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POLLUTION AND

POLLUTION IN PAKISTAN
BY: Aisha Zeb
Kohat, Pakistan
Definition

• Pollution is the introduction of


contaminants into an environment
that causes instability, disorder,
harm or discomfort to the ecosystem
i.e. physical systems or living
organisms
Forms of pollution
• The major forms of pollution are listed below along
with the particular pollutants relevant to each of
them:
• Air pollution
• Water pollution
• Land pollution
• Noise pollution
• Light pollution
• Radioactive contamination
• Visual pollution
• Thermal pollution
Air Pollution
• Air pollution is the accumulation of hazardous substances
into the atmosphere that danger human life and other
living matter.
• sources of air pollution
• Automobile emissions
• Tobacco smoke
• Combustion of coal
• Acid rain
• Noise pollution from cars and construction
• Power plants
• Manufacturing buildings
• Aerosol sprays
• Wildfires
• Nuclear weapons
Water Pollution
• Water pollution is the introduction of chemical, biological and
physical matter into large bodies of water that degrade the quality
of life that lives in it and consumes it.
• The sources of water pollution.
• Some of the main contributors to water pollution are:
• Factories
• Refineries
• Waste treatment facilities
• Mining
• Pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers
• Human sewage
• Oil spills
• Soap from washing your car
• Oil and antifreeze leaking from cars
• Household chemicals
• Animal waste
Land Pollution
• Land pollution is pollution of the Earth’s natural land surface by
industrial, commercial, domestic and agricultural activities.
• The sources of land pollution?
• Some of the main contributors to land pollution are:
• Chemical and nuclear plants
• Industrial factories
• Oil refineries
• Human sewage
• Oil and antifreeze leaking from cars
• Mining
• Littering
• Overcrowded landfills
• Deforestation
• Construction
Pollutants

• A pollutant is a waste material that


pollutes air, water or soil. Three factors
determine the severity of a pollutant: its
chemical nature, the concentration and
the persistence which may be:
– Foreign substances
– Naturally occurring when exceed natural
level.
Effects of pollution

• Human health
• Environment
• Environment health information.
Regulation and monitoring

• To protect the environment from the


adverse effects of pollution, many
nations worldwide have enacted
legislation to regulate various types
of pollution as well as to mitigate the
adverse effects of pollution
Pollution control devices

• Dust collection systems


• Scrubbers
• Sewage treatment
• Vapor recovery systems
Pollution in Pakistan
• Pollution on our earth effects several essential aspects like air, water, food and
all living beings etc. Air pollution levels in Pakistan's high populated cities are
among the highest in the world. And the levels are on the rise, raising health
concerns, says a Pakistan government report.
The levels of ambient particulates, smoke particulates and dust, which cause
respiratory disease, are twice the world's average and more than five times as
high as that in industrialized and Latin American countries, says the Economic
Survey of Pakistan 2005-2006 released in June.
The survey found that pollution in Pakistan's cities had either crossed safe
limits or reached the threshold value, with the presence of suspended
particulate matter in the ambient air being very high. The report says the major
source of spm in the country are vehicles industry, burning of solid waste, brick
kilns and natural dust.
Pollution due to Nox emission. According to this pie chart Nox refers to a group
of toxic gases that are also called nitrogen oxides. In Pakistan Emissions of Nox
by the vehicles are on peak which is of 55%, whereas pollution due to emission
through industrial, commercial and residential sources are 22%, as well as
emission due to utilities are also the same 22% and at last emission through all
other sources are just 1% less then all others.
• Pollution due to Nox emission. According to this pie chart Nox
refers to a group of toxic gases that are also called nitrogen
oxides. In Pakistan Emissions of Nox by the vehicles are on
peak which is of 55%, whereas pollution due to emission
through industrial, commercial and residential sources are
22%, as well as emission due to utilities are also the same
22% and at last emission through all other sources are just
1% less then all others.
This chart shows NO2 pollution in different cities of Pakistan.
In Karachi the mean rate of NO2 pollution is 375 micrograms
per cubic meter of air its the greater among other cities
almost hits the peak then in Lahore the number of mean rate
slightly decrease its mean rate is 275 Ug/m3 how ever the
maximum and minimum rate of pollution in both cities are
same 50 Ug/m3 in Karachi and 12Ug/m3 in Lahore. Whereas,
the mean rate of pollution in Quetta and Peshawar gradually
decreases and the rate of emission of both the cities are
same 120 Ug/m3 max rate is 60 whereas in Peshawar is 50
Ug/m3 however the minimum rate of pollution of both the
cities are same 10 Ug/m3. The mean rate of pollution in
Islamabad which is only 80 Ug/m3 whereas maximum and
minimum rate of pollution are 10 and 5 Ug/m3
CONTINUED….
• In 1992 Pakistan's National Conservation
Strategy Report attempted to redress the
previous inattention to the nation's
mounting environmental problem. Drawing
on the expertise of more than 3,000 people
from a wide array of political affiliations,
the government produced a document
outlining the current state of environmental
health, its sustainable goals, and viable
program options for the future (see
National Conservation Goals , this ch.).
CONTINUED….
• As industry has expanded, factories have
emitted more and more toxic effluents into
the air and water. The number of textile
and food processing mills in rural Punjab
has grown greatly since the mid-1970s,
resulting in pollution of its rivers and
irrigation canals. Groundwater quality
throughout the country has also suffered
from rapidly increasing use of pesticides
and fertilizers aimed at promoting more
intensive cropping and facilitating self-
sufficiency in food production
COTIN…..
• Air pollution has also become a major problem in
most cities. There are no controls on vehicular
emissions, which account for 90 percent of
pollutants. The National Conservation Strategy
Report claims that the average Pakistani vehicle
emits twenty-five times as much carbon
monoxide, twenty times as many hydrocarbons,
and more than three and one-half times as much
nitrous oxide in grams per kilometer as the
average vehicle in the United States.
CONTIN……
• Another major source of pollution, not
mentioned in the National Conservation
Strategy Report, is noise. The hyper
urbanization experienced by Pakistan since the
1960s has resulted in loose controls for heavy
equipment operation in densely populated
areas, as well as in crowded streets filled with
buses, trucks, automobiles, and motorcycles,
which often honk at each other and at the
horse-drawn tongas (used for transporting
people) and the horse-drawn rehras (used for
transporting goods