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MOTION

Motion: - a body is said to be in motion when its position changes continuously with respect to a stationary object taken as a reference. Example position of car changes continuously with respect to stationary object like houses and tree. Very slow motion is difficult to observe, whereas a fast motion can be observed or experienced. Distance:- the distance travelled by a body is the actual length of the path covered by a moving body irrespective of the direction in which the body travels. It is a scalar quantity. Its unit is meter (m). the distance travelled by a moving body can not be zero. Displacement:- when a body moves from one point to another, the shortest distance between the initial and final position of the body alongside direction, is known as Displacement. It is a vector quantity. Its unit is meter (m). The displacement of a moving object can be zero, in case of a circular motion.

**UNIFORM AND NON-UNIFORM MOTION
**

UNIFORM MOTION:-a body has a uniform motion if it travels equal distances in equal intervals of time, no matter how small these time intervals are. For example a bicycle running at a constant speed 10m/s. it will cover equal distance of 10m in every second. Distance time graph for uniform motion is straight line. NON-UNIFORM MOTION:-a body has a non-uniform motion if it travels unequal distances in equal intervals of time. For example if we drop a ball from the roof of tall building we will find that it covers unequal distance in equal intervals of time. The distance time graph for a body having non-uniform motion is curved line.

**SPEED SPEED of a body is the distance travelled by it per unit time. The SI unit of speed is
**

meter/second (m/s),it can also be measured in cm/s or Km/hr. speed is a scalar quantity. Odometers in cars show distance travelled by the car and Speedometer in car shows instant speed of the car. SPEED = DISTANCE TRAVELLED / TIME TAKEN V=s/t.

AVERAGE SPEED:-the average speed of a body is the total distance travelled divided by total time taken to cover this distance. AVERAGE SPEED = TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED / TOTAL TIME TAKEN AVERAGE SPEED =( D1+ D2+D3+D4) / (T1+T2+T3+T4) PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE 1. Differentiate between distance and displacement. 2. The train A travelled a distance of 120 Km in 3 hours whereas another train B travelled a distance of 180Km in 4 hours. Which train travelled faster? 3. Explain average speed with example. 4. Explain uniform motion. Explain non-uniform motion. BY VIVEK MISHRA MOTION -ix

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5. What is speed explain with example. State its unit also. 6. What is motion? Also give example of that. 7. A car travels 30 km at uniform speed of 40Km/h and the next 30 Km at a uniform speed of 20 km/h. find its average speed? 8. On a 120 km track, a train travels the first 30Km at a uniform speed of 30 Km/h. how fast must the train go the next 90Km so as to average speed 60Km/h for the entire trip? 9. A train travels at a speed of 60 Km/h for 0.52 h, at 30Km/h for the next0.24 h and then 70Km/h for the next 0.71 h. what is the average speed of the train? 10.Bus X travelled 360 Km in 5 hours whereas bus Y travels a distance of 476 km in 7 hours. which bus travelled faster? 11.Convert i. A speed of 54Km/h into m/s. ii. The speed of 6m/s into km/h. 1. A scooterist covers a distance of 3Km in 5 minutes calculate his speed in: i. Cm/s ii. m/s iii. Km/h

VELOCITY

The distance travelled by a body per unit time in a given direction is called velocity. Veloctiy = distance travelled in given direction / time taken Distance travelled in a given direction is called Displacement. Velocity = displacement / time V=s/t It’s unit is same meter per second or m/s.

Uniform velocity

A body has a uniform velocity if it travels in a specified direction in straight line and moves over equal distances in equal intervals of time, no matter how small these time intervals may be. The velocity of body can be changed by two ways:

i.

ii.

By changing the speed of the body By keeping the speed constant but by changing the direction.

Acceleration

Acceleration of a body is defined as the rate of change of its velocity with time. Acceleration = change in velocity / time taken for change Acceleration =(final velocity – initial velocity) / time taken

BY VIVEK MISHRA MOTION -ix

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. It’s unit is m/s2 .it is a vector quantity.

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Problem for practice 1. A car travels a distance of 200km from Delhi to Ambala towards north in 5 hours. Calculate i. speed ii. Velocity of the car for this journey. 2. A train starting from railway station attains a speed of 21m/s in one minute. Find its acceleration. 3. Distinguish between speed and velocity. 4. Under what condition(s) is the magnitude of average velocity of an object equal to its average speed? 5. An object travels 16 m in 4 s and then another 16 m in 2 s. What is the average speed of the object? 6. The odometer of a car reads 2000 km at the start of a trip and 2400 km at the end of the trip. If the trip took 8 h, calculate the average speed of the car in km h–1 and m s–1. 7. A farmer moves along the boundary of a square field of side 10 m in 40 s. What will be the magnitude of Displacement of the farmer at the end of 2 minutes 20 seconds? UNIFORM ACCERLERATION A body has a uniform acceleration if it travels in a straight line and its velocity increases by equal amounts in equal intervals of time. Example the motion of a freely falling body is an example of freely falling body. The velocity time graph of a body having uniformly accelerated motion is a straight line. NON UNIFORM ACCERLERATION A body has a non uniform acceleration if its velocity increases by unequal amounts in equal intervals of time. The velocity time graph for a body having non uniform acceleration is a curved line. RETARDATIION If the velocity of a body increases accer;aration is positive and if velocity is decreases the acceleration is negative. A bosy is said to be retarded if its velocity is decreasing. A train is as retarded when its velocity decreases. It has same unit as that of acceleration m/s2. AVERAGE VELOCITY Average velocity is the arithmetic mean of initial and final velocity for a given time period. Average velocity=(initial velocity + final velocity)/2 Vav=(u+v)/2 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF EQUATIONS OF MOTION i.

1st equation of motion

BY VIVEK MISHRA MOTION -ix

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Let us draw AD parallel to OC. From the graph, we observe that BC = BD + DC = BD + OA Substituting BC = v and OA = u,we get v = BD + u or BD = v – u …….(i)

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From the velocity-time graph, the acceleration of the object is given by a =(Change in velocity)/timetaken =BD/ AD= BD/OC Substituting OC = t, we get a =BD/t or BD = at Using Eqs. (i) and (ii) we get v = u + at ……..(ii)

**2nd equation of motion
**

the distance s travelled by the object is given by s = area OABC (which is a trapezium) = area of the rectangle OADC + area ofthe triangle ABD = OA × OC +1/2(AD × BD) ………..(i) Substituting OA = u, OC = AD = t and BD = at, we get

s = u × t +1/2t×at or s = u t +1/2a t2

**3r equation of motion
**

From the velocity-time graph shown , the distance s travelled by the object in time t, moving under uniform acceleration a is given by the area enclosed within the trapezium OABC under the graph. That is, s = area of the trapezium OABC =[(OA + BC) ×OC]/2 Substituting OA = u, BC = v and OC = t, we get = [(u +v )×t]/2 ……….(i) From the 1st equation of motion

BY VIVEK MISHRA MOTION -ix

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t=(v- u)/a Using Eqs. (8.11) and (8.12) we have s=[(v + u) × (v - u)]/2a or 2 a s = v2 ─ u2 ………..(ii)

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UNIFORMLY ACCERLERATED MOTION When a body moves in a circle it is called circular motion. When a body moves along a circular path, then its direction of motion keeps changing continuously. When a body moves in a circular path with uniform speed its motion is called uniform circular motion.

Speed of body in uniformly circular motion. V=2∏r\t

PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE 1. A cyclist goes around a circular track once every two minutes . if the radius of the circular track is 105 m calculate its speed. 2. The tip of a second hand of a clock takes 60 seconds to move once on the circular dial of a clock. If the radius of the dial of the clock be 10.5cm, calculate the spped of the tip of the seconds hand of the clock. 3. A scooter acquires the velocity of 36km per hour in 10 seconds just after the start. Calculate the acceleration of the scooter. 4. A moving train is bought to rest within 20 s by applying brakes. Find the initial velocity if the retardation due to the brakes is 2m/s2. 5. A body starts to slide over horizontal surface with an initial velocity of 0.5m/s. due to friction its velocity decreases at the rate of 0.05 m/s2. How much time will it take for the body to stop? 6. A racing car has uniform acceleration of 4m/s2. What distance will it cover in 10 s after start? 7. A scooter moving at the speed of 10m/s is stopped by applying brakes which produces a uniform acceleration of -0.5 m/s2. How much distance will covered by the scooter before it stops? 8. A car is travelling 20km/h speeds up to 60km/h in 6 s. what is acceleration? 9. A car Increases its speed from 20km/h to 50km/h in 10s its acceleration is? 10.A bus moving at the speed of 18km/h is stopped in 2.5 s by applying brakes. Calculate the retardation produced?

BY VIVEK MISHRA MOTION -ix

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BY VIVEK MISHRA MOTION -ix

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