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Dantherm Filtration

flue gas cleaning for power generation and waste treatment plant

Dantherm presentation

Presented by
Anon Sukman

Introduction Legislation in Germany

German Legislation:
(17. BIMSCH)
SO2: < 50 mg/m (N)
HCl: < 5 mg/m (N)
HF: < 1 mg/m (N)
Dust: < 5 mg/m (N)
Total heavy metals: <1 mg/m (N)
Total amount of Dioxine/Furan tot TE < 0,1 ng/m (N)

Introduction

Dantherm Filtration has developed different prozesses for flue gas treatment.
The target of all flue gas treatment systems are:

Insuring the necessary clean gas level as requested by the authoroties


Minimising investment and complexibility of the system
High relaibility by a system as simple as possible
Minimising the usage of additives
Allowing different kind of additives depending on the requirements and
total cost

All systems offered by DTF are based on the flat bag filter technology as
developed by DTF more than 30 years ago.

Development of flue gas treatment in Germany

Start of use

Process/Technology

1970 to 1980

1980 to 1990

complex scrubber dry sorption


lime injection
and bag filter

Additive in use

1988 to 1990

dry sorption

1990 to now
semi dry
sorption

by spray
with conditioning absorption
lime injection
and bag filter
and bag filter

1990 to now

dry sorption

1990 to now

dry sorption

bicarbonate
with conditioning injection
and recirculation, and bag filter
lime injection and
bag filter

CaO

Ca(OH)2

Ca(OH)2

CaO / Ca(OH)2

Ca(OH)2

NaHCO3

90
99

70 to 75
98

75 to 80
99

85 to 90
99

95
99

95
99

--+++
++
--+
--+

+++
--++
+++
+++
+

-++
+
+
+

--+
+ +

++
+
++
+
++
+

++
-+
+
+++
+ +
+++

Efficiency
SO2 removal %
HCL removal %
Criteria
Investment
Additive cost
Disposal of additives cost
Operating cost
realibility
Space requirement
Control ability

Compare investment cost

Spray
absorbtion
rotating disc
with reactor

Dantherm
Rotosorp
system with
recirculation
of reacted lime
products

investment

Spray
absorbtion fixed
nozzles with
reactor

M
M

M
M

Selection of best available technology

The known and proven systems in Europe are defined by the


additve used:
A)

Ca(OH)2 or CaO

B)

Natriumbicarbonate NaHCO3 (baking soda)

Both systems are widely used and both of them have


advantages and disadvantages

Selection of best available technology


Lime based process
Ca(OH)2 + SO2

CaSO3 + H2O

Ca(OH)2 +2 HCl

CaCl2 + 2 H2O

Ca(OH)2 + 2 HF

CaF2 + 2 H2O

Bicarbonate based process

2 NaHCO3
Na2CO3 + SO2 + 1/2 O2

min. 140 C

Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O


Na2SO4 + CO2

Selection of best available technology


Lime based process, additive cost*

Ca(OH)2

100 Euro/ton

Disposal

100 Euro/ton

Consumption

total acids x 2

Bicarbonate based process, additive cost*


NaHCO3

200 Euro/ton

Disposal

220 Euro/ton

Consumption

total acids x 2

*cost base: Germany, 2004

Dantherm process for lime

Reactor
with
fluidising
rotor

Dust
collector with
remoisturing
system

Gas cooling
- option
Ca(OH)2

Waste
combustion
and boiler

Gas cooling - opition-

Dantherm process for BiCar

Dust
collector

Static mixer
for particles
and gas

Gas cooling
- option

Waste
combustion
and boiler

M
NaHCO3
M
M

high speed mill

Gas cooling - opition-

Need for Gas cooling systems


Lower gas temperature in D/C
allows low price bags
improves efficiency of SOx removal
improves removal of D/F

Selection of gas cooling


Gas cooling by
heat exchanger

Gas cooling by
water spray

fluegas
fluegas

Water

fluegas, after
cooling

fluegas, after
cooling

Need for Gas cooling systems


Target: keep constant temperature in Dust collector 160 C
Cooling required: 250 down to 160 C
Selection of gas cooling

Process/Technology

Criteria
flue gas with heigh HCl
flue gas with heigh Sox
Investment
Additive injection
Operating cost
realibility
Space requirement
Control ability

Heat
exchanger
cross
counterflow
fluegas/air
+++
++
+++
+
++

Spray cooler
vertical with
fixed spray
nozzles
- +++
+
-+
++
-

Remark

dust agglomeration can be avoided


heigh moisture improves Sox removal

ROTOsorp system for flue gas cleaning

Dantherm Filtration
Rotosorp process

ROTOsorp system for dust fluidisation

Gas outlet to collector

Dust collector
with bags

Gas inlet to
reactor

Filter dust hopper


Filter dust for
waste

Filter dust for


recirculation

ROTOsorp chain
rotor for
Dust fluidisation

Double shaft mixer for


remoisturing

ROTOsorp chain rotor for flue gas cleaning

Rotor with chains


during rotation

Rotor with chains


during still stand

ROTOsorp chain rotor for flue gas cleaning


ROTOsorp Rotor design
features
Open design, no reduction of open area in
flow direction this avoids any additional
pressure drop in the mixing section
Rotation of the chains in flow direction,
dust and lime will be fluidised and
reinjected into the gas stream
Design of the chain rotor has proven its
ability and function for many years in the
lime and gypsum industry
Since 1997 the system is used for flue gas
cleaning applications ( about 20 systems)

Partial pressure of steam at particle surface


(improvmend of reaction for SOx treatment)
Gas phase

Steam partial pressure = saturation pressure


Layer of liquid

Lime particle

SOx- removal at 140% water


1000
900
800

SOx mg
mg/Nm3

700
600

SOx- Rohgas
SOx- Reingas
Linear (SOx- Rohgas)
Linear (SOx- Reingas)

Efficiency 94 %

500
400
300
200
100
0
10:58:05

11:05:17

11:12:29

Zeit

11:19:41

11:26:53

Hydrated Lime microstructure

Traditional hydrated lime

WLFRAsorp A

Specific surface of lime

WLFRAsorp D SP /
Spongiacal

Specification of hydrated Lime


1.

Purpose
DISA employs white hydrated lime (Calcium hydroxide = Ca(OH)2) according to this specification in gas
cleaning plants, especially chemical sorption plants, in order to bind acid crude gas components.
Burnt lime (CaO) and lime stone (CaCO3) are in no way suitable for this application.

2.

Definition
White hydrated lime (CaCO3) is won from limestone after burning and slaking; it mainly consists of
calcium hydroxid (Ca(OH)2).

3.

Requirements DIN 19611


Mercantile form: dry powder
Appearance : white
Loss of drying (105 C) :
Content of Ca(OH)2 :

4.

max. approx. 1 %
- water soluble

min. approx. 85 %

- total

min. approx. 92 %

Grain size : grain on screen 0,090 mm

max. approx. 0,5 %

grain on screen 0,063 mm

max. approx. 2,5 %

grain on screen 0,030 mm

max. approx. 15 %

Bulk weight (bulk feeding) :

max. approx. 400 g/ccm

Specific surface area :

min. approx. 15 m/g

Suppliers / Supplied qualities


In the FRG normally a quality according to DIN 19611 is used, offered from all well-known lime suppliers.
The requirements mentioned in point 3 exceed those of DIN 19611, but normally the main producers stick
to the qualities delivered.

5.

Controls

5.1 Content of water soluble Ca(OH)2; see DIN 19611


5.2 Total content of Ca(OH)2; titratable with HCl against neutral red
5.3 Grain size; grain size determination by means of air breath sieving
5.4 Bulk weight; see DIN 19611
5.5 BET-surface; unusual special determination for lime industry

Limitation of ROTOsorp process

too high off gas temperatures from boilers (> 220


220C) and high
contents of HCl (> 1500 mg/m) as this requires too much cooling
by water, which increases the total moisture content in flue gas and
especially in recirculated dust. As the CaCl2 is very hygroscopic,
high water content in the gases will create strong agglomeration
during the remoisturing and refeeding. A solution could be to use
the Dantherm Gas cooling system with heat exchanger flue gas to
air.
too high concentration of SO2 (> 3000 mg/m) and very low outlet
concentrations at the same time (<50 mg/m) as the efficiency
might be too low. A solution could be to use special lime with very
high specific surface

Dantherm Filtration system for BiCar

Dantherm Filtration
BiCar process

Dry Sorption with Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate


Thermal activation of sodium hydrogen carbonate

T > 140 C

+
Na2CO3

+
CO2

H2 O

2NaHCO3

bicarbonate
de sodium
sodium hydrogen
carbonate
before
activation
avant activation thermique

carbonate
de sodium
activ
sodium hydrogen
carbonate
after activation

BiCar handling with big bags

Big-Bag Station

Mixing reactor (static mixer for flue gas and BiCar)

Supplement additives for D/F

Dioxin treatment with


activated carbon

Activated carbon microstructure

High porosity
Carbon structure
Types of sorption:
Physical adsorption
Chemical sorption

Specification of activated carbon

Activated carbon component


In Germany there are in principle two product groups available, which are of basic difference.
1) There are the known activated carbons of different manufacturers, which have been developped, modified and
sometimes particularly impregnated for certain applications in the chemical and general process technology for
reactions in the gas- and liquid phase.
2) In addition a by-product of the lignite coke treatment so-called open-hearth furnace coke HOK (internal
denomination of Messrs. Rheinbraun Braunkohlenkoksstaub BKKS) proved to be suitable for the described
process technology. It is a by-product of a mass production and is not refined. The product is even offered as mill
activated.
For the separation of mercury and PCDD/-F both products proved to be successful. Experiences show, that A-coal
has remarkable advantages concerning the Hg-separation due to its significant larger internal surface and micro
pore volume. Considering the PCDD/-F-separation the differences are much smaller.
The pre-mentioned differences are observable in the consumption quantities resp. in the achievable emission
levels.

Remark: When using carbonaceous products the danger of fire and explosion has to be taken into
account.
In order to avoid fires of inflammable dusts an inert material, such as e.g. hydrated lime, can be
injected, as this
element is not combustible (see sep. safety instructions).
There is practically no danger of explosion up to a C-content of 35 weight% (in homogeneous
particle mixture) and an
operating temperature of < 200C .
For further information:
W. Wiemann, DMT Dortmund:
Crude gas cleaning with combustible dusts (VDI-report)

comparision of carbon additives


Comparison of carbon-components:

Denomination
1

Denomination

HOK

Water content
(weight%)
Ash content
(weight%)
Volatile contents
(weight%)
Heat-value (Hu)
(kJ/kg)
Grain size in m; residue on screen
(%)
10
16
20
32
44
63
74
90
125
150
200
m)
Average grain diameter / d50
((m)
Bulk density
(g/ccm)
2
BET-surface
(m /g)
Total pore volume
(ccm/g)
Micro pores up to 10 A
(ccm/g)
Meso pores 10 250 A
(ccm/g)

0,5
10
3,0
29.900

Combustion- and explosion characteristics


At a material humidity of (%)

A-coal

0,5
10
3,0
29.900

3
8
5
30.000

HOK

A-coal

45

50

15

40
25

4
0,5

13
63
0,55
300
0,6
0,16
0,33

28
0,55
300
0,6
0,16
0,33

50
35
30
15
15
10
5
3
1
22
0,49
700
0,75
0,25
0,23

0,5

0,5

11,8

HOK 2

A-coal 3

< 30
< 30
ca. 5
ca. 1
1.000

< 30
< 30
ca. 5
ca. 1
1.000

A-coal 3

Behaviour in filter7
Air-to cloth ratio at 1 m/min
Flow velocity

(daPa/mm)

Maximum load capacity


e.g. at counter flow in fixed bed- or mobile
bed adsorber
with Hg
(weight%)
with SO2 als H2SO4
(weight%)
with HCl
(weight%)
with HF
(weight%)
with D/F
(ng TE / g)

60

70

HOK 1

Sorption behaviour fly stream process8


Load capacity at 150C *
(mg/kg)
with Hg for Hg-residual content < 0,05
mg/Nm dry

1,0

5
2
3
2
2
Combustibilityt
bei 20 C (BZ)
Self ignition temperature 1 dm
(C)
250
250
250
250
Smoulder temperature
(C)
> 450
> 450
> 450
> 450
Ignition temperature
(C)
560
590
700
700
O2-limit concent. on the UEG b.20 / 200 C
15 / 15 / 17 / 12
(%)
UEG, 21% O 2
bei 20 / 200 C (g/m)
60 / 30
60 / 125 / 30
125 / 30
max. explosion press. at 20 / 200 C (bar)
7,6 / 8,6 / 7,8 / 4,8
8,1 / KSt-value
at 20 / 200 C (bar m/s)
96
96
40 / 53
78 / 6
St 1
St 1
St 1
St 1
Dust explosion class
Min. ignition energy at 20C, H2O
(J) 200 500 200 500
5.000
200 500
Min. ignition energy at 200C, H2O
(J)
5 10
5 10
1.000
catalytic fire acceleration by means of metals and metal oxides e.g. ZnO, MV = 1:1
5
Combustibility
Self ignition temperature 1 dm
(C)

1 Standard material lignite coke dust


2 mill activated material for the crude gas cleaning
3 AK-Type: Norit GL50
4 AK-Type: ..........
5 BZ 1 = no burning; BZ 2 = short burning and quick extinguishing
BZ 3 = local burning/smoulder without expansion; BZ 4 = expansion of smoulder
BZ 5 = expansion of open fire; BZ 6 = very strong kind of deflagrating burning

Min. dosage rate


(mg/Nm dry.)
to achieve an emission level
for D/F
1,0 < 0,1 ng/Nm dry
for D/F
10,0 < 0,1 ng/Nm dry
for Hg
0,25 < 0,05 mg/Nm dry
for Hg
1,0 < 0,05 mg/Nm dry

2.500

5.000

40
100
80
400

40
100
40
200

1 Standard material lignite coke dust


2 mill activated material for the crude gas cleaning
3 AK-Type: Norit GL50
4 AK-Type: ..........
5 BZ 1 = no burning; BZ 2 = short burning and quick extinguishing
BZ 3 = local burning/smoulder without expansion; BZ 4 = expansion of smoulder
BZ 5 = expansion of open fire; BZ 6 = very strong kind of deflagrating burning
6 St 1 = KSt > 0 - 200;
St 2 = KSt > 200 - 300;
St 3 = KSt > 300
* D/F = Dioxines / Furanes, TE accord.to Nato;
Hg = mercury totally gaseous
7 LHR; laboratory-comparison method
8 LHR-experiences in comparison with available supplier information

Carbon additives comparision


R e a so n s fo r th e se le c tio n o f a n a d d itiv e ty p e ,
c o m p a r iso n o f c h a r a c te r istic s

G e n e r a l:
D u e to th e su b je c t-m in d e d p r o d u c tio n o f sp e c ia l a c tiv a te d c a r b on typ e s a s h ig h ly a c tiv e a d so r p tio n a g en t th eir q u a lity is
c o n sta n t a n d th e m a ter ia l ch a ra c te ristic w ith in n a rr o w sp e c ific a tio n lim its a r e r e lia b le . B y m e a n s o f v a r io u s d op in g ra te s
sp e c ia l ch a ra c te ristic s a r e a d ju ste d a c c o r d in g to su b je c t.
L ig n ite c o k e d u st a s m a ss p r o d u c t h a s a w id e r d isp er siv e b a n d a n d n o sp e c ia l ch a ra c ter istic s.

S a fe ty a sp e c ts:
B o th m a ter ia ls r e q u ir e c o m p a ra b le sa fe t y m e a su r e s. T h e d istin g u ish in g fig u r e s to b e ta k en in to a c c o u n t a r e v e r y sim ila r
a t id en tic a l c o n d itio n s.
U n d e r c er ta in c o n d itio n s a c tiv a te d c a r b o n c a n o ffe r sm a ll a d v a n ta g e s.

R e d u c tio n o f p o ll u ta n t:
In g en e ra l, b o th a d so r b e r typ e s a r e su ita b le fo r th e se p a ra tio n . D iffe r e n c e s c a n e sp e c ia lly b e fo u n d co n c e rn in g th e
m e r c u r y se p a r a tion c a p a c ity. D u e to th e m or e fa v o u r a b le su r fa c e a n d p o r e c o n te n t h ig h er lo a d s c a n b e a c h ie v e d w ith
in fe r io r r e sid u a l p a rtic le e m issio n s.

S p e c ific c o sts:
T h e su b je c t-m in d e d p r o d u c tio n o f a c tiv a te d c a r b o n a s h ig h ly a c tiv e a d so r p tio n a g e n t is r e la te d to c o r r e sp o n d in g c o sts,
r e p r e se n te d in p ric e . T h e m a ter ia l p r ic e o f 1 .5 0 0 - 2 .0 0 0 D M /to is a b o u t fa c to r 3 h ig h e r th a n th e p r ice fo r H O K .
B e c a u se o f th e b e tter e ffic ie n c y o f a c tiv a te d c a r b on in c a se o f th e se p a ra tio n o f H g a t a b o u t fa c to r 2 , th e u tilisa tion o f
a c tiv a te d c a r b o n c a n le a d to th e m o st fa v o u r a b le a d d itiv e a n d d isc h a r g e c o sts in c a se o f h ig h H g c r u d e g a s c h a r g e s ( > 1
m g /m ) a n d lo w e m ission le v e ls ( < 0 ,0 2 5 m g /m ) .
In m o st o f th e c r u d e g a s c le a n in g a p p lic a tio n s H O K p r o v e s to b e th e m o st fa v o u r a b le C -a d d itiv e c o m p o n e n t.

Dantherm Filtration standard components

Dantherm Filtration
dust collector systems

DTF additive handling and feeding with big bags

Alu plants

DTF additive handling and feeding

Additive weighing hopper


(installed on load cells)

Dosing feeder controlled by


frequency convetor

Low pressure pneumatic


conveyour with injector

Alu plants

Gas Cooler Type KU

DTF cooler with air


recirculation,
cooler in double
deck arrangement
with
cooling fans with
noise insulation

Gas Cooler cleaning device

DTF cooler cleaning


device,
automatic system
using chains

DTF Solutions
for Biomass and waste combustion

Waste combustion with spray absorption


Process: lime

Waste combustion with spray absorption


Process: lime

Waste combustion with spray absorption


Process: lime

Biomass combustion Malchin (near Berlin)


Process: lime

Biomass and Waste combustion Harpen EKT (Berlin)


Process: lime

Biomass combustion Wilmersdorf (Berlin)


Process: BiCar

Biomass combustion Wilmersdorf (Berlin)


Process: BiCar

SOx sorption at Gypsum plant


Process: lime

SOx sorption at Gypsum plant


Process: lime
Fluegas cleaning for Gypsum calcination with brown coal burner
Customer: Felswerke
Flow
Inlet concentration
SO2
Clean gas concentration SO2
Recirculationamount
Fresh additiv

:
:
:
:
:

max. 92 000 m/h i. B. bei max. 159 C


max. 1600 mg/m i.N.tr
< 350 mg/m i.N.tr (Warranty)
20 m/h d.h. ca. 10.000 kg/h
max. 135 kg/h, Limehydrate

DTF Air flue gas cleaning for IMCO furnace

DTF gas cooler with noise


abatement

Flue gas volume


before cooler:

52.000 Nm/h

Temperature in :

300C

Temperature out:

125C

Cooler cleaning:

automatic

DTF Air flue gas cleaning project for POLST

DTF Air flue gas cleaning project for POLST

Customer
Gascooler type:
Dust collector type:
Filterfabric:
Fule gas volume:
Temperature range:
Residual dust content:

POLST, Poland
2 x KU 722/10,0/ 840/4
2 x FS 722 /8,5/1190
Polyester
135.000 Nm/h
150 - 230 C
<10 mg/m

DTF Air flue gas cleaning project for POLST

DTF gas cooler

DTF dust collector

DTF Air flue gas cleaning project for POLST

DTF Air flue gas cleaning project for Trimet; Germany


Customer
Trimet, Germnay
Gas cooler type:
2 x 722/6/504
Including warm air recirculation into building
Dust collector type:
2 x FS 725 /6,0/840
Filterfabric:
Polyester
Fule gas volume:
113.000 Am/h
Temperature range:
60 - 120 C
Residual dust content: <10 mg/Nm
Dioxine/Furan:
< 1 ng/Nm

DTF Air flue gas cleaning project for Trimet; Germany


Gas cooler with warm
air recirculation

Dust handling by big bag


system

Dantherm
dust
collectors

DTF Air flue gas cleaning for reverb furnace

Hydro bilder und


Zeichnungen

DTF dust collector


with ROTOsorp
process
Reverb furnace
with regenerative
burners
Scrap : window
frames with paint

Flue gas volume


before cooler/ filter:

45 000 Bm/h = 26,500 Acfm

Temperature in max :

135C = 255 F

Warranty D/F:

< 0,1 ng/Nm or 2g/ton scrap

DTF Air flue gas cleaning for reverb furnace

DTF Air flue gas cleaning with ROTOsorp

DTF Gas cooler system for Aluminium plant


Cooler with air recirculation
Cooler with auto cleaning system

Cooler with air recirculation

Lime recirculation

DTF reference plants (selected)