number of election stories

Newspaper: A total of 4,116 election stories were published in newspapers between September and February. Of the total, Daily Monitor (26%) had the highest number of stories and Rupiny (1.7%) had the least.

Television: A total of 2,274 election stories were aired by TV stations monitored. Of the total, NTV Uganda (27.7%), aired the most number of stories and WBS broadcast the least number WBS TV (18.7%).

Radio: There were 2,587 election stories aired on radio stations

monitored.

Number of election stories - newspaper

Number of election stories (%)N=4,116

Monitor

New Vision

Red Pepper

Bukedde

The Observer

Etop

The Independent

Rupiny

Orumuri

26.6 21.2 19.6 12.7 10.2 3.2 2.8 2.0 1.7
26.6
21.2
19.6
12.7
10.2
3.2
2.8
2.0
1.7

Number of election stories - television

Number of election stories (%) N=2,274

NTV Uganda

NBS

Bukedde

UBC

WBS

27.7 24.7 18.6 15.4 13.7
27.7
24.7
18.6
15.4
13.7

Number of radio news stories per region

Number of radio news stories per region (%) N=3,960 N1=3,879

Central

Kampala

Eastern

Western

West Nile

South-Western

Northern

23.4 22.0 14.7 13.4 11.2 7.8 7.5
23.4
22.0
14.7
13.4
11.2
7.8
7.5

Most covered candidate

Museveni was the most covered candidate by newspaper (38.8%), television (45%) and radio stations monitored (41%).

Overall trend: Notable drop in space and time allocated to Museveni, Besigye and Mbabazi between December and January.

Most covered candidate - newspaper

Space to candidates (%) Area=2,061,343.74cm2

Museveni

Mbabazi

Besigye

Baryamureeba

Mabirizi

Kyalya

Bwanika

Biraro

38.8 29.1 21.3 2.5 2.3 2.1 2.0 2.0
38.8
29.1
21.3
2.5
2.3
2.1
2.0
2.0

Most covered candidate per newspaper

Space to candidates by publication (%) Area=2,061,343.74cm2

23.8 30.9 34.5 37.6 41.2 44.0 43.4 52.1 51.3 5.5 5.7 4.2 0.5 1.1 0.4
23.8
30.9
34.5
37.6
41.2
44.0
43.4
52.1
51.3
5.5
5.7
4.2
0.5
1.1
0.4 0.8
4.5
6.2
0.7 0.4
3.0
1.3
1.9 1.9
12.6
3.2 1.9
1.8 3.5 2.0
1.2
28.6
0.6 16.7
22.9
25.0
1.2 1.9
0.5
19.9
0.0
24.4
27.3
6.4
21.6
5.5 0.8 0.1
3.9
1.6 1.6
4.6
4.7
47.0
2.3 2.1
2.0 1.4
3.8
31.9
33.6
26.4
5.4 23.8
25.9
19.3
20.4
11.3

Museveni1.4 3.8 31.9 33.6 26.4 5.4 23.8 25.9 19.3 20.4 11.3 Kyalya Mabirizi Bwanika Besigye Biraro

Kyalya1.4 3.8 31.9 33.6 26.4 5.4 23.8 25.9 19.3 20.4 11.3 Museveni Mabirizi Bwanika Besigye Biraro

Mabirizi1.4 3.8 31.9 33.6 26.4 5.4 23.8 25.9 19.3 20.4 11.3 Museveni Kyalya Bwanika Besigye Biraro

Bwanika1.4 3.8 31.9 33.6 26.4 5.4 23.8 25.9 19.3 20.4 11.3 Museveni Kyalya Mabirizi Besigye Biraro

Besigye1.4 3.8 31.9 33.6 26.4 5.4 23.8 25.9 19.3 20.4 11.3 Museveni Kyalya Mabirizi Bwanika Biraro

Biraro1.4 3.8 31.9 33.6 26.4 5.4 23.8 25.9 19.3 20.4 11.3 Museveni Kyalya Mabirizi Bwanika Besigye

Baryamureeba2.0 1.4 3.8 31.9 33.6 26.4 5.4 23.8 25.9 19.3 20.4 11.3 Museveni Kyalya Mabirizi Bwanika

Mbabazi1.4 3.8 31.9 33.6 26.4 5.4 23.8 25.9 19.3 20.4 11.3 Museveni Kyalya Mabirizi Bwanika Besigye

Most covered candidate - television

Time to candidates (%) Time=7,511 minutes Museveni 44.9 Besigye 21.6 Mbabazi 19.2 Baryamureeba 4.6 Bwanika
Time to candidates (%) Time=7,511 minutes
Museveni
44.9
Besigye
21.6
Mbabazi
19.2
Baryamureeba
4.6
Bwanika
3.3
Mabirizi
2.2
Kyalya
2.0
Biraro
2.0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0

Most covered candidate per TV station

Time to candidates (%) Time=7,511 minutes 30.2 39.9 40.5 49.0 2.2 2.6 3.3 72.6 2.4
Time to candidates (%) Time=7,511 minutes
30.2
39.9
40.5
49.0
2.2
2.6
3.3
72.6
2.4
2.4
2.2 2.2
2.4
6.1
2.6
27.6
2.2
4.8
21.3
28.5
3.8
20.4
8.3
2.5 1.4
1.8 1.1
2.2
2.3 1.8
4.5 0.4
2.5 1.4
5.2
24.0
20.1
21.9
17.1
12.3
Bukedde
NBS
NTV Uganda
UBC
WBS
Mbabazi
Baryamureeba
Biraro
Besigye
Bwanika
Mabirizi
Kyalya
Museveni

Most covered candidate - radio

Time to candidates (%) Time=7,634 minutes Museveni 41.1 Mbabazi 23.5 Besigye 22.8 Kyalya 3.2 Baryamureeba
Time to candidates (%) Time=7,634 minutes
Museveni
41.1
Mbabazi
23.5
Besigye
22.8
Kyalya
3.2
Baryamureeba
2.9
Bwanika
2.6
Biraro
2.0
Mabirizi
1.9
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0

#Trends: Most covered candidate newspaper

60 50 49 43.8 44.2 40 39.4 39.7 39 37 30 29.5 28 26.9 27.6
60
50
49
43.8
44.2
40
39.4
39.7
39
37
30
29.5
28
26.9
27.6
25.7
22.5
21.1
20
19.8
18.8
16.7
16.4
10
0
September
October
November
December
January
February
Museveni
Mbabazi
Besigye

#Trends: Least covered candidate newspaper

Space to candidates (%) Mabirizi 4.6 4.6 Baryamureeba 4.5 Bwanika 4.2 Biraro 3.6 Kyalya 3.4
Space to candidates (%)
Mabirizi
4.6
4.6
Baryamureeba
4.5
Bwanika
4.2
Biraro
3.6
Kyalya
3.4
3.0
2.9
2.6
2.5
2.3
2.1
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.7
0.3
November
December
January
February

#Trends: Most covered candidate television

Time to candidates (%)

53.4
53.4
45.2
45.2
43.8
43.8
32.8 32.8 24.2 20.2 19.1 18.4 18.9 14.8 13.6
32.8
32.8
24.2
20.2
19.1
18.4
18.9
14.8
13.6
Besigye Mbabazi Museveni
Besigye
Mbabazi
Museveni

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

JANUARY

FEBRUARY

#Trends: Least covered candidate television

Time to candidates (%)

Time to candidates (%) Mabirizi 9.1 6.6 4.5 4.3 4.6 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.4 2.9 3.3

Mabirizi

9.1 6.6 4.5 4.3 4.6 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.4 2.9 3.3 2.4 2.5 1.8 2.4
9.1
6.6
4.5
4.3
4.6
3.7
3.5
3.5
3.4
2.9
3.3
2.4
2.5
1.8
2.4
1.3
1.1
0.5
0.9
0.4

Biraro

Kyalya

Bwanika

Baryamureeba

November

December

January

February

#Trends: Most covered candidate radio

46.7 45.8 39.3 37.3 33.2 28.2 27.5 24.4 24.4 20.8 17.4 10.8 November December January
46.7
45.8
39.3
37.3
33.2
28.2
27.5
24.4
24.4
20.8
17.4
10.8
November
December
January
February
Besigye
Mbabazi
Museveni

#Trends: Least covered candidate radio

Time to candidates (%) Mabirizi 4.7 4.6 Biraro Bwanika Kyalya 3.5 Baryamureeba 3.1 3.0 2.9
Time to candidates (%)
Mabirizi
4.7
4.6
Biraro
Bwanika
Kyalya
3.5
Baryamureeba
3.1
3.0
2.9
2.6
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.3
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.4
1.3
1.1
0.7
0.5
0.1
November
December
January
February

Pictures of presidential candidates

Museveni had the highest number of pictures overall (39.1%) and on the front page (38.2%). Kyalya had the least number of pictures overall (2.5%), while Bwanika featured least on cover in terms of pictures (2%).

Pictures of candidates overall - newspaper

Number of pictures overall (%) n=2,552 Museveni 39.1 Mbabazi 23.1 Besigye 22.4 Baryamureeba 3.8 Bwanika
Number of pictures overall (%) n=2,552
Museveni
39.1
Mbabazi
23.1
Besigye
22.4
Baryamureeba
3.8
Bwanika
3.6
Mabirizi
2.8
Biraro
2.7
Kyalya
2.5

Pictures of candidates overall by newspaper

Number of pictures overall (%) n=2,552 2.3 2.3 1.1 1.7 3.2 2.7 5.2 0.6 2.9
Number of pictures overall (%) n=2,552
2.3
2.3
1.1 1.7
3.2
2.7
5.2
0.6
2.9
0.9 1.3 2.2
1.8 1.8
5.8
2.6
1.8
1.9 1.9
1.3
3.6
4.1
5.3
1.8
2.3
4.7
1.3
4.1
1.9 1.9
4.1
4.3
5.4
4.3
3.2
4.5
3.6
4.3
9.6
5.5
10.8
4.3
17.8
4.7 29.5
5.8
Mabirizi
31.9
4.1
18.7
26.8
Biraro
22.3
14.9
22.3
23.1
Kyalya
19.8
21.9
15.3
Baryamureeba
29.2
Bwanika
23.2
21.3
28.4
27.2
21.2
Mbabazi
Besigye
50.4
47.1
Museveni
43.9
33.9
35.1
31.4
30.8
31.1
27.2
New Vision
Monitor
RedPepper
The Observer
Bukedde
The
Orumuri
Rupiny
Etop
Independent

Pictures of candidates on front page

Pictures on front page (%) n=408 Museveni 38.2 Mbabazi 26.5 Besigye 24.5 Baryamureeba 2.7 Biraro
Pictures on front page (%) n=408
Museveni
38.2
Mbabazi
26.5
Besigye
24.5
Baryamureeba
2.7
Biraro
2.2
Mabirizi
2.0
Kyalya
2.0
Bwanika
2.0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0

Pictures of candidates on front page per newspaper

Pictures on front page (%) n=408 2.5 1.9 3.3 2.6 1.3 1.9 2.5 1.8 2.8
Pictures on front page (%) n=408
2.5
1.9
3.3
2.6 1.3
1.9
2.5
1.8 2.8
1.8
2.6
2.5
8.3 11.1
6.7
2.5
2.8 0.9
2.6 1.3
22.5
3.3
5.0
6.7
11.1
11.3
25.0
25.7
6.7
Mabirizi
42.3
11.1
39.5
Biraro
15.0
27.5
20.0
Kyalya
33.3
33.3
Baryamureeba
32.1
23.3
18.4
26.9
Bwanika
Mbabazi
58.8
50.0
Besigye
32.1
33.3
33.3
31.6
30.0
26.9
Museveni
New Vision
Monitor
RedPepper
The
Bukedde
Orumuri
Rupiny
Etop
Observer

Front page coverage

There were 950 front page stories on presidential candidates. Mbabazi received the most (32.4%) coverage on front page, followed by Museveni (30%) and Besigye (23.7%).

Mabirizi least covered on front page (2.3%).

Overall trend: Mbabazi dominated front page from September to October, before losing the slot to Museveni from November onwards.

trend: Mbabazi dominated front page from September to October, before losing the slot to Museveni from

Front page coverage - newspaper

Front page coverage (%) n=950 Mbabazi 32.4 Museveni 30.3 Besigye 23.7 Baryamureeba 3.6 Biraro 2.7
Front page coverage (%) n=950
Mbabazi
32.4
Museveni
30.3
Besigye
23.7
Baryamureeba
3.6
Biraro
2.7
Kyalya
2.5
Bwanika
2.4
Mabirizi
2.3
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0

Front page coverage per newspaper

Front page coverage by candidate (%) n=950 27.9 27.3 29.2 28.6 30.8 29.6 33.8 34.6
Front page coverage by candidate (%) n=950
27.9
27.3
29.2
28.6
30.8
29.6
33.8
34.6
3.3
1.0
Museveni
6.8
1.0
0.8
0.8
1.5
0.8
2.5
2.8
2.5
Kyalya
2.8
3.4 6.8
3.4
21.4
2.8
3.4
20.8
Mabirizi
6.8
24.8
30.8
28.3
Bwanika
19.7
1.0
7.1
22.0
1.5
18.2
0.8
1.6
Besigye
2.8
Biraro
4.2 7.7
3.6
3.6 3.4
6.8
4.4
Baryamureeba
15.4
9.1 44.1
42.9
40.8
Mbabazi
31.0
28.3
25.4
18.2
15.4
Bukedde
Etop
Monitor
New Vision
Orumuri
RedPepper
Rupiny
The
Observer

#Trends: Front page coverage of candidates

Front page coverage (%) n=950

54.5 40.2 39.6 36.1 35.2 33.6 32.9 31.5 30.2 28.8 27.8 26.8 23.1 21 20.8
54.5
40.2
39.6
36.1
35.2
33.6
32.9
31.5
30.2
28.8
27.8
26.8
23.1
21
20.8
20.8
18.7
7.3
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
Mbabazi
Besigye
Museveni

Most covered topic

Politics was the most covered topic overall by newspaper, television and TV from September to February.

However, in September and October, the proportion of politics covered by newspapers was higher than in other months.

 However, in September and October, the proportion of politics covered by newspapers was higher than

Most covered topic by media type

Newspaper (%) n=5,462

Politics Economy Security Infrastructure Health Education Agriculture Human rights Corruption Energy Natural resources Land Other Foreign affairs Petition

10.0 7.9 7.9 7.6 6.6 5.5 5.1 3.6 2.8 2.5 2.3 1.2 0.7 0.0
10.0
7.9
7.9
7.6
6.6
5.5
5.1
3.6
2.8
2.5
2.3
1.2
0.7
0.0

36.4

Television(%) n=4,707 Politics 30.8 Economy 10.4 Infrastructure 10.0 Security 9.2 Health 8.1 Education 7.1
Television(%) n=4,707
Politics
30.8
Economy
10.4
Infrastructure
10.0
Security
9.2
Health
8.1
Education
7.1
Agriculture
5.8
Human rights
4.4
Energy
3.3
Corruption
3.1
Natural resources
2.9
Land
2.8
Other
1.5
Foreign affairs
0.7
Radio (%) n=6,112 Politics 44.4 Security 10.1 Economy 7.7 Infrastructure 7.0 Education 6.1 Health 5.5
Radio (%) n=6,112
Politics
44.4
Security
10.1
Economy
7.7
Infrastructure
7.0
Education
6.1
Health
5.5
Human rights
5.1
Agriculture
4.1
Corruption
3.2
Energy
1.6
Natural resources
1.5
Other
1.5
Land
1.4
Foreign affairs
0.9
#Trends: Most covered topics – newspaper (1)
#Trends: Most covered topics – newspaper (1)

OCTOBER (%) n=723

Politics

Human rights

Security

Economy

Other

Corruption Infrastructure Education Health Agriculture Energy Natural resources Land Foreign Affairs

7.3 7.1 4.7 3.6 3.5 3.2 2.9 2.5 2.4 1.5 0.8 0.7 0.7
7.3
7.1
4.7
3.6
3.5
3.2
2.9
2.5
2.4
1.5
0.8
0.7
0.7

59.2

SEPTEMBER (%) n=441

Politics Economy Human rights Security Other Education Infrastructure Agriculture Corruption Health Land Natural resources Energy Foreign Affairs

66.7 6.6 6.1 5.0 3.2 2.7 2.7 2.3 1.8 1.8 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.0
66.7
6.6
6.1
5.0
3.2
2.7
2.7
2.3
1.8
1.8
0.7
0.2
0.2
0.0

NOVEMBER (%) n=2,115

Politics Economy Education Infrastructure Security Health Agriculture Corruption Human rights Energy Natural resources Land Other Foreign affairs

11.4 9.3 8.4 8.3 7.6 6.7 5.4 4.0 3.3 2.6 2.25 1.85 0.9
11.4
9.3
8.4
8.3
7.6
6.7
5.4
4.0
3.3
2.6
2.25
1.85
0.9

28.1

#Trends: Most covered topic newspaper (2)

DECEMBER (%) n=1,720 Politics 31.5 Economy 10.4 Health 10.0 Infrastructure 8.7 Security 7.4 Education 7.4
DECEMBER (%) n=1,720
Politics
31.5
Economy
10.4
Health
10.0
Infrastructure
8.7
Security
7.4
Education
7.4
Agriculture
7.0
Human rights
4.5
Corruption
4.4
Energy
3.0
Land
2.3
Natural resources
2.3
other
0.9
Foreign affairs
0.4
JANUARY (%) n=1,719 Politics 30.5 Economy 11.2 Infrastructure 8.6 Security 8.1 Health 7.9 Education 7.4
JANUARY (%) n=1,719
Politics
30.5
Economy
11.2
Infrastructure
8.6
Security
8.1
Health
7.9
Education
7.4
Agriculture
6.9
Human rights
4.8
Natural resources
3.7
Corruption
3.5
Energy
3.1
Land
3.0
Other
0.8
Foreign affairs
0.8

FEBRUARY (%) n=1,014

Politics

Politics 31.9

31.9

Economy

Economy 11.2

11.2

Security

10.4

10.4

 

Infrastructure

8.7

8.7

 

Health

8.5

8.5

Education

6.5

6.5

Humanrights

3.9Humanrights

Energy

3.9Energy

Agriculture

3.9Agriculture

Corruption

3.5Corruption

Natural resources

3.0Natural resources

Land

 

2.6

Foreign affairs

1.6

0.7

 

Other

Tone of coverage

Generally, the tone of coverage by all three media types was neutral, averaging 60%. Newspaper: Orumuri (97%), Etop (74%) and New Vision (73%) had stories with the most neutral tone. Television: Bukedde (66.7), NTV (66%) and UBC (60%) aired stories with the most neutral tone. Candidates: Mbabazi and Besigye had the most number of stories with negative tone across all three media.

neutral tone. Candidates: Mbabazi and Besigye had the most number of stories with negative tone across

Story tone by media type

Tone of coverage (%) 9.3 11.0 100% 15.5 90% 80% 70% 61.3 60.5 60.7 60%
Tone of coverage (%)
9.3
11.0
100%
15.5
90%
80%
70%
61.3
60.5
60.7
60%
50%
40%
30%
29.4
28.5
20%
23.8
10%
0%
Newspaper
TV
Radio
Positive
Neutral
Negative

Newspaper story tone

Tone of coverage (%) N=4,116 N1=2,796

0.0 9.5 9.3 14.5 12.5 15.7 15.5 22.1 27.2 36.3 62.5 73.3 60.7 61.6 97.6
0.0
9.5
9.3
14.5
12.5
15.7
15.5
22.1
27.2
36.3
62.5
73.3
60.7
61.6
97.6
74.5
57.2
67.5
54.4
23.6
22.9
25.0
17.2
15.6
10.9
10.4
2.4
Positive
Positive
Neutral
Neutral

Negative36.3 62.5 73.3 60.7 61.6 97.6 74.5 57.2 67.5 54.4 23.6 22.9 25.0 17.2 15.6 10.9

Television story tone

Tone of coverage (%) N=2,274, N1=1,820 3.2 6.2 9.9 13.3 13.5 59.9 66.7 55.6 55.2
Tone of coverage (%) N=2,274, N1=1,820
3.2
6.2
9.9
13.3
13.5
59.9
66.7
55.6
55.2
66.1
36.9
31.1
31.3
27.2
24.0
Bukedde
NBS
NTV Uganda
UBC
WBS
Positive
Neutral
Negative

Newspaper story tone by candidate

Tone of coverage (%) n=2409

5.7 5.4 4.5 5.8 5.2 17.8 14.8 18.8 62.0 63.4 67.3 63.5 67.5 59.5 62.2
5.7
5.4
4.5
5.8
5.2
17.8
14.8
18.8
62.0
63.4
67.3
63.5
67.5
59.5
62.2
62.1
32.3
31.3
31.3
28.2
26.7
25.7
19.0
20.2
62.0 63.4 67.3 63.5 67.5 59.5 62.2 62.1 32.3 31.3 31.3 28.2 26.7 25.7 19.0 20.2

Positive

62.0 63.4 67.3 63.5 67.5 59.5 62.2 62.1 32.3 31.3 31.3 28.2 26.7 25.7 19.0 20.2

Neutral

62.0 63.4 67.3 63.5 67.5 59.5 62.2 62.1 32.3 31.3 31.3 28.2 26.7 25.7 19.0 20.2

Negative

TV story tone by candidate

Tone of coverage (%) n=2,372

3.3 4.7 4.0 7.5 6.9 7.5 10.8 15.4 62.5 58.8 60.5 55.2 62.3 61.9 61.3
3.3
4.7
4.0
7.5
6.9
7.5
10.8
15.4
62.5
58.8
60.5
55.2
62.3
61.9
61.3
62.6
36.5
35.5
37.9
34.2
28.0
30.2
30.7
22.1
62.5 58.8 60.5 55.2 62.3 61.9 61.3 62.6 36.5 35.5 37.9 34.2 28.0 30.2 30.7 22.1

Positive

62.5 58.8 60.5 55.2 62.3 61.9 61.3 62.6 36.5 35.5 37.9 34.2 28.0 30.2 30.7 22.1

Neutral

62.5 58.8 60.5 55.2 62.3 61.9 61.3 62.6 36.5 35.5 37.9 34.2 28.0 30.2 30.7 22.1

Negative

Radio story tone by candidate

Tone of coverage (%) n=3,296

2.2 2.1 1.1 2.7 2.8 11.0 9.0 12.6 52.8 52.6 49.3 58.0 57.6 58.6 59.7
2.2
2.1
1.1
2.7
2.8
11.0
9.0
12.6
52.8
52.6
49.3
58.0
57.6
58.6
59.7
61.4
45.1
46.3
47.9
39.8
39.6
32.4
29.2
26.0
52.8 52.6 49.3 58.0 57.6 58.6 59.7 61.4 45.1 46.3 47.9 39.8 39.6 32.4 29.2 26.0

Positive

52.8 52.6 49.3 58.0 57.6 58.6 59.7 61.4 45.1 46.3 47.9 39.8 39.6 32.4 29.2 26.0

Neutral

52.8 52.6 49.3 58.0 57.6 58.6 59.7 61.4 45.1 46.3 47.9 39.8 39.6 32.4 29.2 26.0

Negative

#Trends: Newspaper story tone

Tone of coverage (%)

66.7 63.3 62.6 58 58.2 56.4
66.7
63.3
62.6
58
58.2
56.4
30.4 21.4 28.2 25.5 21.6 20.5 17.7 15.1 13.6 13.2 15.6 11.9
30.4
21.4
28.2
25.5
21.6
20.5
17.7
15.1
13.6
13.2
15.6
11.9

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

JANUARY

Positive Neutral Negative

Positive

Positive Neutral Negative

Neutral

Positive Neutral Negative

Negative

FEBRUARY

#Trends: Television story tone

Tone of coverage (%)

69.9 64.1 62.1 62.1
69.9
64.1
62.1
62.1
29.3 27.9 26.9 20.1 10 10.0 9.0 8.6
29.3
27.9
26.9
20.1
10
10.0
9.0
8.6

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

JANUARY Negative
JANUARY
Negative
Positive Neutral

Positive

Positive Neutral

Neutral

FEBRUARY

#Trends: Radio story tone

71.3 63.5 60 50.7 37.2 32 24.3 18.8 12.2 12.1 9.9 8 November December January
71.3
63.5
60
50.7
37.2
32
24.3
18.8
12.2
12.1
9.9
8
November
December
January
February
Positive
Neutral
Negative

Reporting approach

The most dominant reporting approach by all three media types was Conventional.

Among the newspapers, Etop, The Independent, The Observer stood out for having a fair mix of the four reporting approaches.

Overall trend:

Conventional reporting highest between November and

February. Dominance of conventional reporting pronounced in radio and TV.

reporting highest between November and February.  Dominance of conventional reporting pronounced in radio and TV.

Reporting approach by media type

Reporting approach (%)

5.5 8.6 7.9 4.7 4.6 11.1 6.7 4.9 10.3 83.1 82.7 69.9
5.5
8.6
7.9
4.7
4.6
11.1
6.7
4.9
10.3
83.1
82.7
69.9

Newspaper

4.7 4.6 11.1 6.7 4.9 10.3 83.1 82.7 69.9 Newspaper Conventional TV Interpretive Investigative Radio Enterprise

Conventional

4.7 4.6 11.1 6.7 4.9 10.3 83.1 82.7 69.9 Newspaper Conventional TV Interpretive Investigative Radio Enterprise

TV

Interpretive

4.7 4.6 11.1 6.7 4.9 10.3 83.1 82.7 69.9 Newspaper Conventional TV Interpretive Investigative Radio Enterprise

Investigative

Radio

4.7 4.6 11.1 6.7 4.9 10.3 83.1 82.7 69.9 Newspaper Conventional TV Interpretive Investigative Radio Enterprise

Enterprise

Reporting approach per newspaper

Reporting approach (%) N=4,116 N1=3,688

3.2 6.5 9.9 8.2 11.0 13.6 11.8 3.6 3.0 16.7 10.0 24.7 10.4 4.4 16.0
3.2
6.5
9.9
8.2
11.0
13.6
11.8
3.6 3.0
16.7
10.0
24.7
10.4
4.4
16.0
4.2
5.8
16.4
16.7
16.2
12.8
9.2
32.2
16.1
1.5
16.1
24.7
90.1
77.7
66.9
66.7
65.2
67.6
56.4
50.0
34.4
1.5 16.1 24.7 90.1 77.7 66.9 66.7 65.2 67.6 56.4 50.0 34.4 Conventional Interpretive Investigative Enterprise

Conventional

1.5 16.1 24.7 90.1 77.7 66.9 66.7 65.2 67.6 56.4 50.0 34.4 Conventional Interpretive Investigative Enterprise

Interpretive

1.5 16.1 24.7 90.1 77.7 66.9 66.7 65.2 67.6 56.4 50.0 34.4 Conventional Interpretive Investigative Enterprise

Investigative

1.5 16.1 24.7 90.1 77.7 66.9 66.7 65.2 67.6 56.4 50.0 34.4 Conventional Interpretive Investigative Enterprise

Enterprise

Reporting approach per TV station

Reporting approach (%) N=2,274, N1=2,179 2.1 0.7 4.9 11.0 4.3 0.9 3.9 2.9 0.7 7.5
Reporting approach (%) N=2,274, N1=2,179
2.1
0.7
4.9
11.0
4.3 0.9
3.9 2.9
0.7
7.5
8.6
7.2
8.5
8.8
7.5
96.4
86.2
85.9
78.8
73.0
Bukedde
NBS
NTV Uganda
UBC
WBS
Conventional
Interpretive
Investigative
Enterprise

Background and context

Most election stories by the media contained background and context, but the percentages of stories that lacked it is worrying.

election stories by the media contained background and context, but the percentages of stories that lacked

Background & context by media type

Background context (%)

50.7 56.6 63.0 49.3 43.4 37.0
50.7
56.6
63.0
49.3
43.4
37.0

Newspaper

TV

Background context (%) 50.7 56.6 63.0 49.3 43.4 37.0 Newspaper TV No Yes Radio

No

Background context (%) 50.7 56.6 63.0 49.3 43.4 37.0 Newspaper TV No Yes Radio

Yes

Radio

Background & context by newspaper

Background (%) N=4,116 N1=2,135

35.9 49.4 55.2 54.5 62.1 62.0 78.2 76.1 79.7 64.1 50.6 44.8 45.5 37.9 38.0
35.9
49.4
55.2
54.5
62.1
62.0
78.2
76.1
79.7
64.1
50.6
44.8
45.5
37.9
38.0
21.8
23.9
20.3
No
No

Yes

Background & context by television

Background (%) N=2,446, N1=1,455 47.9 52.1 60.9 59.6 66.1 52.1 47.9 39.1 40.4 33.9 Bukedde
Background (%) N=2,446, N1=1,455
47.9
52.1
60.9
59.6
66.1
52.1
47.9
39.1
40.4
33.9
Bukedde
NBS
NTV Uganda
UBC
WBS
No
Yes

#Trends: Background & context - newspaper

Background & context (%)

70.6 67.7 65.6 62.8 54.9 52.3 47.7 45.1 No 37.2 34.4 32.3 Yes 29.4
70.6
67.7
65.6
62.8
54.9
52.3
47.7
45.1
No
37.2
34.4
32.3
Yes
29.4

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

JANUARY

FEBRUARY

#Trends: Background & context - television

67.6 60.7 59.8 50.3 49.7 40.2 39.3 32.4
67.6
60.7
59.8
50.3
49.7
40.2
39.3
32.4

November

December

67.6 60.7 59.8 50.3 49.7 40.2 39.3 32.4 November December No Yes January February

No

67.6 60.7 59.8 50.3 49.7 40.2 39.3 32.4 November December No Yes January February

Yes

January

February

#Trends: Background & context - radio

61 59.0 52.2 52.4 47.6 47.8 41.0 39
61
59.0
52.2
52.4
47.6
47.8
41.0
39

November

December

61 59.0 52.2 52.4 47.6 47.8 41.0 39 November December No Yes January February

No

61 59.0 52.2 52.4 47.6 47.8 41.0 39 November December No Yes January February

Yes

January

February

Interrogation of claims

Generally, the media did not interrogate claims and promises made by presidential candidates.

It’s however noteworthy that Daily Monitor introduced the Factchecker and Truthometer as a way of interrogating claims and promises by presidential candidates.

introduced the Factchecker and Truthometer as a way of interrogating claims and promises by presidential candidates.

Interrogation of claims by media type

Interrogation of claims (%)

22.3 26.3 38.2 77.7 73.7 61.8
22.3
26.3
38.2
77.7
73.7
61.8

Newspaper

TV

Interrogation of claims (%) 22.3 26.3 38.2 77.7 73.7 61.8 Newspaper TV No Yes Radio

No

Interrogation of claims (%) 22.3 26.3 38.2 77.7 73.7 61.8 Newspaper TV No Yes Radio

Yes

Radio

Interrogation of claims by newspaper

Interrogation of claims (%) N=4,116 N1=1,882

8.6 30.1 28.7 37.5 42.0 46.2 46.0 48.8 52.9 91.4 69.9 71.3 62.5 58.0 53.8
8.6
30.1
28.7
37.5
42.0
46.2
46.0
48.8
52.9
91.4
69.9
71.3
62.5
58.0
53.8
54.0
51.2
47.1
No
No

Yes

Interrogation of claims & promises by television

Interrogation of claims (%) N=2,274, N1=1,249 9.0 21.5 20.0 30.2 30.6 91.0 78.5 80.0 69.8
Interrogation of claims (%) N=2,274, N1=1,249
9.0
21.5
20.0
30.2
30.6
91.0
78.5
80.0
69.8
69.4
Bukedde
NBS
NTV Uganda
UBC
WBS
No
Yes

#Trends: Interrogation of claims - newspaper

Interrogation of claims (%)

65.1 63.4 61.9 62.2 61.8 60.1
65.1
63.4
61.9
62.2
61.8
60.1
39.9 38.1 37.8 38.2 36.6 34.9
39.9
38.1
37.8
38.2
36.6
34.9
No Yes
No
Yes

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

JANUARY

FEBRUARY

#Trends: Interrogation of claims - television

Interrogation of claims (%) 81.5 76.2 76.8 70.8
Interrogation of claims (%)
81.5
76.2
76.8
70.8
29.2 23.8 23.2 18.5 NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY FEBRUARY
29.2
23.8
23.2
18.5
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
No Yes
No
Yes

#Trends: Interrogation of claims - radio

82.8 76.2 70 70.8
82.8
76.2
70
70.8
30 29.2 23.8 17.2 November December January February No Yes
30
29.2
23.8
17.2
November
December
January
February
No
Yes

Sourcing

Number of sources

Overall, most election stories were single-sourced.

The problem of single sourcing more pronounced in radio.

Overall trend: An increase in the use of at least two sources.

Gender of sources

Male voices dominant in election stories.

Overall trend: Increase in number of female sources between January and February across all three media types.

stories. Overall trend: Increase in number of female sources between January and February across all three

Number of sources by media type

Number of sources (%)

3.1 8.4 13.8 5.6 8.6 16.3 9.8 21.0 19.1 75.0 62.0 57.2
3.1
8.4
13.8
5.6
8.6
16.3
9.8
21.0
19.1
75.0
62.0
57.2

Newspaper

5.6 8.6 16.3 9.8 21.0 19.1 75.0 62.0 57.2 Newspaper One source TV Two sources Three

One source

5.6 8.6 16.3 9.8 21.0 19.1 75.0 62.0 57.2 Newspaper One source TV Two sources Three

TV

Two sources

5.6 8.6 16.3 9.8 21.0 19.1 75.0 62.0 57.2 Newspaper One source TV Two sources Three

Three sources

5.6 8.6 16.3 9.8 21.0 19.1 75.0 62.0 57.2 Newspaper One source TV Two sources Three

Radio

Multiple sources

Gender of sources by media type

Gender of sources (%)

84.2 85.4 87.1 15.8 14.6 12.9
84.2
85.4
87.1
15.8
14.6
12.9

Newspaper

TV

Radio

 
  Female Male

Female

  Female Male

Male

Gender of sources by newspaper

Gender of sources (%) n=6,607

67.9 66.3 82.8 81.3 86.1 85.7 85.9 85.6 90.4 32.1 33.7 17.2 18.7 13.9 14.3
67.9
66.3
82.8
81.3
86.1
85.7
85.9
85.6
90.4
32.1
33.7
17.2
18.7
13.9
14.3
14.1
14.4
9.6
67.9 66.3 82.8 81.3 86.1 85.7 85.9 85.6 90.4 32.1 33.7 17.2 18.7 13.9 14.3 14.1

Female

67.9 66.3 82.8 81.3 86.1 85.7 85.9 85.6 90.4 32.1 33.7 17.2 18.7 13.9 14.3 14.1

Male

Gender of sources by television

Gender of sources (%) n=3,569 79.5 87.1 86.0 89.7 87.1 20.5 12.9 14.0 10.3 12.9
Gender of sources (%) n=3,569
79.5
87.1
86.0
89.7
87.1
20.5
12.9
14.0
10.3
12.9
Bukedde
NBS
NTV Uganda
UBC
WBS
Female
Male

#Trends: Gender of sources - newspaper

Gender of sources (%) 85.3 84.3 84.1 83.6 82.2 82.7
Gender of sources (%)
85.3
84.3
84.1
83.6
82.2
82.7
Male Female
Male
Female
17.8 17.4 15.7 15.9 16.4 14.7 SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY FEBRUARY
17.8
17.4
15.7
15.9
16.4
14.7
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
JANUARY
FEBRUARY

#Trends: Gender of sources - television

Gender of sources (%) 88.5 87.4 85.7 84.0
Gender of sources (%)
88.5
87.4
85.7
84.0

FemaleMale

MaleFemale

16.0 14.3 12.6 11.5 NOVEMBER DECEMBER JANUARY FEBRUARY
16.0
14.3
12.6
11.5
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
JANUARY
FEBRUARY

#Trends: Gender of sources - radio

88.6 86.7 87.8 85.9
88.6
86.7
87.8
85.9
13.3 14.1 11.4 12.2 November December January February Female Male
13.3
14.1
11.4
12.2
November
December
January
February
Female
Male

Sourcing by occupation

Presidential candidates are dominant sources in election stories.

Dearth in the use of experts as sources, particularly by radio (2%).

Inclusion of ordinary persons’ voices in election stories was encouraging.

Occupation of source by media type

Newspaper (%) n=6,900

Presidential candidate Ordinary person Party official Parliamentary candidate Candidates agent Expert Police Representative Electoral Commission… Anonymous NGO/CSO official Executive Religious leader Election observer Judicial Officer

Business person

Army

Donor

16.1 15.4 13.1 4.3 4.2 3.6 3.6 3.6 2.8 1.9 1.6 1.2 1.1 0.6 0.5
16.1
15.4
13.1
4.3
4.2
3.6
3.6
3.6
2.8
1.9
1.6
1.2
1.1
0.6
0.5
0.2

26.0

Television (%) n=3,601

Presidential candidate

Presidential candidate 34.9

34.9

Parliamentary candidate

Parliamentary candidate 15.4

15.4

Ordinary person

10.7

10.7

Party official

9.8

9.8

Electoral Commission…

6.0

6.0

Expert

4.4

4.4

Candidates agent

4.0

4.0

NGO/CSO official

3.7

3.7

Police Representative

3.7

3.7

Religious leader

1.8

1.4

1.2

0.9

0.9

0.6

0.2

0.2

0.1

 

Executive

Judicial Officer

Election observer

Anonymous

Army

Donor

Business person

Other (Specify)

Radio (%) n=4,963 Presidential candidate 26.5 Parliamentary candidate Party official Electoral Commission…
Radio (%) n=4,963
Presidential candidate
26.5
Parliamentary candidate
Party official
Electoral Commission…
Ordinary person
Police Representative
Candidates agent
NGO/CSO official
Executive
Religious leader
Expert
Anonymous
Judicial Officer
Election observer
Army
Donor
Other
18.1
13.9
9.7
6.4
5.2
4.8
4.6
2.4
2.3
2.0
1.2
1.2
0.8
0.6
0.2
0.1
Business person
0.1

POST-ELECTION COVERAGE

Period: 18 February - 31 March 2016

Key events: Election day, the petition and activities of the opposition

Space/Time to post-election coverage

New Vision and NTV Uganda provided the most space and

time respectively, to coverage of post-election activities.

Besigye was the most covered presidential candidate by radio and television, while newspapers covered Museveni most.

Space to post-election coverage - newspaper

Space by publication(%) Area=352,424.35 Cm2

New Vision

Red Pepper

Monitor

The Observer

Bukedde

The Independent

Orumuri

Etop

Rupiny

23.7 18.5 17.0 14.1 11.0 7.1 3.2 2.9 2.6
23.7
18.5
17.0
14.1
11.0
7.1
3.2
2.9
2.6

Time to post-election coverage - television

Time by TV station (%) Time=1,164 minutes

NTV Uganda

NBS

WBS

Bukedde

UBC

43.4 31.8 15.9 4.8 4.2
43.4
31.8
15.9
4.8
4.2

Most covered candidate - newspapers

Space to candidates (%) Area=232,174.58 Cm2

Museveni

Besigye

Mbabazi

Mabirizi

Bwanika

Biraro

Baryamureeba

Kyalya

38.1 30.8 27.5 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5
38.1
30.8
27.5
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5

Most covered candidate - television

Time to candidates (%) Time=840 minutes

Besigye

Mbabazi

Museveni

Biraro

Baryamureeba

Bwanika

Kyalya

37.8 34.7 21.3 2.5 1.7 1.6 0.5
37.8
34.7
21.3
2.5
1.7
1.6
0.5

Most covered candidate by television

Time to candidates (%) Time=840 minutes

18.6 18.0 20.5 23.8 28.5 2.2 1.2 0.9 2.0 0.4 2.9 29.5 9.3 44.0 37.2
18.6
18.0
20.5
23.8
28.5
2.2
1.2 0.9
2.0 0.4
2.9
29.5
9.3
44.0
37.2
54.2
2.4
5.4
1.3
59.3
50.3
33.0
29.9
25.2

Bukedde

NBS

NTV Uganda

UBC

WBS

Museveni5.4 1.3 59.3 50.3 33.0 29.9 25.2 Bukedde NBS NTV Uganda UBC WBS Kyalya Bwanika Besigye

Kyalya5.4 1.3 59.3 50.3 33.0 29.9 25.2 Bukedde NBS NTV Uganda UBC WBS Museveni Bwanika Besigye

Bwanika5.4 1.3 59.3 50.3 33.0 29.9 25.2 Bukedde NBS NTV Uganda UBC WBS Museveni Kyalya Besigye

Besigye5.4 1.3 59.3 50.3 33.0 29.9 25.2 Bukedde NBS NTV Uganda UBC WBS Museveni Kyalya Bwanika

Biraro5.4 1.3 59.3 50.3 33.0 29.9 25.2 Bukedde NBS NTV Uganda UBC WBS Museveni Kyalya Bwanika

Baryamureeba2.4 5.4 1.3 59.3 50.3 33.0 29.9 25.2 Bukedde NBS NTV Uganda UBC WBS Museveni Kyalya

Mbabazi5.4 1.3 59.3 50.3 33.0 29.9 25.2 Bukedde NBS NTV Uganda UBC WBS Museveni Kyalya Bwanika

Most covered candidate radio

Time to candidates (%) Time=1,110 minutes Besigye 33.4 Museveni 29.9 Mbabazi 23.8 Mabirizi 3.7 Bwanika
Time to candidates (%) Time=1,110 minutes
Besigye
33.4
Museveni
29.9
Mbabazi
23.8
Mabirizi
3.7
Bwanika
2.5
Baryamureeba
2.3
Biraro
2.3
Kyalya
2.0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0

Electoral administration by media type

(election day)

Electoral administration (%)

13.8 17.1 15.5 0.6 1.1 1.4 24.1 23.1 23.8 22.1 21.7 29.8 39.5 36.7 29.8
13.8
17.1
15.5
0.6
1.1
1.4
24.1
23.1
23.8
22.1
21.7
29.8
39.5
36.7
29.8
1.4 24.1 23.1 23.8 22.1 21.7 29.8 39.5 36.7 29.8 Results Newspaper Administration TV

Results

Newspaper

23.8 22.1 21.7 29.8 39.5 36.7 29.8 Results Newspaper Administration TV Transparency&Accountability Radio

Administration

TV

Transparency&Accountability

Radio Voter Education

36.7 29.8 Results Newspaper Administration TV Transparency&Accountability Radio Voter Education Voter Information

Voter Information

Electoral administration by newspaper

Electoral administration (%) n=793

2.3 3.7 3.0 3.8 6.7 1.9 13.2 11.8 15.7 26.9 27.3 23.1 20.0 33.0 17.6
2.3
3.7
3.0
3.8
6.7
1.9
13.2
11.8
15.7
26.9
27.3
23.1
20.0
33.0
17.6
32.7
20.6
0.6
23.1
24.2
29.4
34.6
21.6
29.4
24.3
19.0
73.3
72.7
58.2
43.2
41.2
37.4
36.8
38.5
29.4

Voter Information19.0 73.3 72.7 58.2 43.2 41.2 37.4 36.8 38.5 29.4 Voter Education Transparency&Accountability

Voter Education Transparency&Accountability21.6 29.4 24.3 19.0 73.3 72.7 58.2 43.2 41.2 37.4 36.8 38.5 29.4 Voter Information Administration

Administration72.7 58.2 43.2 41.2 37.4 36.8 38.5 29.4 Voter Information Voter Education Transparency&Accountability Results

Results58.2 43.2 41.2 37.4 36.8 38.5 29.4 Voter Information Voter Education Transparency&Accountability Administration

Electoral administration by television

Electoral administration (%) n=281

13.3 21.4 1.9 27.0 33.3 33.3 1.0 21.0 20.4 6.7 18.9 23.8 20.0 25.2 42.9
13.3
21.4
1.9
27.0
33.3
33.3
1.0
21.0
20.4
6.7
18.9
23.8
20.0
25.2
42.9
13.3
54.1
4.8
40.0
32.0
26.7
19.0

Bukedde

25.2 42.9 13.3 54.1 4.8 40.0 32.0 26.7 19.0 Bukedde Results NBS Administration NTV Uganda

Results

13.3 54.1 4.8 40.0 32.0 26.7 19.0 Bukedde Results NBS Administration NTV Uganda

NBS

Administration

NTV Uganda

Transparency&Accountability

Bukedde Results NBS Administration NTV Uganda Transparency&Accountability UBC Voter Education WBS Voter Information

UBC

Voter Education

Bukedde Results NBS Administration NTV Uganda Transparency&Accountability UBC Voter Education WBS Voter Information

WBS

Voter Information

Most covered topic - newspapers

Politics

Petition

Security Human rights

Economy

Corruption Infrastructure Agriculture Other Education Health Land Foreign affairs Natural resources Energy

Most covered topics (%) n=1,042

16.4 11.7 11.6 4.0 3.9 2.3 2.1 1.9 1.7 1.3 1.2 1.2 0.6 0.4
16.4
11.7
11.6
4.0
3.9
2.3
2.1
1.9
1.7
1.3
1.2
1.2
0.6
0.4

39.7

Most covered topic - television

Politics Petition Security Human rights Corruption Other Foreign affairs Economy Education Natural resources Health Land Energy Agriculture Infrastructure

Most covered topic (%) n=411

25.06 17.52 15.09 3.16 2.43 1.22 0.73 0.49 0.24 0.24 0 0 0 0
25.06
17.52
15.09
3.16
2.43
1.22
0.73
0.49
0.24
0.24
0
0
0
0

33.82

Most covered topic - radio

Most covered topics (%) n=1,073

Politics Security Petition Human rights Other Foreign affairs Economy Corruption Education

Health

Agriculture Infrastructure Land Natural resources Energy

42.8 19.1 18.1 12.2 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.1 0.8 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.0
42.8
19.1
18.1
12.2
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.1
0.8
0.7
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.1
0.0

Candidate tone

Tone of coverage for presidential candidates was

dominantly neutral across all three media types.

Tone of newspaper coverage by candidate

Tone of coverage (%) n=559

12.8 17.6 15.3 21.4 23.8 26.7 26.7 30.8 47.1 33.3 50.0 40.0 73.8 38.5 66.5
12.8
17.6
15.3
21.4
23.8
26.7
26.7
30.8
47.1
33.3
50.0
40.0
73.8
38.5
66.5
64.4
40.0
35.3
33.3
28.6
30.8
18.2
13.4
11.9
47.1 33.3 50.0 40.0 73.8 38.5 66.5 64.4 40.0 35.3 33.3 28.6 30.8 18.2 13.4 11.9

Positive

47.1 33.3 50.0 40.0 73.8 38.5 66.5 64.4 40.0 35.3 33.3 28.6 30.8 18.2 13.4 11.9

Neutral

47.1 33.3 50.0 40.0 73.8 38.5 66.5 64.4 40.0 35.3 33.3 28.6 30.8 18.2 13.4 11.9

Negative

Tone of television coverage by candidate

Tone of coverage (%) n=220

14.1 12.7 25.3 33.3 69.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 72.7 62.7 66.7 16.7 12.0 14.5
14.1
12.7
25.3
33.3
69.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
72.7
62.7
66.7
16.7
12.0
14.5
Positive
Positive

Neutral

(%) n=220 14.1 12.7 25.3 33.3 69.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 72.7 62.7 66.7 16.7 12.0 14.5

Negative

Tone of radio coverage by candidate

Tone of coverage (%) N=751, N1=454, n=645

5.9 3.9 10.6 58.3 61.9 66.7 69.6 68.4 69.8 70.4 63.5 41.7 38.1 33.3 30.4
5.9
3.9
10.6
58.3
61.9
66.7
69.6
68.4
69.8
70.4
63.5
41.7
38.1
33.3
30.4
31.6
23.7
25.9
26.3
58.3 61.9 66.7 69.6 68.4 69.8 70.4 63.5 41.7 38.1 33.3 30.4 31.6 23.7 25.9 26.3

Positive

58.3 61.9 66.7 69.6 68.4 69.8 70.4 63.5 41.7 38.1 33.3 30.4 31.6 23.7 25.9 26.3

Neutral

58.3 61.9 66.7 69.6 68.4 69.8 70.4 63.5 41.7 38.1 33.3 30.4 31.6 23.7 25.9 26.3

Negative

Sourcing

Single-sourced stories dominant in post-election coverage

with Bukedde newspaper and UBC TV having the highest

number of single-sourced stories. Judicial officers were the most quoted sources in post- election reporting.

Number of sources by media type

Number of sources (%)

3.1 6.6 26.1 21.5 58.1 14.6 20.5 6.3 68.8 10.8 38.7 24.8
3.1
6.6
26.1
21.5
58.1
14.6
20.5
6.3
68.8
10.8
38.7
24.8

Newspaper

58.1 14.6 20.5 6.3 68.8 10.8 38.7 24.8 Newspaper One source TV Two sources Three sources

One source

58.1 14.6 20.5 6.3 68.8 10.8 38.7 24.8 Newspaper One source TV Two sources Three sources

TV Two sources

58.1 14.6 20.5 6.3 68.8 10.8 38.7 24.8 Newspaper One source TV Two sources Three sources

Three sources

58.1 14.6 20.5 6.3 68.8 10.8 38.7 24.8 Newspaper One source TV Two sources Three sources

Radio Multiple sources

Number of sources by newspaper

Number of sources (%) N=668, N1=555

7.9 5.3 10.0 16.7 21.0 20.0 4.8 15.8 29.6 33.9 43.4 17.5 30.0 15.6 27.2
7.9
5.3
10.0
16.7
21.0
20.0
4.8
15.8
29.6
33.9
43.4
17.5
30.0
15.6
27.2
33.3
14.8
13.6
14.4
47.4
14.5
24.3
27.2
11.8
69.8
60.0
55.6
50.0
50.0
30.3
31.6
28.2
24.7

One source14.5 24.3 27.2 11.8 69.8 60.0 55.6 50.0 50.0 30.3 31.6 28.2 24.7 Two sources Three

27.2 11.8 69.8 60.0 55.6 50.0 50.0 30.3 31.6 28.2 24.7 One source Two sources Three

Two sources

27.2 11.8 69.8 60.0 55.6 50.0 50.0 30.3 31.6 28.2 24.7 One source Two sources Three

Three sources

Multiple sources
Multiple sources

Number of sources by television

Number of sources (%) N=252, N1=222

30.8 30.8 54.3 52.6 0.0 7.7 79.2 30.8 5.3 7.4 10.5 8.6 61.5 38.5 2.6
30.8
30.8
54.3
52.6
0.0
7.7
79.2
30.8
5.3
7.4
10.5
8.6
61.5
38.5
2.6
29.6
31.6
10.4
7.8

Bukedde

NBS

NTV Uganda

UBC

WBS

 
  One source Two sources Three sources Multiple sources

One source

  One source Two sources Three sources Multiple sources

Two sources

  One source Two sources Three sources Multiple sources

Three sources

  One source Two sources Three sources Multiple sources

Multiple sources

Sourcing by occupation - newspapers

Sourcing by occupation (%) n=1,624

Judicial Officer Parliamentary candidate Presidential candidate Ordinary person Electoral Commission official Party official Expert Police Representative Candidates agent NGO/CSO official Anonymous Report/Policy/Law Religious leader Election observer Public Officer Witness Army Donor Business person

12.5 11.0 9.9 9.2 8.4 7.3 6.7 4.6 3.0 2.7 2.3 2.1 2.0 1.4 0.6
12.5
11.0
9.9
9.2
8.4
7.3
6.7
4.6
3.0
2.7
2.3
2.1
2.0
1.4
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.1

15.6

Sourcing by occupation - television

Judicial Officer Presidential candidate Party official Parliamentary candidate Ordinary person Candidates agent Police Representative Expert

Electoral Commission official

NGO/CSO official

Public Officer Religious leader Election observer Army Anonymous Report/Policy/Law

Sourcing by occupation (%) n=1,089

18.46 16.8 12.49 9.37 8.63 7.44 6.98 4.96 4.96 4.13 1.74 1.56 0.83 0.83 0.55
18.46
16.8
12.49
9.37
8.63
7.44
6.98
4.96
4.96
4.13
1.74
1.56
0.83
0.83
0.55
0.28

Sourcing by occupation - radio

Judicial Officer Parliamentary candidate Presidential candidate Party official Police Representative

Electoral Commission official NGO/CSO official

Expert

Ordinary person Candidates agent Religious leader Public Officer Election observer Army Executive Witness Uganda Communications… Donor Business person Anonymous

Sourcing by occupation (%) n=888

14.5 13.0 12.2 12.1 11.7 11.0 5.9 4.6 3.6 3.2 2.8 2.4 1.0 0.7 0.6
14.5
13.0
12.2
12.1
11.7
11.0
5.9
4.6
3.6
3.2
2.8
2.4
1.0
0.7
0.6
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1

SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE IN THE 2016 ELECTIONS

According to a 2015 Afrobarometer report, 6% of Ugandans get their news from social media channels. Majority of them (95%) use Facebook as their main news channel.

In this study, we explore how Museveni, Mbabazi and Besigye used Twitter during the

elections.

Introduction

Three candidates Museveni, Mbabazi, Besigye - were chosen on the basis of the frequency of their use of Twitter and the level of influence of their tweets.

Besigye - were chosen on the basis of the frequency of their use of Twitter and
Besigye - were chosen on the basis of the frequency of their use of Twitter and
Besigye - were chosen on the basis of the frequency of their use of Twitter and

Selection, tools and handles

Why Twitter?

Searchable conversations.

Tools Socialbakers, Yoast and Twitter internal analytics.

Twitter handles

@kagutamuseveni

@amamambabazi

@kizzabesigye1

Note: Candidates also used their party/group Twitter handles for campaigns, but only those through which the candidates officially ‘speak’ were monitored.

Definitions - 1

Total followers: The total number of profile followers during a

selected time range.

Relative change in followers: The percentage change in followers during a selected time range. Absolute change in followers: The total change in followers during a selected time range.

Interactions are both outgoing and incoming

Total tweets: The total number of tweets made by a profile during the selected time range. Average tweets per day: The sum of all engagement rates of original tweets made over the month divided by the total tweets made during the same time period.

Definitions -2

Retweet count: Number of times the Profile has been retweeted during a selected time range.

Mentions: Total number of ‘organic’ mentions made about the Profile during a selected time range. Influencers: List of the top users most frequently interacting with the Profile through individual mentions.

Outgoing interactions: Replies, retweets or mentions of a user by the

Profile. Incoming interaction: Replies, retweets or mentions of the Profile by users. Total following: The total number of users the Profile is following during a selected time range.

Total number of followers

Total Number of followers(%) 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 - December January February March Yoweri
Total Number of followers(%)
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
-
December
January
February
March
Yoweri Museveni
Amama Mbabazi
Kizza Besigye

Trends in Twitter followers

All three candidates had a steady increase in number of followers each month. In relative terms, Besigye’s following grew the most by 20.8% in

January compared to Mbabazi (7.2%) and Museveni (10.6%).

Trends in Twitter followers

 

February

March

Yoweri Museveni

4.37%

3.84%

Amama Mbabazi

3.37%

5.19%

Kizza Besigye

32.22%

16.27%

Absolute change in number of followers

35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 - December January February March Yoweri Museveni Amama
35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
-
December
January
February
March
Yoweri Museveni
Amama Mbabazi
KizzaBesigye

Following

There is a significant difference in the approach of candidates to receiving information through their Twitter timelines, indicated by the number of profiles they follow. Yet the larger and more diverse your following, the wider one’s topics and the more likely one is to engage in discussion, share information and respond to queries.

Total number of Twitter profiles following

December January February March 14 16 17 17 6,241 6,326 6,342 6,579 319 323 325
December
January
February
March
14
16
17
17
6,241
6,326
6,342
6,579
319
323
325
331

Total number of tweets

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 December January February March Yoweri Museveni Amama Mbabazi
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
December
January
February
March
Yoweri Museveni
Amama Mbabazi
Kizza Besigye

Average tweets per day

 

December

January

February

March

4.6 5.4 4.9 1.4

4.6

5.4

4.9

1.4

0.4 8.6 4.1 0.2

0.4

8.6

4.1

0.2

0.9 0.9 1.4 2.1

0.9

0.9

1.4

2.1

S

E

L

E

C

T

T

W

E

E

T

S

S E L E C T T W E E T S
S E L E C T T W E E T S
S E L E C T T W E E T S
S E L E C T T W E E T S
S E L E C T T W E E T S

S

E

L

E

C

T

T

W

E

E

T

S

S E L E C T T W E E T S

Total number of interactions

35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 December Yoweri Museveni January February Amama Mbabazi
35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
December
Yoweri Museveni
January
February
Amama Mbabazi
March
Kizza Besigye

Total number of retweets

7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 - December January February March Yoweri Museveni Amama
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
-
December
January
February
March
Yoweri Museveni
Amama Mbabazi
Kizza Besigye

Total number of mentions

30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 - December January February March Yoweri Museveni Amama Mbabazi
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
-
December
January
February
March
Yoweri Museveni
Amama Mbabazi
Kizza Besigye

Top influencers from December - February

@kagutamuseveni

@amamambabazi

@kizzabesigye1

1.

@TeamSevo

1.

@Tjozra

1. @FDCOfficial1

 

992

mentions

899

mentions

731

mentions

2. @lenonmullar 908 mentions (Just one month- Jan)

2.

@talemwa2008

2. @ByamugishaMoses

 

806

mentions

322

mentions

3. @amonrukundo

3.

@jude_mugabi

3. @jude_mugabi

 

635

mentions

 

749

mentions

302

mentions

4. @kiryowakk

 

4.

@Amama2016

4. @BMKGift

 

626

mentions

 

643

mentions

214

mentions

5. @hkashillingi

5.

@JMNkangi

 

5. @#vote4change

 

376

mentions

 

595

mentions

212

mentions

@lenonmullar … NOT a ‘bot

@lenonmullar … NOT a ‘ bot ’
@lenonmullar … NOT a ‘ bot ’
@lenonmullar … NOT a ‘ bot ’

Total number of replies

3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 - December January February March Yoweri Museveni Amama Mbabazi
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
-
December
January
February
March
Yoweri Museveni
Amama Mbabazi
Kizza Besigye

Response to questions on Twitter

On the whole, candidates were slow to answer questions directly

sent to their Twitter handles.

Of the 3,410 questions addressed to @kagutamuseveni, none were responded to from December 2015 to March 2016. @AmamaMbabazi answered eight out of the 2,148 questions sent to his handle.

@KizzaBesigye1 received the fewest number of questions 1,789

and responded to two of them in the period monitored.

Summary of conclusions

All three presidential candidates used Twitter in the same manner that they use traditional media platforms: as a space to provide information, but not a space to listen, respond and debate. There were numerous opportunities lost by the presidential candites in

engaging with large following; such as answering questions and

distinguishing themselves from their rivals by mentioning them by name (handle). While supporters of the three candidates were quite combative on Twitter, they kept the conversation cordial, only hinting on their rivalry in covert ways.

Inquiries and information: Website: www.acme-ug.org Facebook: ACME.UG Twitter: ACME_Uganda Email: info@acme-ug.org

Inquiries and information:

Website: www.acme-ug.org

Facebook: ACME.UG

Twitter: ACME_Uganda Email: info@acme-ug.org

Inquiries and information: Website: www.acme-ug.org Facebook: ACME.UG Twitter: ACME_Uganda Email: info@acme-ug.org
Inquiries and information: Website: www.acme-ug.org Facebook: ACME.UG Twitter: ACME_Uganda Email: info@acme-ug.org