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COHESION

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion
Reference
Substitution
Ellipsis
Conjunction

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Parallelism

Lexical

cohesion
Reference
Substitution
Ellipsis
Conjunction

Paraphrase
Recurrence
Partial recurrence

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion Personal reference


Reference
Demonstrative
reference
Substitution
Comparative reference
Ellipsis
Conjunction

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion Personal reference


Reference
Demonstrative
reference
Substitution
Comparative reference
Ellipsis
Personal
Possesive
Possesiv
Conjunction
pronouns determiner
e
s

pronouns

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion Personal reference


Reference
Demonstrative
reference
Substitution
Comparative reference
Ellipsis
Conjunction
participan
circumstan
t
this
that

ce
here
there

these
those

now

then

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion Personal reference


Reference
Demonstrative
reference
Substitution
Comparative reference
Ellipsis
Comparison that is
simply in terms of
Conjunction
likeness and
unlikeness: two things
may be the same,
similar or different
e.g. same, likewise,
other, more, better

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion Personal reference


Reference
Demonstrative
reference
Substitution
Comparative reference
Ellipsis
Is the
Is the
referent
Conjunction referent
inside the
outside the
text?

text?

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion Personal reference


Reference
Demonstrative
reference
Substitution
Comparative reference
Ellipsis
Is the
Is the
referent
Conjunction referent
inside the
outside the
text?

text?
Exophoric ref

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion Personal reference


Reference
Demonstrative
reference
Substitution
Comparative reference
Ellipsis
Is the
Is the
referent
Conjunction referent
inside the
outside the
text?

text?
Exophoric ref
Eg. That must have cost a lot
of money

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion Personal reference


Reference
Demonstrative
reference
Substitution
Comparative reference
Ellipsis
Is the
Is the
referent
Conjunction referent
inside the
outside the
text?
Endophoric ref
Anaphoric
ref

Cataphoric
ref

text?
Exophoric ref

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion Personal reference


Reference
Demonstrative
reference
Substitution
Comparative reference
Ellipsis
Is the
Is the
referent
Conjunction referent
inside the
outside the
text?
Endophoric ref
Anaphoric
ref
The data show is repared.
That must have cost a lot of

Cataphoric
ref

text?
Exophoric ref

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion Personal reference


Reference
Demonstrative
reference
Substitution
Comparative reference
Ellipsis
Is the
Is the
referent
Conjunction referent
inside the
outside the
text?
Endophoric ref
Anaphoric
ref
The data show is repared.
That must have cost a lot of

text?
Exophoric ref

Cataphoric
ref
He who hesitates is lost

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion
Reference
Substitution
Ellipsis
Conjunction

Nominal substitution
Verbal substitution
Clausal substitution

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion
Reference
Substitution
Ellipsis
Conjunction

Nominal substitution
Verbal substitution
Clausal substitution

Ive heard some strange stories in


my time. But this one was perhaps
the strangest one of all

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion
Reference
Substitution
Ellipsis
Conjunction

Nominal substitution
Verbal substitution
Clausal substitution

John is smoking more now than he


used to do

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion
Reference
Substitution
Ellipsis
Conjunction

Nominal substitution
Verbal substitution
Clausal substitution

Is there going to be an earthquake? It


says so

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion
Reference
Substitution
Nominal ellipsis
Verbal ellipsis
Ellipsis
Clausal ellipsis
Conjunction
Four other oysters followed them, and yet
another four

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion
Reference
Substitution
Nominal ellipsis
Verbal ellipsis
Ellipsis
Clausal ellipsis
Conjunction
Have you been swimming? Yes, I have

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion
Reference
Substitution
Nominal ellipsis
Verbal ellipsis
Ellipsis
Clausal ellipsis
Conjunction
What were they doing? Holding hands

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion
Reference
Substitution
Additive
Ellipsis
Adversative
Conjunction
Causal
Temporal

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion
Reference
Substitution
Additive
Ellipsis
Adversative
Conjunction
Causal
Temporal
to be able to see nobody! And at that distance,
too!

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion
Reference
Substitution
Additive
Ellipsis
Adversative
Conjunction
Causal
Temporal
All the figures were correct; theyd been checked.
Yet the total came out wrong

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion
Reference
Substitution
Additive
Ellipsis
Adversative
Conjunction
Causal
Temporal
you arent leaving, are you? Because Ive got
something to say to you

TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday


& Hasan, 1976)
Lexical

cohesion
Reference
Substitution
Additive
Ellipsis
Adversative
Conjunction
Causal
Temporal
The weather cleared just as the party approached
the summit. Until then they had seen nothing of the
panorama around them