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Slide1:ThecasethatIwillbelookingatisMorseversusFrederickin2007,thisisanimportant

casewhichaffectsthemillionsofhighschoolstudentsaroundthecountry.

Slide2:In2002,theOlympicTorchRelaypassedthroughJuneau,Alaska,onitswaytoUtah.
Morse,theprincipalofaschool,decidedtoallowstaffandstudentstotakepartintheTorch
Relayasanapprovedclasstrip.

Slide3:WhenFrederickarrived,hejoinedhisfriendsacrossthestreetfromtheschooltowatch
theevent.

Slide4:Asthetorchbearersandcameracrewspassedby,Frederickandhisfriendsopeneda
largebannerwiththephrase:"BONGHiTS4JESUS."The14footbannerwaseasilyreadable
bythestudentsontheothersideofthestreet.

Slide5:DeborahMorse,theschoolsprincipal,noticedthebannerandpromptlyrequestedthat
thestudentstakeitdown.AllbutFrederickcomplied.

Slide6:MorseproceededtoConfiscatethebannerandsuspendFrederickfor10daysforhis
violationofaschool'spolicyagainstthedisplayofmaterialthatpromotestheuseofillegal
drugs.

Slide7:Afterunsuccessfullytryingtoappealthesuspensionthroughtheschooldistrict,
Fredericksuedunderthecivilrightsstatute,claimingaviolationofhisFirstAmendmentrightto
freedomofspeech.

Slide8:Hearguedthatthebannerdidntdisruptclassroomsorlearningbecausetheentire
schoolwasoutdoorswatchingaparadeHealsoarguedthatitwasridiculoustoclassifythe
signasadvocacyforillegaldrugsasitisridiculoustoassertthatthatbannerwouldaffect
anyonesactionsitwassimplytogettheattentionofthenewscamera.

Slide9:Morsearguedthatshehadtherighttotakeitdownbasedonthefactthatitwasstill
advocacyforusingillegaldrugs,regardlessofwhetheritwouldchangebehavior,itwasstill
againstschoolpolicies.Shearguedthatitwasdisruptivetothelearningenvironmentofthe
school.Shealsoarguedthatsheshouldhaveimmunityfromsuchlawsuitsbecauseofher
positionasaprincipal.

Slide10:TheDistrictCourtfoundnoviolationandvotedinfavorofMorse.Thecourtsaidthat
eveniftherewereaviolation,theprincipalhadimmunityfromlawsuit.

Slide11:TheU.S.CourtofAppealsfortheNinthCircuitreversed.TheNinthCircuitusedacase
called
Tinkerv.DesMoinesIndependentCommunitySchoolDistrict
,whichgaveFirst
Amendmentrightstostudentsexceptwhereitmightcauseadisturbance,tojustifyitsruling.
TheyclaimedthatitwasclearthatFrederickwaspunishedforhismessageandnotany

disturbance,andfurthermore,theprincipalhadnoimmunityagainstthelawsuit,becausequote
anyreasonableprincipalwouldhaveknownthatMorse'sactionswereunlawful.

Slide12:TheSupremeCourtreversedtheNinthCircuitbya54vote,rulingthatschoolofficials
canstopstudentsfromshowingmessagesthatpromoteillicitdruguse.ChiefJusticeJohn
Roberts'smajorityopinionheldthatalthoughstudentsdohavepartialrighttopoliticalspeech
evenwhileinschool,thisrightdoesnotextendtoprodrugmessagesthatcouldundercutthe
school'smissiontodiscouragedruguse.

Slide13:Thedissentingopinionwasthat
theFirstAmendmentprotectsstudentspeechifthe
messagedoesntviolatearulenorpurposelypushesconductthatisillegalandharmfultostudents.
Thebannerdoesntdoeitherofthose,andquotetheCourtdoesseriousviolencetotheFirst
Amendmentbyupholdingfrederickspunishment.

Slide14:Thiscaseisimportantuptillthisdaybecauseithasalargeimpactonthemillionsof
highschoolstudentsaroundthecountry.Itimpactsthe1stamendmentrightsineducational
facilities.

Slide15:Questions:readonscreen,AT1isnominorsarenotasresponsibleasalladults,but
itisnonethelessimportanttoprovidelargedegreesoffreespeechetcetera,justnotpossibly
disruptiveandnoneducationalspeech/expression.

Essentialquestion:whenisitOKtochallengeauthority?Ithinkitwasreasonableforfrederick
tochallengeauthorityinthiscase,butheshouldalsorealizethathisexpressionwassilly.