You are on page 1of 59

SOAP INDUSTRY

WHAT IS SOAP?????
1: Defination:- Soap is a sodium salt or Potassium salt of
long chain fatty acids that has cleansing action in water.
Chemical formula of soap..

O
3 Na+ -OC (CH2)14CH3

History of soap.
the first soap makers were Babylonians, Mesopotamians,
Egyptians, as well as the ancient Greeks and Romans.
Babylonians were the first one to master the art of soap making

They made soap from fats boiled with ashes.

.
many people made soap by mixing animal fats with
lye.But today soap is produce from fats and an alkali.

Lye:- lye is a strongly alkaline solution,especially of


potassium hydroxide.

Raw materials for making soap..


1: fats and oils.

2: sodium hydroxide (or) potassium hydroxide.


NaOH,KOH

What is oil and fat???


"Oil" normally refers to a fat with short orunsaturated
fatty acid chains that is liquid atroom temperature, while
"fat" may specifically refer to fats that are solids at room
temperature.

3-d representation of a fat..


A Fat, Or triglyceride, Molecule. The Three Fatty Acid Chains Attached To
The Central Glycerol Portion Of The Molecule.

Types of soap..
1 Hard soap:- this is made by reacting fat with sodium
hydroxide.
Ex. Castile soap,marseille soap, etc.
2 soft soap:-soap that is liquid or easily soluble, usually
made by saponification with potassium instead of the
more typical sodium hydroxide.

Soap??
Soap is a sodium salt of long chain fatty acid.
It contains two part: 1 polar part :- the head part of the molecule is polar. polar
molecule are water-loving (or hydrophilic).
2 non polar :-nonpolarmoleculesdo not dissolve in water
as they cannot form hydrogen bonds.

Working of soap
Soapbreaks up the oil into smaller drops, which can mix
with the water. It works becausesoapis made up of
molecules with two very different ends. One end
ofsoapmolecules love water - they are hydrophilic. The
other end ofsoapmolecues hate water - they are
hydrophobic.

Micelles
When we mix soap into the water the soap molecules
arrange themselves into tiny clusters (called 'micelles').
The water-loving (hydrophilic) part of the soap molecules
points outwards, forming the outer surface of the micelle.
The oil-loving (hydrophobic) parts group together on the
inside, where they don't come into contact with the water
at all. Micelles can trap fats in the center.

Critical micelle concentration


Theconcentrationof surfactants above
whichmicellesform and all additional surfactants added
to the system go to micelles.
Before reaching the CMC, thesurface
tensionchanges strongly with the concentration of the
surfactant.
After reaching the CMC, the surface tension remains
relatively constant or changes with a lower slope

Working..

Cleansing action of soap

What are fatty acids?


Fatty acids are merely carboxylic acids consisting of a
long hydrocarbon chain at one end and a carboxyl
group (-COOH) at the other end. They are generally
represented
as
RCOOH.

Types of fatty acids

Saturated fatty acids


Fatty acids contain carbon-carbon single bonds called
saturated fatty acids.
Examples: stearic acid & palmitic acid.

Unsaturated fatty acids


Unsaturated fatty acids contain one or more double
bonds between carbon atoms.
Example: Oleic acid (C17H33COOH)

Glycerol
Glycerol has three alcohol functional group (-OH).

Formation of triglyceride:
Glycerol has three OH groups, three fatty acids must
react with one glycerol molecule to make three ester
functional groups and form triesters of glycerol or
triglyceride.

Mechanism involved:

Saponification Process:
When triglycerides in fat/oil react with aqueous NaOH
or KOH, they are converted into soap and glycerol. This
is called alkaline hydrolysis of esters. Since this reaction
leads to the formation of soap, it is called
theSaponificationprocess.

Reaction:

Type of Reaction :
The saponification reaction is exothermic in nature,
because heat is liberated during the process.
Soap is precipitated as a solid from the suspension by
adding common salt to the suspension. This process is
calledSalting out of Soap.

Soap Manufacturing
Processes and Steps

Soap-making processes
The industrial production of soap involves continuous
processes, such as continuous addition of fat and
removal of product.
Smaller-scale production involves the traditionalbatch
processes.
The three variations are: (1) Fully boiled process
(2) Hot process or semi
boiled process
(3) Cold process
The cold process and hot process (semi boiled) are the
simplest ones.

Soap Manufacturing steps


1. Saponification
2. Glycerin removal recovery and purification
3. Soap purification
4. Drying, storage
5. Addition of additives, plodding, cutting,
shaping
6. Packaging

Batch Saponification Process


Batch Saponification
Process

Twitchell Process

Direct Saponification
using caustic

Twitchell Process
Heating of glycerides with sulphuric acid in open lead
lined tank
Reagents: Glyceride, 30% sulphuric acid
Catalyst: 0.5 to 1% mixture of oleic or other fatty acid
and naphthalene
Product: Glycerin, fatty acid
Time taken: 6-10 hours (batch process)

Flow sheet for Twitchell Process


30% H2SO4

Glyceride

Acid waters

Fatty acid

1. Treated with lime


2. Filter pressed to remove
calcium sulphate
3. Clear filtrate used for glycerin

Melted Fatty acid

Washed free
of acid with
water;
refined at
very low
pressure

The fatty acid obtained from Twitchell


process undergoes alkali addition as follows:

Thus we obtain soap molecules.

Direct saponification
Traditional, one step batch process.
Reaction occurs as follows:

Continuous Saponification
Process
Raw Materials
1. Caustic soda
2. Imported tallow / Vegetable oil to derive distilled
fatty acids

Quantitative Requirements
a) Basis: 1 ton of anhydrous soap
Material

Quantity

Oil or Fat

1.1 tons

50% NaOH

0.3 ton

Sodium Silicate

6 kg

Steam

1.5 tons

b) Plant capacities: 2-15 tons per day.


)Process conditions
)High pressure water: maintained at 250-300 OC
)15-20% glycerin solution removed.

Chemical reactions
a) Fat Splitting
(R COO)3 C3H5 + 3H20

3R COO H + C3H5(OH)3

triglyceride

fatty acid

glycerine

b) Saponification
R COO H + M OH
fatty acid

R COO M + H 2O
soap

Where M is an alkali metal such as Sodium or Potassium

Continuous process for fatty acids, soaps


and glycerin

Step 1: Hydrolysis Tower


Input: At bottom glycerides, catalyst
At top: Water at 250-300 OC
Fat splitting reaction occurs
Products obtained: At top: Fatty acids
At bottom: Glycerin +
Impurities

Step 2.a): Fatty acids to


overhead flash
tank
Purpose: Removal of excess
steam

Step 2.b): Ion exchanger


15-20% glycerin removed
from bottom of tower and
sent for ion exchange
Impurities are removed in ion
exchange

Use of Ion Exchanger in


Saponification

Use of Ion Exchanger in


Saponification
15 20% glycerin along with impurities from the
hydrolyser is put to the successive beds of anion and
cation exchange resin.
The glycerin reacts with salts.
Ion exchange removes the colour and dissolved
salts.

Step 3.a) High Vacuum Still


Crude fatty acids are vacuum
distilled.
Fatty acid product sent to holding
tank.

Step 3.b) Triple Effect


Evaporator
Glycerin sent to triple effect
evaporator for concentration.
Concentrated glycerin sent to
a Still.

Step 4.a): Alkali addition


Addition of caustic soda to
fatty acids in continuous high
speed mixer.
Further sent to slow speed
blender.
Saponification is
completed.
Soap pumped via heated
Step
recovery
lines 4.b):
to barGlycerin
soap, flake
or
spray
Glycerin
from
still undergoes
drying
equipment.
moisture removal.
Packaging
operations.
99% yellow glycerin stored in
holding tanks for industrial use.
99% glycerin adsorbed on
activated carbon followed by
filtration.
99% white glycerin is

Advantages of continuous
process over batch process
Flexibility in control of product distribution
Higher glycerin yields (>80%)
Less off colour production during short time hydrolysis
step
Requires less space and manpower

Glycerine recovery
Glycerol is an important by-product of soap manufacture.
The process of soap manufacture from fats and oils usually yield
glycerol to about 10% of the value of the soap formed and because
of its application in many uses, its recovery is very important for
better economy of soap manufacture.
Some of the major industrial applications of glycerol include
manufacture of alkyl resins and flexible polyurethane for plastic
industry.
It is also an important ingredient of cosmetics and adhesive
manufacture.
Sweet water from wash column and lye from the static separator
containing glycerol is processed for producing glycerine.

Steps involved
The first step is the pretreatment of lye for removal of traces of
soluble soap in the lye. Ferric chloride is added to the lye to
precipitate the soluble soap as ferric soap which is separated by
filtration.
The acidic filtrate after removal of soap is acidic and contains
excess ferric chloride. This is treated with caustic soda and
ferric chloride is separated as ferric hydroxide precipitate which
is separated by filtration.
The filtrate after removal of soap is sent to evaporation section.
In multiple effect evaporator,dilute glycerine is concentrated to
52% glycerine. Some salt is separated at this stage.

Contd..
The concentrated liquor after separation of salt is
centrifuged and the concentrated glycerin is sent to
another single effect evaporator to achieve a
concentration of about 84% glycerin.
This is called crude glycerin which is further refined in
special distillation column at 140 degC and 755 mmHg.
The distillation column contains three condensers in
series from which different fraction of glycerin are
recovered which is further treated with activated carbon
to achieve the finished product.

Applications of soap industry


Textile manufacture & Sanitation
Food processing
Shaving soaps
Synthetic rubber and plastics emulsion polymerization
Paints-water emulsion formulations
Paper-application of sizing
Oil production-drilling fluid oils
Inks-water in oil emulsions
Agriculture-emulsifying agents for sprays
Construction-waterproofing cements by formation of insoluble Ca soaps;
bituminous emulsions

Environmental aspects
Surfactants and the hazardous wastes and effluents that are
discharged into the water bodies such as rivers, lakes etc from these
industries can be toxic to the aquatic life.
Also, some anti-bacterial soaps contain MIT (methylisothiazolinone),
which some studies have found to be allergenic, cytotoxic and linked
to nerve cell death. Other anti-bacterial chemicals commonly used
are triclosan and tricloban. These chemicals are registered with the
Environmental Protection Agency as pesticides and can destroy
fragile aquatic ecosystems
Soaps contain a variety of chemicals and fragrances which can harm
the environment. Some chemicals used in soap fragrances have been
proven to cause birth defects and liver damage in animals.

Contd..
Storage of fuels and chemicals has an added risk of
spillage which causes soil contamination, fire hazards as
well as water pollution.
Noise and odours are generated during the
manufacturing process giving rise to noise and air
pollution respectively.

Steps taken for environment safety


during soap manufacturing
The three prime soap ingredients by volume & cost are perfumes, caustic
and oil. Oils & perfume are insoluble in water.
These products are transported through trained carriers, and the
equipment and systems for pumping from the truck are designed
carefully.
Perfumes are brought in lined steel drums that are adequately robust,
and flammable perfumes are not used in the manufacturing of soaps.
All the storage tanks are bounded to catch the contents of the tank, in
case it ruptures or the valves fail.
When the storage systems are designed, the different safety features
(like access to tank and valve) are designed too, as well as the processes
required to deal with the product in case it ends up in the bounded area.

Contd..
Inside the plant, all the process and operational areas are also bounded, and the
trade waste is piped to an interception tank before draining to the council's trade
waste system.
The contents of the interception tank are consistently monitored for alkalinity or
acidity, and are designed to maintain solids or light phase chemicals in right
amount. If in the case, a spill is observed in the plant itself, a part of the
interception tank can be isolated off and the consequences of the spill neutralized
before the waste is dumped.
At times, an off-spec product can be recycled and blended rather than dumped, and
even the wastewater can be reprocessed to minimize the discharges from the plant.
In some cases, the manufacturing method itself can be closely monitored to ensure
that any losses or wastes are kept to a minimum. Consistent measurement of key
characteristics, like - electrolytic levels and the moisture both assure that the end
product is being designed to specifications and the technique is functioning
properly as it was designed to.

Other remedies
Eco-friendly/biodegradable soaps can be used to avoid the
need of harmful chemicals in its manufacturing.
The non-addition of additives, like perfumes, color and
brightening agents decreases the toxicity of soaps.
Minimal packaging also helps in reducing the harm to
environment.
Non-petroleum surfactants or vegetable oil soaps can be used
to replace synthetic surfactants.
Sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate can be used to replace
builders like phosphates and the use of dyes and fragrances
can be reduced or eliminated.

Economics
India is the largest soap manufacturer in the world.
In 1991-92, the capacity of the units manufacturing
soaps in the organized sector had reached 500,000 tons
and the production was about 480,000 tons.
In 1993-94, the production volume for toilet soaps was
1.49 million tons and the organized sector used up 0.42
million tons.
The Eighth Five Year Plan document projected the
capacity of soaps at 600,00 tons and production at
580,000 tons in 1996-97.

Exports & imports


India made significant progress in the export of soaps
and detergents.
In 1975-76, the value of total exports of soaps and
detergents was just Rs. 46 million which escalated to
Rs. 633 milion by 1991-92.
Both developed and developing countries such as
Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bangladesh, Canada,
Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and the Republic
of Tanzania imported soaps from India.

Factors affecting..
During the past 2.5 years, there has been a drastic change in the
economic policies.
The convertibility of rupee and exemption of income tax on profits
from exports are two measures which increased exports.
There are two factors affecting the export of soaps.
One is that the quality of indian soaps is of international standards
and their prices are competitive leading to higher export earnings.
Secondly, there has been an increase in the production of edible
oils which has increased the growth pattern as 50% of the cost of
soaps both toilet and laundry is due to presence of oils and fats.

Production of soaps in India


Year

Capacity

Production

1989-90

435

394

1990-91

435

435

1991-92

500

480

1996-97

600

580

Per capita consumption data (199293)


Country

Population million

Soap (kg)

China

1,151

0.8

India

860

1.4

W. Europe

348

NA

Indonesia

179

2.0

Philippines

55

3.4

Thailand

57

3.4

Japan

124

8.9

Taiwan

19

6.2

Korea

43.2

3.3

Malaysia

16

3.7

Australia

16

13.2

Av. SEA

349

2.3

Demand data on soap (1990-2005)


Year

Toilet soap

Laundry soap

1990

330

800

1992

380

890

1994

450

930

1996

515

1,075

1998

600

1,120

2000

690

1,180

2005

975

1,425