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- 34 Area, Volume & Nets of Solids
- MATH13 Coursewares
- Solid Mensuration Problems
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1 CIRCLES

Lesson 2.2 MISCELLANEOUS

PLANES

MATH13-1

Solid Mensuration

2.1 CIRCLES

A circle is a set of points, each of

which is equidistant from a fixed

point called the center.

The line joining the center of a circle

to any points on the circle is known

as the radius.

An arc is a portion of a circle that

contains two endpoints and all the

points on the circle between the

endpoints.

Reference:

Solid Mensuration: Understanding the 3-D Space by

CIRCLES

By choosing any two points on the

circle, two arcs will be formed; a

major arc (the longer arc), and a

minor arc (the shorter one).

CIRCLES

A chord is a line segment joining any

two points on the circle. The chord

that passes through the center of the

circle is called the diameter of a

circle.

A chord divides the circle into two

regions, the major segment and the

minor segment.

CIRCLES

A sector is the figure formed by two

radii and an included arc. The

central angle is the angle in which

the vertex lies at the center of the

circle and which sides are the two

radii.

The inscribed angle is the angle in

which the vertex lies on the circle

and which two sides are chords of

the circle.

Reference: Solid Mensuration: Understanding the 3-D Space by

CIRCLES

CIRCLES

If

circles of different radii have

common center then they are referred to

as concentric circles.

The

region bounded by any two

concentric circles is known as the annulus.

CIRCLES

A line in the same plane as the circle is a

tangent line of the circle if it intersects the

circle at exactly one point on the circle.

A line is called a secant line if it intersects

the circle at two points on the circle.

CYCLIC QUADRILATERAL

A cyclic quadrilateral is a foursided figure inscribed in a circle, with

each

vertex

(corner)

of

the

quadrilateral

touching

the

circumference of the circle.

The sum of the opposite angles of

such a quadrilateral is 180.

CYCLIC QUADRILATERAL

x + w = 180

y + z = 180

Reference: Solid Mensuration: Understanding the 3-D Space by

THEOREMS ON CIRCLES

1. If two chords intersect at a point inside

the circle, then the product of the

segments of one chord is equal to the

product of the segments of the other chord.

THEOREMS ON CIRCLES

2. If two secant lines of a circle

intersect at an exterior point, then the

product of lengths of the entire secant

line and its external segment is equal

to the product of the lengths of the

other secant line and its external

segment.

THEOREMS ON CIRCLES

3. If a tangent line and a secant line of

a circle intersect at a point exterior to

the circle, then the product of the

lengths of the secant line and its

external segment is equal to the

square of the length of the tangent

line.

THEOREMS ON CIRCLES

4. Every tangent line of a circle is

perpendicular to the radius of the circle

drawn through the point of tangency.

THEOREMS ON CIRCLES

5. The diameter that is perpendicular to a

chord bisects the chord and its two arcs.

Conversely, the diameter that bisects a

chord is perpendicular to the chord.

Consequently, the perpendicular bisector of

a chord is the diameter of the circle which

must pass through the center of the circle.

THEOREMS ON CIRCLES

6. Central angles of the same or equal

circles have the same ratio as their

intercepted arcs.

7. Angles formed from two points on

the circle are equal to the other

angles, in the same arc, formed from

those two points.

THEOREMS ON CIRCLES

8. The line of centers of two tangent circles

passes through the point of tangency.

9. The measure of a central angle is the angular

measure of its intercepted arc. The intercepted

arc is measured by its central angle.

THEOREMS ON CIRCLES

10. An inscribed angle is measured by

one-half of its intercepted arc.

11. The angle formed by constructing

lines from the ends of the diameter of

a circle to a point on the circle is a

right angle. (Angle in a Semi-Circle)

THEOREMS ON CIRCLES

12. The sum of the products of opposite

sides of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to

the product of the diagonals.

THEOREMS ON CIRCLES

13. The lengths of two tangents from

the points of tangency on the circle to

their point of intersection are the

same.

THEOREMS ON CIRCLES

14. The measure of the angle formed by

two secant lines intersecting at an interior

point is one-half the sum of the angular

measurements of the arcs intercepted by

the angle and its vertical angle.

THEOREMS ON CIRCLES

If two secants intersect at an exterior

point of a circle, the measure of the

angle formed by the secants is one-half

the difference between the angular

measurements of the intercepted arcs.

FORMULAS ON CIRCLES

The Perimeters

Circumference: C = 2r

Arc length: s = r

Perimeter of a sector: P = r(2 + ) =

r + 2r

Perimeter of a segment: P = s + L

Length of chord:

Reference: Solid Mensuration: Understanding the 3-D Space by

FORMULAS ON CIRCLES

Areas of Circle, Sector, Segment,

and Annulus

Area: A = r2 = d2/4

Area of a Semicircle: A = r2

Area of a Quarter Circle: A = r2

Area of a Sector: A = r2 = rs

Area of Segment: A = r2( sin )

Reference: Solid Mensuration: Understanding the 3-D Space by

FORMULAS ON CIRCLES

Area

of Annulus region:

A polygon is inscribed in a circle if the

vertices of the polygon lie on the circle. If the

polygon is regular, then the measure of its

side can be determined by the cosine law.

r = radius, s = side of polygon, = central

angle

Reference: Solid Mensuration: Understanding the 3-D Space by

FORMULAS ON CIRCLES

Polygon Inscribed in a Circle

CIRCLES

The polygon is circumscribed

about the circle if each side of the

polygon is tangent to the circle.

If the polygon is regular, then the

radius of the circle is equal to

the apothem a of the polygon.

CIRCLES

Polygon Circumscribed About the

Circle

FORMULAS ON CIRCLES

Radius

of

the

Circumscribing a Triangle

Circle

.

FORMULAS ON CIRCLES

Circle Circumscribing a Triangle =

Triangle Inscribed in a Circle

FORMULAS ON CIRCLES

Radius of the Circle Inscribed in a

Triangle

r = A/s

FORMULAS ON CIRCLES

Circle Inscribed in a Triangle =

Triangle Circumscribing a Circle

Where , semi-perimeter

quadrilateral.

of

the

EXAMPLES

#1, p54: What is the area of a circle

with a circumference of 18 cm? ANS:

254.47 cm2

#3, p55: A circle which has an area of

144 cm2 is cut into two segments by a

chord that is 6 cm from the center of

the circle. What is the area of the

smaller segment? ANS: 88.45 cm2

Reference: Solid Mensuration: Understanding the 3-D Space by

EXAMPLES

#4, p55: The tangent AB and the secant BCD

are drawn to a circle from the same exterior

point B. If the length of the tangent is 8

inches and the external segment of the

secant is 4 inches, then what is the length of

the secant?

ANS: 16 in

EXAMPLES

#6, p56: An equilateral triangle is

inscribed in a circle with an area equal

to 81 square units. Find the area of

the triangle. ANS: 105 cm2

2.1 EXERCISES

#9, p60: An equilateral triangle is

circumscribed about a circle of radius 103

cm. What is the perimeter of the triangle?

ANS: 180 cm

#13, p60: Determine the area of the

segment of a circle if the length of the

chord is 15 inches and located 5 inches

from the center of the circle. ANS: 42.2 in 2

Reference: Solid Mensuration: Understanding the 3-D Space by

2.1 EXERCISES

#16,

p60: Given a circle in which the diameter

the circle and ABC = 18 and BAD = 36, find

the length of the major arc CD.

#25, p61: The points C1 and C2 are centers of

the two equal circles shown in the figure. If the

distance between the centers is 3 cm, find the

area of the shaded region. ANS: 5.53 cm 2

2.1 EXERCISES

#27, p62: A circle has an area equal to 25

cm2. Its diameter AB coincides with one of the

sides of triangle ACB in which the vertex C lies

on the circle. If the triangle has an area equal

to 11 cm2, find its perimeter. ANS: 22 cm

#31, p63 : Find the area of a cyclic

quadrilateral with two sides that measure 4

and 5 units and one diagonal coincides with a

diameter of the circle, the radius of which is

23 units. ANS: 23.3 s. u.

Reference: Solid Mensuration: Understanding the 3-D Space by

2.2 MISCELLANEOUS

PLANES

generally consists of a polygon with

triangles on its sides.

It is a regular star if the polygon

involved is a regular polygon

The pentagram, also known as German

or witch star, is a five-pointed regular

star. The hexagram which is also

known as Davids star or Solomons seal

is a six-pointed regular star.

Reference: Solid Mensuration: Understanding the 3-D Space by

2.2 MISCELLANEOUS

PLANES

ELLIPTICAL SECTION

Area:

A = ab

a is the length of major segment

(major radius)

b is the length of the minor segment

(minor radius)

Perimeter:

Restriction: 0.36 < b/a < 2.94 (5%

maximum error)

Reference: Solid Mensuration: Understanding the 3-D Space by

ELLIPTICAL SECTION

a>b

Reference: Solid Mensuration: Understanding the 3-D Space by

ELLIPTICAL SECTION

Note

the formula of the circumference of the

circle where r = a = b.

PARABOLIC SECTION

Area

of Parabola: A = bh

b = base, h = altitude

Area of Spandrel: A = bh

Perimeter of Parabola:

PARABOLIC SECTION

IRREGULAR SHAPED

FIGURES

Simpsons Rule

If y0, y1, y2, , yn (n is even) are the lengths of a

series of parallel chords of uniform interval d then

the area of the figure enclosed above is given

approximately by the following formula.

A = d[(y0 + yn) + 4(y1 + y3 + + yn 1) + 2(y2 + y4 +

+ yn 2)]

2.2 EXERCISES

#2, p70: In a circle with diameter of 20 cm, a

regular

five-pointed

star

touching

its

circumference is inscribed. Find the area of the

star.

ANS: 112.257 cm2

#3, p70: What is the area of a section bounded

by a closed elliptical figure in which the major

and minor segments measure 60 cm and 45 cm

respectively? ANS: 8482 cm2

#6, p70: What is the area of a parabola inscribed

in a rectangle 30 cm long and 22 cm wide?

ANS: 440 cm2

Reference: Solid Mensuration: Understanding the 3-D Space by

2.2 EXERCISES

#12,

an interval of d = 0.5, approximate the

area of the shaded region bounded by

the curve defined by and the x-axis.

ANS: 6.3339 s. u. Hint: Substitute each

value of xi in the given

equation to solve the

corresponding value of

yi.

Reference: Solid Mensuration: Understanding the 3-D Space by

2.2 EXERCISES

#13,

p72:

Two

semicircles

are

inscribed in a square with side 8 cm as

shown. Find the area of the shaded

region. ANS: 22.87 cm2

HOMEWORK 2

2.1 EXERCISES: #s 5, 7, 15, 23, 29, &

33 pp. 59-63

2.2 EXERCISES: #s 8, 10, & 11 pp. 7172

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