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INTRODUCTION TO DATA COMMUNICATION

DATA COMMUNICATION
&NETWORK
CHAPTER 01

1.1. INTRODUCTION.
1.2. DATA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM.
1.3. DATA COMMUNICATION LINKS.
1.4. SERIAL DATA FORMATS.
1.5. ENCODED DATA FORMATS.
1.6. TRANSMISSION MEDIA.

INTRODUCTION TO DATA COMMUNICATION

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK


what is DATA COMMUNICATION NETWORK or COMPUTER NETWORK?

Computer networking or Data communications


is the engineering discipline concerned with the communication between
computer systems or devices.

A computer network is any set of computers or


devices connected to each other with the ability to exchange data. Computer
networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications.

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK


Data communication is fundamentally a simple operation:

Point A sends information to Point B and Point B receives it.


A slightly more complex, and more practical, system allows Point A to
send information to and receive information from Point B, and vice
versa. It is what lies between points A and B that has been the substance
of data communication system development since before the personal
computer, or any computer for that matter.

computer science, information technology and/or computer engineering since it


relies heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of these scientific
and engineering disciplines. The three types of networks are:
Examples of different network methods are:
Local area network (LAN).
Metropolitan area network (MAN).
Wide area network(WAN).
Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN).

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK


Data communication is the exchange of data between two devices (computers)
via some form of transmission medium such as wire cable, wireless system,
microwave system, satellite system etc.
In data communication process data is transmitted electronically from one system to other
system using standard methods.

The data transmitted from one place to another in form electromagnetic, analog,
digital, microwave, light waves, ..etc through communication medium. The
electromagnetic or light waves representing data are called SIGNALS. Data
communication signals can be in analog or digital form.
THE TYPES OF DATA COMMUNICATION SIGNALS ARE:

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Analog data transmission:
The transfer of data from one place to another in the form of analog signals or in
the form of continuous sound waves is called analog data transmission.
The analog signal consists of a continuous wave. The light waves, sound
waves or radio waves are examples of analog signals. The transmission
through telephone line, microwave system or satellite is the example of
analog data transmission. An analog signal is shown in figure below.

Data transmission is divided into:


1.
2.

Analog data transmission.


Digital data transmission.

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Digital data transmission:

The transfer of data from one place to another in the form of digital signals is
called digital data transmission: A digital signal consists of individual
electrical pulses that represent bits grouped together into bytes. Computer
accepts and processes data in the form of digital signals. Data is also
transmitted from one computer to another through telephone line, microwave
system or satellite. In this system, a modem is used on both sides. A modem
is an electronic device that can convert the analog signal to digital and vice
versa. A digital signal is shown in figure below.

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK

Characteristics of Communication System:

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK

Message The message. is the information or data that is to be transferred from one
location to another. It may consist of text, numbers, pictures, sounds, videos or any
combination of these.

The communication system depends on the following characteristics.


1.
2.
3.

Delivery The data must be delivered from source device destination


device.
Accuracy The data must be delivered accurately. If there is any error
occurred during transmission, the data must be re-transmitted.
Timeliness Data must be delivered within time. It is very important in real
time systems because data becomes useless if it is delivered late. For
example, in television transmission, the video signals must be delivered
within time as they are produced without any significant delay. This kind of
delivery is called real-time transmission.

Components of Communication System


The basic components of a communication system are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Message.
Sender.
Medium.
Receiver.
Protocol.

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PACKETS or FRAME:
In data communication, data is broken into small group or data segment before

being transmitted from one computer or device to another. These small groups
or data segments are called packets or FRAME. The packet includes the
following information:
1.
2.

Payload or Data It is the part of the packet that contains the actual data

Sender A device used in a communication system to send or transmit messages to


another device is called Sender, or Transmitter or Source. A sender may be a computer,
workstation, telephone handset, video camera and mobile phone.

Medium Medium is a path or channel through which message is transmitted (or


sent) from one location to another in a communication system. The twisted wire, fiber
optic, microwave, satellite system etc. are used as medium.

Receiver A device used in a communication system to receive messages from


another device (sender) is called Receiver or Sink. A receiver may be a computer,
workstation, telephone handset, mobile phone, television set, printer, fax machine, and
so on.

Protocol A set of rules that guides (or governs) data communication is called
protocol. It represents an agreement between the communicating devices. Without a
proper protocol, the devices may be connected but they cannot communicate with each
other. For example, a person whose mother language is English cannot communicate
with a person who can speak only French or Chinese.

Note:

Today, all type of computers and mobile devices serve as senders and receivers in
communication system.

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What is data transmission mode?

Data Transmission Modes: The term transmission mode defines the


direction of data flow between two linked devices. The manner or way in which
data is transmitted from one place to another is called Data Transmission
Mode.
There are three ways for transmitting data from one location to another. These

are:

being sent.

1.

Header or Destination ID It contains the information about the type of

2.

data in the payload, the source and destination of data and a sequence
number so that data from multiple packets can be re-assembled at the
receiving computer in a proper order.

3.

Simplex mode.
Half-Duplex mode.

Full-Duplex mode.
Simplex Mode
In Simplex mode, the communication can take place in only one
direction. In this mode, a terminal can only send data and cannot receive it or
it can only receive data but cannot send it. It means that in this mode
communication is uni-directional. Today, this mode of data communication is
not popular, because most of the modem communications require two-way
exchange of data. However, this mode of communication is used in business
field at certain point-of-sale terminals in which sales data is entered without a
corresponding reply. The other examples of simplex communication modes
are Radio and T.V transmissions.

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In computer system, the keyboard, monitor and printer are examples of simplex

devices. The keyboard can only be used to enter data into computer, while
monitor and printer can only accept (display/print) output.

Half-Duplex Mode
In Half-duplex mode, the communication can take place in both directions, but
only in one direction at a time. In this mode, data is sent and received
alternatively. It is like a one-lane bridge where two-way traffic must give way in
order to cross the other.
In half-duplex mode, at a time only one end transmits data while other end

receives. In addition, it is possible to perform error detection and request the


sender to re-transmit information. The Internet browsing is an example of half
duplex. When we issue a request to download a web document, then that
document is downloaded and displayed before we issue another request.

Full-Duplex Mode
In Full-duplex mode, the communication can take place in both

directions simultaneously, at the same time on the same channel. It is


the fastest directional mode of communication. Example of this mode is
conversation of the persons through telephone. This type of
communication is similar to automobile traffic on a two-lane road. The
telephone communication system is an example of full-duplex
communication mode.

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Data Transmission Modes CAN BE ;

There are two types of data transmission modes. These are:


1. Parallel Transmission (Synchronous Transmission) expensive type
2.

Serial Transmission (Asynchronous Transmission) not expensive type

Parallel Transmission
In parallel transmission, bits of data flow concurrently through separate

communication lines. Parallel transmission is shown in figure below. The


automobile traffic on a multi-lane highway is an example of parallel transmission.
Inside the computer binary data flows from one unit to another using parallel
mode. If the computer uses 32-line internal structure, all the 32-bits of data are
transferred simultaneously on 32-line connections. Similarly, parallel
transmission is commonly used to transfer data from computer to printer. The
printer is connected to the parallel port of computer and parallel cable that has
many wires is used to connect the printer to computer. It is very fast data
transmission mode.

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Serial Transmission

In serial data transmission, bits of data flow in sequential order through single

communication line. Serial data & transmission is shown in figure below. The
flow of traffic on one-lane residential street is an example of serial data
transmission mode. Serial transmission is typically slower than parallel
transmission, because data is sent sequentially in a bit-by-bit fashion.

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Synchronous & Asynchronous Transmissions

Synchronous Transmission:
In synchronous transmission, large volumes of information can be transmitted at a time.
In this type of transmission, data is transmitted block-by-block or word-byword
simultaneously. Each block may contain several bytes of data. In synchronous
transmission, a special communication device known as synchronized clock is required
to schedule the transmission of information. This special communication device or
equipment is expensive.

Asynchronous Transmission:

In asynchronous transmission, data is transmitted one byte at a time. This type of


transmission is most commonly used by microcomputers. The data is transmitted
character-by-character as the user types it on a keyboard.

An asynchronous line that is idle (not being used) is identified with a value 1, also known
as Mark state. This value is used by the communication devices to find whether the line
is idle or disconnected. When a character (or byte) is about to be transmitted, a start bit is
sent. A start bit has a value of 0, also called a space state. Thus, when the line switches
from a value of 1 to a value of 0, the receiver is alerted that a character is coming.

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Communication Devices

An electronic device that can send and receive data on the network is

Modem stands for Modulator and Demodulator. The modem (dialup modem) is an
electronic device that can convert the digital signals into analog signals and
analog signals into digital signals. It is used on both ends of the computers
for data communication between, computers through telephone line. We knew
that data is communicated through telephone line in the form of analog
signals. So data in the form of digital signal from one computer must be
converted into analog signals before to transmit it to another computer
through telephone line.

called the communication device. The communication devices are used


on both ends of the connections. Most of the communication devices
have the ability to convert the digital signal of computer into analog
signal so that the signals can be transmitted on the communication line
to another end. The reverse is also true.
The most important communication devices are described below:

1.

Modem

2.

7.

Digital Modem
Network Interface Card
Bridge
Router
Gateway
Repeater

Network Interface Card:

3.
4.
5.
6.

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK

Modem:

Digital Modem:
The modem that is used to send and to receive data to and from a digital
telephone line is called digital modem. The examples of digital modems are
ISDN and DSL. These modems send and receive the digital signals to and
from the digital line. This modem does not convert the digital signals into
analog because digital lines already use the digital signals. Therefore, in this
case he definition of modem confuses the users, however manufacturers still
use the term modem for devices used in digital line for data communication.

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK

It is also referred to as LAN adapter or simply LAN card. It is used in Local Area
Network to establish the communication between the devices (computers,
printers and other devices) attached on the network. Usually, the personal
computers use the network interface card (NIC) in Local Area Network (LAN).
The Ethernet card is the most common type of network interface card. The
data transmission speed of Ethernet card is from 10 Mbps to 1,000 Mbps.
Some of the network interface cards also, have the combined features of
Ethernet card and dialup modem card.

Bridge:

It is an electronic device that connects two similar networks and controls the data
flow between them. A bridge looks at the information in each packet header
and forwards data (that is traveling) from one LAN to another.

Router: An electronic device that connects multiple computers together


and transmits data to its correct destination using the available path on the
network is called router. It stores the routing information of each node or
computer on the network and to use these information to transfer data
between nodes. Like a bridge, a router looks at each packets header to
determine where the packet should go and then determines a route for, the
packet to take and thus reach its destination; some routers also have built-in
antivirus protection. Similarly, some routers also support wireless
communications.

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK

Gateway;

A gate is an electronic device that can perform logical function. A gateway is a

device or system (collection of hardware and software resources) that connects


two networks and translates information from one to the other so that data can
be transmitted between two dissimilar networks.

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK


what is encoded file?
Encoded File:

Packets from different networks have different kinds of information in their

headers, and information can be of different formats. The gateway can take a
packet from one type. of network, read the header, and then encapsulates the
entire packet into a new one, adding a header that is understood by the second
network.

Repeater;

A device, which is used to join same type of networks to extend the length of the
communication medium, is called repeater. It also amplifies the signals
received from one network and sends the amplified signals to another
network.

Encoded files are files that store data in an encoded format.


These include encrypted files, uncompressed archives, and
binary-encoded text files. Files are often encoded for
security purposes and to keep them from being corrupted
during data transfers.

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Encoded File Extensions:

1.
Encoded files is mainly used to save passwords or any other data, for

the purpose of protecting encrypted algorithms. To open a encoded


file, the first step is to decode the file. Unencoded data is usually regarded as
plain text and encoded data is called cipher text. If you want to achieve intact
data security, it is necessary to put them encoded.
Encryption software is used to encryption and decryption of data, usually in
the form of files on hard drives, removable media, email messages, or in the
form of packets sent over computer networks.
Now there are two popular types of encryption: asymmetric encryption
and symmetric encryption. Generally speaking, we use asymmetric
encryption to encrypt and decrypt a message by using different keys. And to
symmetric encryption, we just adopt same key to both encrypt and decrypt
the message.
Recommend File Extensions: Ccf, Enc, Dim, Hex

.ccf
CryptLoad Container File CCF file format, CryptLoad Container File , is the proprietary file
extension created by CryptLoad. It's a kind of encrypted file format, and it often includes
links of downloadable files. The...Type: Encoded FilesAdded time: Jul 29, 2008

NOTE: Recommends: pronto ccf file opening ccf files ccf file reader
ccf viewer ccf file editor
2. .enc

Copysafe Protected PDF File ENC file is widely considered as a kind of encoded file
extension saved as UUE format. This file format could be opened by IBM Lotus 1-2-3. It is
secure to protect users' privacy as an ENC...Type: Encoded Files Added time: Jul 29, 2008

3.

.dim
Direct Internet Message Encapsulation (DIME) .dim, also known as .dime, stands for Direct
Internet Message Encapsulation, which is a kind of encoded file extension widely used to
send data through Internet. The DIM files are able to merge Type: Encoded Files Added
time: Jul 29, 2008

4.

.mme
Multi-Purpose Internet Mail The MME file is encoded message or file. The file with MME
file extension can be safely sent over the Internet. The file is commonly used for e-mail
attachments so that the attached file does Type: Encoded Files Added time: Jul 29, 2008

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK

TRANSMISSION MEDIA
Transmission media are the physical pathways that connect computers,
other devices, and people on a networkthe highways and byways
that comprise the information superhighway. Each transmission
medium requires specialized network hardware that has to be
compatible with that medium.

On any network, the various entities must communicate through some


form of media. Just as humans can communicate through telephone
wires or sound waves in the air
Layer 1, Layer 2. These refer to the OSI reference model, which defines
network hardware and services in terms of the functions they perform.
Transmission Media:

There are two basic categories of Transmission Media:

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A transmission medium is a material substance which can propagate

energy waves. For example, the transmission medium for sound


received by the ears is usually air, but solids and liquids may also act as
transmission media for sound.

The term also transmission medium can also refer to the technical

device which employs the material substance to transmit or guide the


waves. Thus an optical fiber or a copper cable can be referred to as a
transmission medium

1.

Guided Transmission Media.

2.

Unguided Transmission Media.

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK


Guided Transmission Media uses a "cabling" system that guides the

data signals along a specific path. The data signals are bound by the
"cabling" system. Guided Media is also known as Bound Media.
Cabling is meant in a generic sense in the previous sentences and is not
meant to be interpreted as copper wire cabling only. Waves are guided
along solid medium

There four basic types of Guided Media:

1-Twisted Pair.
2-Coaxial Cable.
3-Optical Fibre

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Guided media examples

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Unguided Transmission Media Unguided Transmission Media

consists of a means for the data signals to travel but nothing to guide
them along a specific path. The data signals are not bound to a cabling
media and as such are often called Unbound Media.
Unguided media relates to data transmission through the air and is
commonly referred to as wireless. The transmission and reception of
data is carried out using antenna.
Unguided media unguided media provide a means for transmitting
electromagnetic waves but do not guide them; examples are
propagation through air.
There are two main ways that antenna work:
1.
2.

Unguided media examples

Directional (in a beam)


Omni directional (all around)

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VERY IMPORTANT NOTE:
The guided media & unguided media can be :

A transmission may be
1. Simplex
2. Half-duplex
3. Full duplex.
Unguided transmission media are methods that allow the
transmission of data without the use of physical means to define the
path it takes. Examples of this include microwave, radio
guided transmission media does use a physical means to define its
path. Examples include phone lines, twisted pair cables and coaxial
cables

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GUIDED: The waves

Multiplexing:

UNGUIDED:

The Concept:

are guided along a physical path


The medium transmits the waves but does not guide them

THE TRANSMISSION THROUGH THE TRANSMISSION MEDIA CAN BE:

Direct Link:
The signal is propagated directly from transmitter to receiver (perhaps
through amplifiers/repeaters)
2. Point-to-Point:
1.

A guided medium that provides a direct link between two and only
two devices
3. Multipoint:
A guided medium that is shared by more than two devices

Simultaneously transmit multiple channels of information on a single

direct link
Example:

Common Approaches:
Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) - Each signal, mi is modulated

onto a different frequency (called a sub carrier and denoted )

Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) - Multiple signals are interleaved

(in bits or blocks) over time


Example:

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-GUIDED MEDIA 1. TWISTED PAIR CABLE


Description:

Two insulated copper wires that are twisted together (which results in

destructive interference and, hence, reduces radiation) .

The individual pairs can be shielded (STP) or unshielded (UTP)

most people who have access to networks access them through a local loop
built on twisted-pair. Although twisted-pair has contributed a great deal to the
evolution of communications, advanced applications on the horizon require
larger amounts of bandwidth than twisted-pair can deliver, so the future of
twisted-pair is diminishing. Figure 2.1 shows an example of four-pair UTP

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK


ADVANTAGES:
1. High availability
2. Low installation cost
DISADVANTAGES:
1. Usable frequency spectrum is small
2. Limited data rates
3. Limited range
4. High suitability to electromagnetic and radio frequency interference

100 mps. Twisted pair cabling is made of


pairs of solid or stranded copper twisted along each other.

It also supports the speed of

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DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK

2. Coaxial Cable:
Description:

A (thick) copper wire surrounded by an insulator and an

outer conductor

Coaxial cable is very common & widely used commutation media.

For example TV wire is usually coaxial.


Coaxial cable gets its name because it contains two conductors that are parallel

to each other. The centre conductor in the cable is usually copper. The copper
can be either a solid wire or stranded martial.

Outside this central Conductor is a non-conductive material. It is usually white,

plastic material used to separate the inner Conductor form the outer Conductor.
The other Conductor is a fine mesh made from Copper. It is used to help shield
the cable form EMI.

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ADVANTAGES:
High capacity (370-1000 times more than twisted pair)
Low susceptibility to noise and crosstalk (because of

shielding)

DISADVANTAGES:
Noise on the return path
High installation cost

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK

Optical fibres use light to transmit data. A thin glass fibre is encased in a

plastic jacket which allows the fibre to bend without breaking. A


transmitter at one end uses a light emitting diode (LED) or laser to send
pulses of light down the fibre which are detected at the other end by a
light sensitive transistor.
Figure illustrates a single fibre (a) and a sheath of three fibres (b). Other
configurations are possible.

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3. Fibre Optic Cable

Description:
A thin glass core surrounded by cladding that reflects light into the
core, surrounded by a protective plastic buffer/jacket
Operation:
Light travels through the core
It bounces off of the cladding to "make turns"
The signal degrades because of impurities in the glass
Illustration:

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Total Internal Reflection:


Light passing from one medium (m1) to another (m2) with lower
index of refraction (ri) bends away from the normal line
At the critical angle, defined by sin()=r2r2, the refracted light will
not go into the second medium but will travel along the border

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Advantages:
They use light which neither causes electrical interference nor are they

susceptible to electrical interference

They are manufactured to reflect the light inwards, so a fibre can carry a

pulse of light further than a copper wire can carry a signal

Light can encode more information that electrical signals, so they carry

more information than a wire

Light can carry a signal over a single fibre, unlike electricity which

requires a pair of wires

Disadvantages:
Can be bent
Each fibre is one-way
High cost of interfaces

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Unguided Transmission Media-(Wireless Transmission)


Unguided Transmission Media consists of a means for the data signals to
travel but nothing to guide them along a specific path. The data
signals are not bound to a cabling media and as such are often called
Unbound Media.
In wireless transmission media, communication devices communicate with
each other and data is communicated through the air or space using
broadcast radio signals, microwave signals and infrared signals. This
transmission medium is used when it is impossible to install the cables.
The data can be transmitted all over the world through this medium.
The commonly used wireless transmission media are discussed below.
1.

Radio Transmission (Microwave Transmission).

2.

Communication Satellite,

The electromagnetic spectrum and its uses for communication.

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ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
All wireless communication is based on the following simple

principle:
Sending : When antenna of the appropriate size is attached
to an electrical circuit, electromagnetic waves are
broadcasted.
Receiving: These electromagnetic waves can easily be

received by a receiver some distance away.

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK

BROADCAST RADIO or (Microwave):

It is a wireless transmission medium that is used to communicate information

through radio signals in air, over long distance such as between cities and
countries. In this medium, a transmitter is required to send messages (signals)
and receiver is required to receive them. To receive the broadcast radio signal,
the receiver has an antenna that is located in the range of signal. Some networks
use a special device called transceiver used to send and to receive messages in
the form of radio signals. The data transmission speed of broadcast radio is up
to 54Mbps.

1.

Radio waves can easily be generated, can travel long distances and can
penetrate building.

2.

Radio waves are Omni directional so they travel in all directions


For the above reason the transmitter and receiver do not have to be
carefully aligned physically.
Radio waves are frequency dependent.
VLF, LF and MF bands, radio waves follow the ground.
HF and VHF bands, reach the ionosphere so layer of charged particles
circling the earth at height to 500 km.
The Military communicate in the HF and VHF bands.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK


Communication Satellite
A communication satellite is a space station that receives microwave

signals from earth microwave station (earth based station). The earth
based stations often are microwave stations. Other devices, such as
PDAs and GPS receivers, also functions as earth based stations.
Transmitting a signal from ground or earth station to a satellite station
in space is called up-linking and the reverse is called the down- linking.

(a) In the VLF, LF, and MF bands, radio waves follow

the curvature of the earth.


(b) In the HF band, they bounce off the ionosphere.

DATA COMMUNICATION & NETWORK


Satellites
Radio transmissions do not bend round the surface of the earth, but RF

Communication Satellites

technology combined with satellites can provide long-distance


connections.
The satellite contains a transponder consisting of a radio receiver and
transmitter. A ground station on one side of the ocean sends a signal to
the satellite, which amplifies it and transmits the amplified signal at a
different angle than it arrived at to another ground station on the other
side of the ocean.
A single satellite contains multiple transponders (usually six to twelve)
each using a different radio frequency, making it possible for multiple
communications to proceed simultaneously. These satellites are often
geostationary.

Communication satellites and some of their properties,


including altitude above the earth, round-trip delay time and
number of satellites needed for global coverage.

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Communication Satellites (3)


VSATs using a hub.

DATA COMMUNICATION
&NETWORK

THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME

END of CHAPTER 01
INTRODUCTION TO DATA COMMUNICATION

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