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Yanzhuo Li
Professor Ogden
English 1A-50680
June 22, 2016

English 1A: An Annotated Bibliography

Bisgaard-Frantzen, Cecilie. "Overcoming the Stigma of Mental Illness." Berkeley
Wellness. University of California, Berkeley, 10 June 2015. Web. 17 June 2016.
This article is based upon an interview with a Professor of Psychology at the University of
California, Berkeley as well as the University of California, San Francisco, School of
Medicine. This professor specializes in developmental psycopathology as well as the stigma
of mental illness. This article be particularly usual for the research paper since he is an expert
in the field of stigma in mental illness. The author of the article mentions that the three most
stigmatized conditions in the current society include mental illness, homelessness, and drug
abuse. It is important to understand the concept of internalized stigma, which is stigma that
people with certain conditions may feel because of how ashamed they are of their condition.
The other mentions that it is likely not possible to and mental illness unless we find some
way to take out certain genetic traits from people before they are born. However, all good
way to start over coming the problems related to mental health issues is my reducing the
stigma that is attached to those conditions. The other mentions that raising awareness is
generally a critical first step as evidenced by the success of the American Parkinson's disease
associations sponsorship by Michael J Fox and Muhammad Ali. Next, there is a need to raise
empathy and continually promote education related to mental health conditions.
Chung, Kenny, Susan L. Ivey, Wenting Guo, Kevin Chung, Catherine Nguyen,
Christine Nguyen, Corina Chung, and Winston Tseng. "Knowledge, Attitudes, and
Practice toward Epilepsy (KAPE): A Survey of Chinese and Vietnamese Adults in
the United States." Epilepsy & Behavior 17.2 (2010): 221-27.
This is a peer-reviewed public health research article based on a quantitative study regarding
knowledge, attitude, and practice towards epilepsy for Chinese and Vietnamese adults in the
United States. It is from the journal of Epilepsy & Behavior. The authors found that there is
continued discrimination and misunderstanding towards people with epilepsy within the
Asian American community. The level of discrimination is somewhat higher than the U.S.
national average but lower than that of other countries. A sizable portion of those surveyed in
the study said that they would not knowingly hire someone with epilepsy. In addition, there
were a number of people who would not allow their children to play with other children with
epilepsy. Many of these discriminatory views towards people with epilepsy are derived from
misguided perceptions of the condition. There were many gaps in the knowledge and

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misconceptions that were captured in this study. A good first step towards overcoming the
negative views would be proper education regarding the condition.
Chung, Kenny, Yuan Liu, Susan L. Ivey, Debbie Huang, Corina Chung, Wenting Guo,
Winston Tseng, and Daveena Ma. "Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE): Insights
about Epilepsy and Support Groups from People with Epilepsy (San Francisco Bay
Area, USA)." Epilepsy & Behavior 24.2 (2012): 256-63.
This is a qualitative peer-reviewed public health research paper based on input from people
with epilepsy from the San Francisco Bay Area. It is from the journal of Epilepsy &
Behavior. The authors conducted focus group with people with epilepsy to ask them about
the resources that our available to them as well as what resources they would like to have.
The study finds that many resources are not fully utilized by people with epilepsy either
because they are not aware of these resources or because they feel as if they are not worthy of
using them. The internalized stigmatization is a barrier that public health professionals must
face in helping people with chronic mental health conditions. In addition, people with
epilepsy sometimes still continue to feel discriminated against especially in the workplace.
From the article, it seems that there is a great need to further disseminate information about
resources that are available to people with epilepsy as well as educate the general public in
order to reduce the level of discrimination that people with epilepsy may face.
Elbow, Peter. Freewriting. Class Handout. English 1A Online-50680. Dr. Kirsten
Ogden. Pasadena City College. Summer 2016.
This handout regarding freewriting was an important basis for the free riding assignments in
the course. The author mentions that freewriting is an effective way for writers to dive into
their writing and get their creative juices flowing. It is also an effective way of improving
ones writing skills. In the process of free writing, writers are supposed to use about 10
minutes at least three times per week to write without stopping even if there is no reasonable
or meaningful thing to write. The advantage of free writing is that a often allows writers to
overcome writers block and get started on something that may be difficult to begin. Free
writing is a good way to overcome the inertia some people may have towards writing.
Epilepsy Foundation. "Epilepsy and Asian American Communities." Epilepsy
Foundation. Epilepsy Foundation, Mar. 2014. Web. 04 June 2016.
The Epilepsy Foundation as a national nonprofit organization that advocates for people with
epilepsy. This source should be a reliable one because it has been reviewed by a physician as
well as a registered nurse. This information is related to epilepsy and Asian American
communities. It has information regarding how many people in the Asian American
Community have epilepsy. The website says that 255,000 Asian Americans in the United
States or 3 in 200 have epilepsy. The website also mentions that simply talking about
the condition of epilepsy may be taboo among a number of Asian American communities.
The heavy stigmatization of this condition makes it difficult for those with the condition to
openly come out and seek help for themselves. Another challenge is providing adequate

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resources due to the large number of languages that are used within the Asian American
community. Efforts are generally Focus first on larger Asian-American segments such as the
Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Indian-American populations.
Epilepsy Foundation. "What Happens During A Seizure?" Epilepsy Foundation.
Epilepsy Foundation, Mar. 2014. Web. 04 June 2016.
The Epilepsy Foundation as a national nonprofit organization that advocates for people with
epilepsy. This source should a reliable one because it has been reviewed by a physician as
well as a registered nurse. This information is related to how seizures are like and what to
expect during a seizure. An important first step towards understanding the condition of
epilepsy is to be able to physically determine when someone is suffering from a seizure.
Because seizures may take on many different forms, it may be useful to understand what is
happening so that one may be of service to the person experiencing a seizure. The website
says that more people live with epilepsy than with autism spectrum disorders, Parkinsons
disease, multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy combined. It seems that there is quite a large
population of people who have epilepsy and it would be a great service to them if more
people understood more about the condition so that they no longer have to hide in the
shadows and feel discriminated against. As Mary Pipher mentioned in her book Writing to
Change the World, establishing an understanding and familiarity help people to develop
compassion towards a particular cause or group of people. Moreover, people will likely
become more compassionate towards those with epilepsy as they know more about the
condition and learn to not have to fear the condition.
Goldberg, Natalie. Writing down the Bones: Freeing the Writer Within. Class
Handout. English 1A Online-50680. Dr. Kirsten Ogden. Pasadena City College.
Summer 2016.
The author talks about how much she enjoyed writing and how she studied it in college but
realized she could not make a living on it. Therefore, she and her friends decided to start a
restaurant. Therefore, she and her friends decided to start a rastaurant. The author continued
to love writing. She emphasize is the need for using detail in the writing. The author also
mentions the Vietnam memorial in Washington D.C. and how it was important to have each
name listed because it is an improtant detail. It is true that detail is a critical component of
excellent writing. The details are often the components of writing that truly brings out the
essence of the message that a writer is attempting to convey to readers. Further, the details
may allow readers to feel closer to the subject matter and thus making the topic more relevant
and possibly more interesting.
Hacker, Diana and Nancy I. Sommers. A Writer's Reference. Boston: Bedford/St.
Martins, 2007. Print.
This is a valuable reference guide for writers as it has a comprehensive overview of many of
the resources that writers may need in the course of writing a paper. There's information
regarding how to properly compose paragraphs with structured openings and closing.
Furthermore, there is a section regarding how to properly read and annotate pieces of writing

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so that the notes maybe use for future research and writing. The section on annotations is
particularly useful since it will help make a lengthy research paper more manageable if the
proper notes are in place throughout the semester. Another you so aspect of the reference
guide is information on how to locate research articles inside a database for use in conducting
research on a particular topic. There are also a number of strategies presented in the reference
guide for improving coherent and developing points with in a paragraph. More importantly,
there is a section that discusses how to best support a thesis through the use of integrated
quotes as well as signal phrases that allows the reader to anticipate the upcoming writing.
Similar to Mary Pipher's Writing to Change the World, this reference guide also has an area
discussing how to manage wordy sentences so that they are more distinct and to the point.
One of the most important uses for this reference guide is how to properly create MLA
citations since the course research paper is based on the MLA citation and formatting is an
important component of the paper. It seems that a number of students had issues with getting
the MLA citation done properly. It is helpful to refer to the section regarding MLA citations
in the reference book because it is a thorough overview of the many different types of citation
models for both in text citation as well as works cited.
Pipher, Mary Bray. Writing to Change the World. New York: Riverhead, 2006. 1-18.
This is the introduction for the book. The author discusses how writing can bring our society
together and be used as a form of communication. Furthermore, good writing helps bring
people closer to expressing their true emotions and knowledge to others around them. The
author mentions that language can be used as a weapon when it is applied towards
dehumanizing others and creating I-it or I-thou relationships. The ultimate purpose of writing
is for creating change and bridging the differences that may be separating people. Moreover,
writers can be positive agents of change. Good writing can be used to bring up positive
perspectives and encourage people to continue using their words and opinions in a world that
may be somewhat ignorant and unjust. Stories are also a good way of communicating new
information and connecting with people. The author claims that it is her goal to help readers
translate their passion and idealism into actual action. That goal is quite lofty and very noble.
There is indeed a great deal wrong with the current world and writing effectively may indeed
present a way towards making the world a better place by changing the hearts and minds of
the masses.
---. Writing to Change the World. New York: Riverhead, 2006. 19-32. Print.
This is chapter one of the book, and it is about how to write in a way that connects with
readers. The author talks about how the other changed her view point after she found out
about the different evils that exist in the world through Reading The Diary of Anne Frank.
This reading was an inspiration for the author because it helped her to see not only the evil
that exists in the world but also the goodness and kindness. She feels that through art related
and moral writing, we can change the world. Pipher uses an example from her past
experience to exemplify the impact that change writing can have when she discusses the

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letters that she wrote to Amnesty International that ultimately led to a number of campaigns
being started. Reading about the author's success through a writing campaign is useful as it
shows the reader actual results that may come about from good writing. It is sometimes
useful for people to know that others have succeeded in order for them to be able to see the
potential of a new idea.
---. Writing to Change the World. New York: Riverhead, 2006. 33-44. Print.
This is chapter two of the book, and it is about knowing more about oneself in order to be a
better writer. It's important to keep a clear perspective and reflect upon ones expectations so
that one may produce honest and detailed works of writing. The author talks about how big
and complex her family was and reflects on how those relationships shaped her perspectives
and taught her to always ask questions about why things are as they are. She talks about how
people can learn from books and how they can change people's emotions. She also mentions
how people may write in a certain way depending on who they are and at the same time have
the writing teach them more about themselves. It is an interesting concept to think of writing
as a method of self learning sense people normally write about things they had already
learned about. Perhaps it is the reflective process of writing that allows people to learn more
about themselves.
---. Writing to Change the World. New York: Riverhead, 2006. 45-52. Print.
This is chapter three of the book, and it is about communicating a unique prospective. It's
important to realize that every person has a unique history and experiences as well as a way
of reacting to others. Their past experiences will influence their minds and words and terms
of how their brains will react. People normally want to communicate with others so that they
can share their ideas and effect change. Pipher recommends exploring different variations of
voice and writing styles in order to find a authentic voice that works best. Finding the right
form of writing may also be an important step in locating one's true voice. It is a good
message to encourage readers to write in different styles in order to find the one that works
best for them.
---. Writing to Change the World. New York: Riverhead, 2006. 53-64. Print.
This is chapter four of the book, and it is about growing one's soul in order to become a
better writer. This chapter is about recognizing why people care for the things that they do. It
is important to know about what types of things are important to people and oneself. The
chapter also encourages readers to grow their souls and expand their horizons. The author
talks about how passions can emerge from tragedy and also her experiences in school and in
college. Pipher explains why she wanted to start writing and the importance of writing to her.
The author goes on to discuss how events that have great meaning can be a source of
inspiration for activism. It is true that events that cause a great deal of change may inspire
people to see the world in a different way and this want to create further changes.

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---. Writing to Change the World. New York: Riverhead, 2006. 75-88. Print.
This is chapter six of the book, and it is about getting started in writing. Pipher discusses how
starting a new piece of writing is almost like diving into a cold pool which she does
frequently as part of her exercise. She comments that it is important to first take ourselves
seriously and to think of ourselves as writers. Further, she mentions that it is important to
think about the external and internal landscapes when writing to get a fuller picture. It is also
important to unlearn how to write badly, which she says it's possibly a product of an
educational system that often emphasizes quantity over quality. Sometimes it is necessary to
make assertions and claims even though they may be against the conventional wisdom. The
author goes on to talk about the need for support in order to write well and continually grow.
She shares her experiences from her writing group Praire Trout and how they operate to
help each other succeed and face failure. It is useful to have a support group to support
oneself through difficult times. The support group may also be a good source of motivation
and offer further suggestions to improve one's writing.
---. Writing to Change the World. New York: Riverhead, 2006. 89-108. Print.
This is chapter seven of the book, and it is about how a writer may use psychological
principles to create change. Pipher begins by talking about what psychotherapy is and how it
allows people from different backgrounds to have conversations that can lead to
transformations. She also makes the claim that therapy and writing have many
commonalities. For example, she believes that both require a great deal of discipline as well
as long hours of working. She goes on to talk about the professional voices and styles that
writers and therapist have. There's also mention of the connections that writers and a therapist
make. The reading then goes on to talk about common qualities that therapist and change
agents can have. Father mentions that it is crucial for therapist to have respect for the people
that they work with in order for them to succeed. Moreover, it is crucial that the therapist not
have contempt for the client because that may lead to fear and offensiveness which may
impede the process of change. One of the crucial differences between therapist and writers is
that therapist are physically there with their clients while writers normally do not need to
directly face the readers. The author also emphasizes the need for establishing a connection in
order to be successful in persuading the reader of the message that the writer is trying to get
across. There is also a need to fram the issue so that it is clearer for the reader to see the issue
that is being presented.
---. Writing to Change the World. New York: Riverhead, 2006. 109-132. Print.
This is chapter eight of the book and it is about the writing process. Pipher discusses the
importance of writing from the heart and of writing something that is of personal importance.
She mentions that writing takes a great deal of energy and focus and that she can't imagine
writing about subjects that have no personal importance to herself. She likely has the luxury
of writing what she wants as many people, such as millions of students around the world,
simply write what they are asked to because they have no other choice. She goes on to talk

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about the need for humility in writing because speaking with absolute certainty causes
narrators to seem as if they are preaching and that may be off-putting to some readers. The
author mentions that almost everything that occurs in real life may be used as material for
writing. Everyday occurrences are good starting points to get new ideas. In terms of
advancing an argument, the author says that the logic of the argument is of great importance.
Further, a good method of starting an argument would be to discuss the circumstances that
led to the argument as well as the conclusions that are reached. In the writing process it is
good too use original thought and also be precise in the use of language and descriptions.
Some compelling pieces of writing are made from unique juxtapositions. In addition, the use
of subtlety and metaphors in writing may also add another layer to the writing that makes it
better and more relatable.
---. Writing to Change the World. New York: Riverhead, 2006. 133-148. Print.
This is chapter nine of the book and it is about the point of view that a writer takes. Pipher
states that change writing is often about understanding the points of view of others as well as
sharing different points of you with readers. The two crucial aspects regarding point of view
are the relationship that a writer has with the subject and the relationship that the writer has
with readers. The three basic platforms or positions that a writer can work from are intimate
insiders, outsiders and connected critics. Each of these positions has its own pros and cons.
The author states that her favorite writing often takes the point of view of a connected critic
because it allows her to seek objectivity as well establish a connection with the subject.
Another crucial aspect of establishing a point of view is deciding which types of pronouns to
use since that will be indicative of the type of relationship that the writer has to the reader and
the material. Another significant element of the point of you is framing. The framework in
which a writer decides to write made dictate how easily the reader is able to accept the point
of view. This chapter was particularly useful since it discusses more concrete issues with
writing and in deciding the final details of how to present a subject matter.

---. Writing to Change the World. New York: Riverhead, 2006. 133-148. Print.
This is chapter ten of the book, and it is about the revision process. Pipher discuss that there
is a need to take a break from the writing and rest before going back to make revisions. She
mentions that sometimes having some space and time allows for a different perspective to
come about and creates a better environment for reflection on the work. The author also
mentions the usefulness of reading a piece of work aloud especially to other people to see the
effect that the work has on them. In addition, it is helpful to hear the opinions of others after
they listen to the writing. She also mentioned that writer shut set a goal of convey the greatest
meeting with the use of the few passwords and most precise language. It is also helpful to
keep the audience in mind so that the writing may be more focused. Pipher goes on to discuss
the importance of having a strong introduction and conclusion senses are likely the pieces of
the writing that will stay with the reader the longest. This is important point to remember in
writing since it affects the effectiveness out the overall message of the writing.

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---. Writing to Change the World. New York: Riverhead, 2006. 149-166. Print.
This is chapter thirteen of the book, and it is about personal essays. An interesting quote from
the beginning is from Gandhi who says that change occurs when deeply felt private
experiences are given public legitimacy (205). Pipher talks about her experiences buying
groceries and what she thinks about when she goes through the aisles. Further, she says that
as we go deeper into our own experiences and offer more honest insight, we can make more
and greater connections to other people. Pipher shares two personal essays from other writers.
One essay is about a story regarding tiling in a kitchen that connects experiences from far
ranging issues such as alcoholism and drunk driving. She goes on to share another story from
a piano teacher that is useful and inspiring students to practice piano. The author mentions
that personal essays are a way that people can share their struggles with others and reflect on
the meaning of those experiences. In addition, observation is a critical first step in the process
of reflection.
Staples, Brent. Black Men and Public Space. Reading Critically, Writing Well. Ed.
Rise B. Axelrod, Charles Cooper, Alison Warriner. Boston/New York:
Bedford/St.Martins, 2014. 132-135. Print.
This story discuss this to issue that black men may face in public spaces to to the color of
their skin. It is a point reflection peace that speaks to the difficulties and discrimination that
people of color may experience in everyday life. The author of the story talks about how he
has to go out of his way in order to not be threatening to either people while in public areas.
This piece is particularly effective because of the personal experiences that the author is able
to share.
Swales, John. The Concept of Discourse Community. Class Handout. English 1A
Online-50680. Dr. Kirsten Ogden. Pasadena City College. Summer 2016.
This article is meant to discuss discourse communities. The reading was incredibly complex
and dry. It was easier and more effective Googling the term discourse community in order to
understand what a discourse community is. The author goes into detail regarding the
differences between a speech community and a discourse community. The author seems to be
very concerned about the definition of a speech community. A discourse community as the
author explains it has a broad set of common public goals as well as methods of
communication among its members. In addition, it discourse community can use is
participation to provide information and feedback to members. Members of a discourse
community may sometimes have to have knowledge or expertise above a certain threshold in
other to benefit from the community.

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Thomas, Sanjeevv, and Aparna Nair. "Confronting the Stigma of Epilepsy." Ann
Indian Acad Neurol Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 14.3 (2011): 158-63.
Web. 17 June 2016.
This is peer reviewed article related to the stigma of epilepsy and how to meaning fully
confront the stigma. The authors state that the stigma related to epilepsy is a major hurdle for
people with epilepsy. Further, people who live in economically week nations often do not
have the resources to deal with this stigmatization that they may experience at different
levels. The paper presents an overview of the stigma related to epilepsy from fields such as
sociology and social psychology. The authors offer suggestions and tools that may used to
reduced stigma. The target audiences are healthcare providers, social workers, as well as
policy makers who can make a difference in the lives of those with epilepsy. A quote from
the article that may be used in the paper is: Those who bear a stigmatizing trait become
targets for stereotypes built around that trait, prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior
such as shunning, exclusion and punishment. (159)
World Health Organization. "Epilepsy." World Health Organization. World Health
Organization, Feb. 2016. Web. 11 June 2016.
The World Health Organization is a recognized authority and a global organization that
works on improving peoples health. This website has a wealth of useful information about
epilepsy as well as a facts sheet that lists important information that the general public should
know about the condition. There is also a section for publications that are related to epilepsy.
Some important aspects of epilepsy that the website goes over include key facts, signs and
symptoms, rate of disease, causes, treatment, prevention, social and economic impact, and
human rights. A potentially useful quote from this website is: Approximately 50 million
people worldwide have epilepsy, making it one of the most common neurological diseases
globally. (n.pag)