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Mineral resources in Greece

Assessment & Outlook

Prof. I. Paspaliaris
School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering
National Technical University of Athens

6th International Forum Mineral Resources in Greece

Mineral Wealth
What is the future

GDP evolution and RM sales


240

GDP, b
Sales,

1,7
1,6
1,5

200

GDP, b

1,4
180

1,3

1,2
160

1,1
1

140

0,9
120

1998

0,8

2001

2004

2007

2010

2013

2016

Sales, b

220

1,8

GDP evolution and RM sales


240
GDP, b
Sales, b

1,7
1,6

1,5

200
GDP, b

1,4
180

1,3
1,2

160

1,1
1

140
120
1998

Growth
phase

2001

2004

2007

0,9
2010

2013

0,8
2016

Sales, b

220

1,8

GDP evolution and RM sales


240
GDP, b
Sales, b

1,7
1,6

GDP increase

1,5

200
GDP, b

Sales drop

1,4

180

1,3
1,2

160

1,1
1

140

0,9
120
1998

2001

2004

2007

2010

2013

0,8
2016

Sales, b

220

1,8

GDP evolution and RM sales


240
GDP, b
Sales, b

GDP drop

1,7
1,6
1,5

200
GDP, b

1,4
180

Sales stabilisation

1,3
1,2

160

1,1
1

140
120
1998

AVG = 1600 M
SDTV = 45 M

2001

2004

2007

2010

0,9
2013

0,8
2016

Sales, b

220

1,8

Important questions

220

1,8

GDP, b
Sales, b

1,7
1,6
1,5

200
GDP, b

1,4
180

1,3
1,2

160

1,1
1

140

0,9
120
1998

2001

2004

2007

2010

2013

0,8
2016

Sales, b

240

GDP evolution and RM sales

GDP evolution in EU
Changes in the total GDP of EU Member States
(based on values of 2010=100)
106

GDP index 2010=100

104

European Union (28 countries)


European Union (15 countries)

+ 4.9 %

102

100

98

96

94

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

GDP evolution in EU29


Changes in the total GDP of EU Member States
(based on values of 2010=100)
120

Belgium,Bulgaria, Czech, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, France, Latvia, Lithuania,


Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia,
Finland, Sweden, UK, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, Skopia, Albania, Kosovo, Serbia

GDP index 2010 = 100

115

110

105

100

95
2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

GDP evolution in EU
EU Member States with GDP growth higher than 10%
(based on values of 2010=100)
120

GDP index 2010 = 100

118
116

Estonia
Ireland
Latvia

114

Lithuania

112

Poland
Romania

110
108

Fyrom
Kosovo

106
104
102
100

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

but
Changes in the GDP of EU Member States
120
115

(based on values of 2010=100)


Belgium,Bulgaria, Czech, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, France, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia,
Finland, Sweden, UK, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, Skopia, Albania, Kosovo, Serbia

GDP index 2010 = 100

110
105
100
95

90
85
80

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2.000

85

1.800

80
75

1.600

70

1.400

Sales

Exports

Exports %

65

1.200
60
1.000

55

800

50

600

45

400

40

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Exports, (%)

Sales/Exports ,

Why the contribution of RM sector to the


Greek GDP remains constant over time;

A more detailed analysis


50
45

Alumina

Aluminium

Nickel

Marble (blocks)

40

Exports, %

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Sales per Raw Material


600.000

500.000

Nickel
Aluminium
Alumina

Sales k

400.000

Marble (blocks)
Bentonite
Bauxite

300.000

Mixed sulfide
Perlite
Calcium carbonate

200.000

Caustic calcined magnesite


Refractory products
Dead-burned magnesite

100.000

Others

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

% sales per Raw Material


100
90
80

% sales

70

60

Group A

50

Group B

40

Group C

30
20
10
0
2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Group A

Group B

Group C

60 - 300

10 - 45

1 - 5

FeNi
Aluminium
Alumina
Marble (blocks)
Bentonite
Bauxite

Mixed sulfides
Expanded perlite
Calcium carbonates
Caustic calcined magnesite
Dead-burned magnesite
Refractory products

ttapulgite
Limestone
Gypsum
Pumice
Magnesite
Olivine
Raw perlite
Fumed silica
Quartz
Huntite

% sales per Raw Material of group A


40
35
30

Nickel

Sales %

25

Aluminium
Alumina

20

Marble (blocks)
15

Bentonite
Bauxite

10

Group A
5

60 - 300
0

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

FeNi
Aluminium
Alumina
Marble (blocks)
Bentonite

Bauxite

Aluminum production-sales-prices
400

2,8
2,6

350

2,4
2,2

300

2,0

1,6
200

1,4
1,2

150

1,0
0,8

100

0,6

Al, Sales

50

Al, production

Al prices

0,4
0,2

0,0
2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Al price (k/t)

1,8

250

FeNi production-sales-prices
550

35

FeNi, sales

FeNi, production

FeNi, price

500

30

450

400

20
350

15
300
10
250
5

200

150

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

FeNi price (k/t)

25

Marble sales-exports
140.000

120.000

Sales/Exports (k)

Sales

Exports

100.000

80.000

60.000

40.000

20.000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Steady Growth - Closing the Gap

The Greek RM Sector


The RM sector (Greek Mining Association Companies)
reports steady sales of about 1.6 b ( 45 M) per year
In spite of the dramatic drop of GDP. The turn over of the
RM sector shows remarkable stability, mainly attributed to
the developed exports
Main contributors are: FeNi, Aluminum Alumina, Marble
production
Metal prices evolution, production cost, quality of deposits
will be the main factors to define the future of RM sector
in Greece
The evolution of the Greek RM sector will also affected by
the realization of new projects

Future Projects
Olympias project
Pb, Zn, Au, Ag, 6.4 b total value
Skouries project
Cu, Au, 8.6 b total value
Sappes project
Au, Ag, 0.8 b total value
Perama project
Au, Ag, 1.8 b total value

Expected income under full


exploitation
more than 500 M per year

New opportunities and technologies

In the field of new technological development


the Laboratory of Metallurgy is specialised on
the development of new processing technologies
in raw materials sector.
Lab has gained international reputation through
its successful collaborations in the framework of
European Research projects.

Lab. of Metallurgy - Activities


Chemical and Mineralogical
characterization
physico-chemical properties

Environmental
characterisation

Pyrometallurgical processes

Laboratory
of Metallurgy
Industrial mineral processing

Chemical synthesis of
inorganic materials

Hydrometallurgical processes

Environmental protection and


rehabilitation of soils

Lab. of Metallurgy Research projects

Lab. of Metallurgy - New holistic approach in BR valorisation


A cascade processing flowsheet
to achieve 100% valorization of
BR into a multitude of products

Bauxite
Residue

Slag Valorization

Pig Iron

REE Removal and Separation

REE

Steel Industry

Al REE Alloys

Building and
Construction industry

Lab. of Metallurgy - BR valorisation


From lab to pilot
to industrial scale

Lab. of Metallurgy - BR valorisation

VIDEO

Lab. of Metallurgy - BR valorisation

Lab. of Metallurgy - REE extraction from BR with ILs

Ionic liquid recycling

LEACHING
with HBET/
water

Bauxite
residue

filtration

Leaching
residue

filtrate
Stripping
with acid

LnCl3

Chem. Comp. (%)


SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
TiO2
Cr2O3
NiO
ZrO2
Other
LOI

6.54
12.27
56.11
0.06
7.51
0.28
0.11
1.37
7.92
7.82

Recovery of 60-80% BRs REE

BR liquor

From EURARE to SCALE proposal

Taking into account the remarkable increase in


Scandium prices
The high Scandium content of BR and also the
availability of the necessary technologies

A new proposal concerning the exploitation of


Bauxite Residues for the production of Scandium
Has been submitted for funding to the EC
Under the frame of HORIZON 2020
with
Aluminium of Greece Coordinator
and the
Laboratory of Metallurgy partner

Lab. of Metallurgy - Wastes valorization pathways


Bulk Insulation

Industrial wastes
(Fly ash, GGBFS,
Ferronickel slag)

Lightweight
granular
materials

Cryogenics

Mineral Wastes
(Perlite, Bentonite)
Industrial By-products

Binders

Boards/Panels

Recycled materials

Blocks/Bricks

ERES 2014 1st Conference


on European REE deposits
Organised by NTUA/URARE at Milos
70 presentations, more than 150 participants

ERES 2017 1st Conference


on European REE deposits
Santorini 28-31 May 2017

http://eres2017.eresconference.eu/