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# ANALYSIS TO SIMPLE

MACHINE
The castings must be lifted 200 mm
In the lever system shown in figure 4 above, the load being lifted is about
three times more than the effort being applied. The load divided by the effort
gives a ratio. This ratio is a force multiplier, or how much more load can be
lifted compared to the effort.
The lever in figure therefore has a force-multiplier ratio of 2.88 (a ratio has no
units of value).
.
EFFORT = 260 N
600 mm

ANALYSIS TO SIMPLE
MACHINE
EFFORT = 260 N

600 mm

Example 1
Find the force-multiplier ratio for the lever in figure above.
Force-multiplier ratio

= 750 N
260 N
=

2.88

effort

ANALYSIS TO SIMPLE
MACHINE
EFFORT = 260 N

600 mm

Find the distance-multiplier ratio leverage for the lever in figure 4 above.
Movement-multiplier ratio = distance moved by the effort
= 600 mm
200 mm
=3

ANALYSIS TO SIMPLE
MACHINE

Example
Find the efficiency of the lever system shown in figure 4.
Efficiency () = Force Ratio 100
Movement Ratio
= 2.88 100
3

= 96

The system shown in figure has an efficiency of nearly 100 per cent. No
system can be 100 per cent efficient; there are always losses. The losses in a
lever system consist of energy lost to friction at the fulcrum of the lever and
the energy lost in strain as the lever bends slightly. In some cases a small
amount of energy will also be lost in the form of sound.

## Remember, no machine is 100 per cent efficient. Common

energy losses include heat energy due to friction, strain
energy and sound energy.