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2. History………………………………………………………………………………..……………….3

3.Association with the Sikhs..............................................................................4

4.Modern Punjabi..............................................................................................5
5.Characteristics of the Modern Punjabi Language:.........................................5
6.Modern Punjabi Language and Dialects........................................................5
7.Punjabi Language in Pakistan.......................................................................6
9.Punjabi Language in India.............................................................................8
10.The Punjabi Diaspora...................................................................................9
11.Major Punjabi dialects..................................................................................9
12.Classification by Ethnologue.......................................................................12
15.Writing system............................................................................................13
16.Punjabi in modern culture...........................................................................13
17.Punjabi literature........................................................................................14
18.Early Punjabi literature (c. 11th-13th century)...........................................14
19.The Mughal and Sikh periods (c. 16th century - 1849)................................14
20.Modern Punjabi literature (c. 1860-1947)...................................................15
21.Post-Independence literature (since 1947)..................................................16
22.Pakistani Punjabi Literature………...….………………………………………...……...17

23.Diaspora Punjabi literature........................................................................17

24.Muslim Sufis And Punjabi Poets…………………………………...….

25. Hazrat Baba Farid-ud-din Masud Ganj-Shakkar………………………………….19

26.Bulleh Shah: The Mystic Voice of Punjab………………………………………...... ..21
‫بلھیا کی جاناں میں کون‬........................................................................................21
27.Waris Shah's Heer Ranjha in Universities.................................................23
28.Punjabi Dictionaries:.................................................................................24


Pakistan (Urdu: ‫ )پاِکستان‬has two official languages: Urdu, which is also the national language
and Pakistan's lingua franca, and English. Additionally, Pakistan has four major provincial
languages: Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Balochi, as well as two major regional languages: Saraiki and
Kashmiri. Most of the languages of Pakistan belong to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European
language family.
Punjabi is considered to be an ancient language. The name “Punjabi” comes from the region it is
spoken in “The Punjab”. [1] The word Punjab means five rivers, the land of five rivers. Punjab had
a different ancient name but during to the Mughul rule, the rulers who spoke mostly Persian gave the
region this name. Punjab is actually a combination of two Persian words, “Punj” meaning five and
“ab” (Pronounced Aab) meaning water.

Punjabi is fusion and tonal language. Tonal being that it distinguishes words by the tones and fusion,
because of its tendency to fuse morphemes (a morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit that has
semantic meaning). It is from the Indo-Aryan group of languages, which is the sub group of Indo-
Iranian and Indo-European group of languages. Punjabi (also Panjabi) in Shahmukhi, is an Indo-
Aryan language spoken by the Punjabi people in India, Pakistan and other parts of the world.
It is an Indo-European language within the smaller Indo-Iranian subfamily. Unusually for an Indo-
European language, Punjabi is tonal; the tones arose as a reinterpretation of different consonant series
in terms of pitch. In terms of linguistic typology it is an inflecting language, and word order is
Subject Object Verb

Punjabi Scripts:
Punjabi uses two different scripts,
Perso-Arabic is used by Muslims of Pakistan. The Perso-arabic script was also referred to as
Shahmukhi. “Shahmukhi” means “from the mouth of the kings”. Shahmukhi relates to the Persian
language used by the Muslim kings of India. This script is a slightly modified version of the Persian
script. Perso-Arabic used in writing in Urdu, Pashto, Sindhi and Balochi languages.
Gurmukhi by the Sikhs of Eastern Punjab. “Gurmukhi” means “from the mouth of the Gurus”
whereas the Gurmukhi script used by the Sikh Gurus is the descendent of the Brahmi script.
Gurmukhi has also been adapted to written in Hindi, Khairboli, Sanskrit, etc.
Punjabi is spoken in both Eastern and Western Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, the mountainous areas
of Pakistan and India. Apart from this Punjabi is also spoken by immigrants who migrated to USA,
Canada, U.K., Australia and Singapore. Almost a 100 million people worldwide speak different
dialects of this language as their first language. The number of people who speak Punjabi as a second
language is very small, but most people who speak Urdu or Hindi can understand most Punjabi
dialects without too much effort.
Punjabi is the preferred language of the Sikh people and it is also the language of their religion.
Punjabi as a language gained prominence in the 17th century when the first real Punjabi literary work
started emerging.
According to the Ethnologue 2005 estimate, there are 88 million native speakers of the Punjabi
language, which makes it approximately the 13th most widely spoken language in the world.
The Punjabi language, also spelled Panjabi, boasts a rich literary history that is still celebrated by the
Punjabi-language community today.

Traditional oral poetry and Punjabi folklore has been passed down and transcribed for generations
and remains a popular part of Punjabi folk culture. This rich cultural history, combined with the
Punjab territory’s past of British colonialism, makes the development of the language an intriguing
point of study.

Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language like many other modern languages of South Asia. It is a
descendant of Sauraseni Prakrit, which was the chief language of medieval northern India. Punjabi is
considered to be an ancient language. The exact date when it started cannot be estimated but the
ancestors of the Punjabis have been known to have inhabited the Indus Valley as far back as 2500
Punjabi emerged as an independent language in the 11th century from the Sauraseni
Apabhramsa.Other early influences on Punjabi include Indo-Aryan and pre-Indo-Aryan languages.
The literary tradition in Punjabi started with Fariduddin Ganjshakar (Baba Farid) (1173–1266), many
ancient Sufi mystics and later Guru Nanak Dev ji, the first Guru of Sikhism. The early Punjabi
literature was principally spiritual in nature and has had a very rich oral tradition. The poetry written
by Sufi saints has been the folklore of the Punjab and is still sung with great love in any part of
Between 1600 and 1850, Muslim Sufi, Sikh and Hindu writers composed many works in Punjabi.
The most famous Punjabi Sufi poet was Baba Bulleh Shah (1680–1757), wrote in the Kafi style.
Bulleh Shah practiced the Sufi tradition of Punjabi poetry established by poets like Shah Hussain
(1538–1599), Sultan Bahu (1629–1691). His lifespan also overlapped with the legendary Punjabi
poet Waris Shah (1722–1798), of Heer Ranjha fame. Waris Shah's rendition of the tragic love story
of Heer Ranjha is among the most popular medieval Punjabi works. Other popular tragic love stories
are Sohni Mahiwal, Mirza Sahiba and Sassi Punnun. Shah Mohammad's Jangnama is another fine
piece of poetry that gives an eye witness account of the First Anglo-Sikh War that took place after
the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
The linguist George Abraham Grierson in his multivolume Linguistic Survey of India (1904–1928)
[2] used the word "Punjabi" to refer to several languages spoken in the Punjab region: the term
"Western Punjabi" (ISO 639-3 pnb) covered dialects (now designated separate languages) spoken to
the west of Montgomery and Gujranwala districts, while "Eastern Punjabi" referred to what is now
simply called Punjabi (ISO 639-3 pan). After Saraiki, Pothohari and Hindko (earlier categorized as
"Western Punjabi") got the status of separate languages, the percentage of Punjabi speakers in
Pakistan decreased from 59% to 44%.
Association with the Sikhs
Punjabi is not the predominant language of the Sikh scriptures (which though in Gurmukhi script are
written in several languages). A few portions of Guru Granth Sahib use the Punjabi dialects, but the
book is interspersed with several other languages including Brajbhasha, Khariboli), Sanskrit and
Persian. Guru Gobind Singh, the last Guru of the Sikhs composed Chandi di Var in Punjabi, although
most of his works are composed in other languages like Braj bhasha and Persian.
However, in the 20th century, the Punjabi-speaking Sikhs started attaching importance to the Punjabi
written in the Gurmukhi script as a symbol of their distinct identity. The Punjabi identity was affected
by the communal sentiments in the 20th century. Bhai Vir Singh, a major figure in the movement for
the revival of Punjabi literary tradition, started insisting that the Punjabi language was the exclusive
preserve of the Sikhs. After the partition of India, the Punjab region was divided between Pakistan
and India. Although the Punjabi people formed the 2nd biggest linguistic group in Pakistan after
Bengali, Urdu was declared the national language of Pakistan, and Punjabi did not get any official
status. The Indian Punjab, which then also included what are now Haryana and Himachal Pradesh,
became Hindi-majority.
In the 1960s, the Shiromani Akali Dal proposed "Punjabi Suba", a state for Punjabi speakers in India.
Paul R. Brass, the Professor Emeritus of Political Science and South Asian Studies at the University
of Washington, opines that the Sikh leader Fateh Singh tactically stressed the linguistic basis of the
demand, while downplaying the religious basis for the demand—a state where the distinct Sikh
identity could be preserved. The movement for a Punjabi Suba led to trifurcation of Indian Punjab
into three states: Punjab (India), Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.

Modern Punjabi
In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 languages with official status in India. It is the first official
language of Punjab (India) and Union Territory State Chandigarh and the 2nd official language of
Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the provincial language of Punjab
(Pakistan) the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan. [3]
The famous Punjabi writers from Pakistan include:
• Shareef Kunjahi
• Mir Tanha Yousafi
• Sanawar Chadhar
• Alam Lohar

• Abid Tamimi
• Anwar Masood
• Aatish
• Shaista Nuzhat
• Raja Muhammed Ahmed
The famous Indian Punjabi poets in modern times are:
• Prof. Mohan Singh
• Amrita Pritam
• Balwant Gargi
• Shiv Kumar Batalvi
• Surjit Paatar
Characteristics of the Modern Punjabi Language:
• Modern Punjabi is a very tonal language, making use of various tones to differentiate words
that would otherwise be identical. Three primary tones can be identified: high-rising-falling,
mid-rising-falling, and low rising.
• By using these tones properly, Punjabi language speakers are able to differentiate between
words that otherwise appear to be the exact same as one another. Needless to say, for those
who attempt to learn Punjabi as a second language, grasping the importance of and mastering
the different tones can be extremely challenging.

Modern Punjabi Language and Dialects

Two main varieties of the Punjab language exist: western, also known as Lahnda, and eastern, also
known as Gurmukhi. There are an estimated 88 million native Punjabi-language speakers around the
world today, the majority of them located in India and Pakistan. Additional Punjab language
communities can be found around the world, from the United States to South Africa.

Administrative Divisions of Punjab Pakistan:

Punjabi is the most spoken language of Pakistan. Punjabi is spoken as first language by over 44.15% of
Pakistanis. Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group in the country. Punjabis are dominant in key
institutions such as business, agriculture, industry, government, army, navy, air force, and police which is why
about 70% of Pakistanis can understand or speak Punjabi.

The Punjabis found in Pakistan are composed of various social groups, castes and economic groups. Muslim
Rajputs, Jat, Tarkhans, Dogars, Gujjars, Gakhars, Khatri or Punjabi Shaikhs, Kambohs, and Arains, comprise
the main tribes in the north, while Awans, Gilanis, Gardezis, Syeds and Quraishis are found in the south. There
are Pashtun tribes like the Niazis and the lodhis, which are very much integrated into Punjabi village life.
People in major urban areas have diverse origins, with many post-Islamic settlers tracing their origin to
Afghanistan, Persia, Turkey, Arabia and Central Asia.

Punjabi Language in Pakistan

• Pakistan is a linguistically diverse country, and Punjabi is only one of many languages that
can be found in the country. As in India, Punjab language speakers in Pakistan tend to be

found primarily in the country’s Punjab Province, formerly part of British India’s Punjab
Territory. The official national languages of Pakistan are English and Urdu, a form of Farsi.
Even in the Punjab state, Urdu is more prominently used than Punjab for formal purposes.
• Because Urdu is taught in Punjab schools and every Punjabi reads and writes the language,
the Punjabi language is used predominantly in the spoken form. In the late 20th century, a
movement calling for an increased use of Punjabi in Pakistan led to the publishing of many
Punjabi language texts using the Urdu script.

Census History of Punjabi Speakers in Pakistan

Year Population of Pakistan Percentage Punjabi Speakers

1951 33,740,167 67.08% 22,632,905

1961 42,880,378 66.39% 28,468,282

1972 65,309,340 66.11% 43,176,004

1981 84,253,644 48.17% 40,584,980

1998 132,352,279 44.15% 58,433,431

In the National Census of Pakistan (1981) Saraiki, Pothohari and Hindko (Before categorized as
"Western Punjabi") got the status of separate languages thats why number of Punjabi speakers got

Provinces of Pakistan by Punjabi speakers (2008)

Ra abi
Division centag
nk spea

— Pakistan 35,3

1 Punjab 71,7

2 Sindh 2,26

3 Islamabad Capital Territory 3,62

North-West Frontier 396, 0.97

Province(NWFP) 085 %

318, 2.52
5 Baluchistan
745 %

Federally Administered Tribal 12,8 0.23

Areas 80 %

Punjabi is spoken as a native language by over 2.85% of Indians. Punjabi is the official language of
the Indian state of Punjab and the shared state capital Chandigarh. It is one of the official languages
of the state of Delhi and the second language of Haryana.
The Punjabis found in India are composed of various ethnic groups, tribal groups, social groups
(caste) and economic groups. Some major sub-groups of Punjabis in India include Ahirs, Arora,
Bania, Bhatia, Brahmin, Chamar,Gujjar, Kalals/Ahluwalias, Kambojs, Khatris, Lobanas, Jats,
Rajputs, Saini, Sood and Tarkhan. Most of these groups can be further sub-divided into clans and
family groups.
Most of East Punjab's Muslims (in today's states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and
Chandigarh) left for West Punjab in 1947. However, a small community still exists today, mainly in
Malerkotla, the only Muslim princely state among the seven that formed the erstwhile Patiala and
East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). The other six (mostly Sikh) states were: Patiala, Nabha, Jind,
Faridkot, Kapurthala and Kalsia. [4]
Census History of Punjabi Speakers In India

Year Population of India Punjabi Speakers in India Percentage

1971 665,457,679 14,108,443 2.57%

1981 665,287,849 19,611,199 2.95%
1991 838,583,988 23,378,744 2.79%
2001 1,028,610,328 29,102,477 2.83%

Punjabi Language in India

• Punjabi is an officially recognized language in India’s constitution; however, as with most of
India’s linguistic groups, Punjabi’s distribution in the country is very regional. The majority
of Punjab language speakers are found in the Punjab state, formerly part of British India’s
Punjab Territory, where Punjabi serves as the official state language. Hindi is also widely
spoken in the Punjab state.
• The Punjab state is home to a large Sikh population, as well as a number of holy Sikh shrines
and temples. For this reason, Sikhism and the Punjabi language are often seen as having an
intertwined identity in India.

The Punjabi Diaspora

Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabis have
emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom (where it is the
second most commonly used language) and Canada, where in recent times Punjabi has grown fast
and has now become the fourth most spoken language.

Major Punjabi dialects

The Majhi dialect is Punjabi's prestige dialect and spoken in the heart of Punjab where most of
the Punjabi population lives. The Majhi dialect, the dialect of the historical region of Majha,
which spans the Lahore, Sheikhupura, Kasur, Okara, Gujranwala, Wazirabad, Sialkot,
Narowal, Gujrat and to some extant in Jhelum District of Pakistani Punjab and Amritsar, Tarn
Taran Sahib, and Gurdaspur Districts of the Indian State of Punjab.


This dialect is spoken in north Pakistani Punjab. mainly The area where Pothowari is spoken
extends in the north from Muzaffarabad to as far south as Jhelum, Gujar Khanand Rawalpindi.
[phr] 49,440 (2000 WCD). Murree Hills north of Rawalpindi, and east to Bhimber. Poonchi is
east of Rawalakot. Potwari is in the plains around Rawalpindi. Alternate names: Potwari,
Pothohari, Potohari, Chibhali, Dhundi-Kairali. Dialects: Pahari (Dhundi-Kairali), Pothwari
(Potwari), Chibhali, Punchhi (Poonchi), Jhelumi, Mirpuri. Pahari means 'hill language'
referring to a string of divergent dialects, some of which may be separate languages. A dialect
chain with Panjabi and Hindko. Closeness to western Pahari is unknown. Lexical similarity
76% to 83% among varieties called 'Pahari', 'Potwari', and some called 'Hindko' in Mansehra,
Muzaffarabad, and Jammun. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan,
Northern zone, Western Pahari.

Jhangochi or Rachnavi

Jhangochi (‫ )جھنگوچی‬dialect is spoken in Pakistani Punjab. Jhangochi or Rachnavi is the oldest

and most idiosyncratic dialect of the Punjabi. It is spoken throughout a widespread area,
starting from Khanewal and Jhang at both ends of Ravi and Chenab to Gujranwala district. It
then runs down to Bahawalnagar and Chishtian areas, on the banks of river Sutlej. This entire
area has almost the same traditions, customs and culture. The Jhangochi dialect of Punjabi has
several aspects that set it apart from other Punjabi variants. This area has a great culture and
heritage, especially literary heritage, as it is credited with the creation of the famous epic
romance stories of Heer Ranjha and Mirza Sahiba. It is spoken in the Bar areas of Punjab, i.e.,
areas whose names are often suffixed with 'Bar', for example Sandal Bar, Kirana Bar, Neeli
Bar, Ganji Bar and also from Khanewal to Jhang includes Faisalabad and Chiniot.


This dialect is spoken in Pakistani Punjab. The Shahpuri language has been spoken by the
people of the town Shahpur. This language has been spoken by the people of District
Sargodha including Dera Chanpeer Shah, Khushab, Jhang, Mianwali, Attock, parts of
Faisalabad (formerly Lyallpur), parts of Dera Ismail Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Bahawalnagar,
Chakwal, Mianwali, Sargodha, Khushab and Mandi Bahauddin districts.


Classified under Lahnda languages by many linguists; perhaps differs from Punjabi. Hindko
dialect is spoken in north west Pakistani Punjab and North-West Frontier Province mainly this
dialect is spoken in districts of Peshawar, Attock, Nowshehra, Mansehra, Balakot, Abbottabad
and Murree and the lower half of Neelum District and Muzafarabad.


Malwi spoken in the eastern part of Indian Punjab. Main areas are Patiala Ludhiana, Ambala,
Bathinda, Ganganagar, Malerkotla, Fazilka, Ferozepur. Malwa is the southern and central part
of present day Indian Punjab. It also includes the Punjabi speaking northern areas of Haryana,
viz. Ambala, Hissar, Sirsa, Kurukshetra etc. Not to be confused with the Malvi language,
which shares its name.


Doabi spoken in Indian Punjab. The word "Do Aabi" means "the land between two rivers" and
this dialects is spoken between the rivers of Beas and Sutlej. It includes Jalandhar,
Nawanshahr, Kapurthala and Hoshiarpur districts.


Bhattiani, is a mixture of Punjabi and Rajasthani, spoken in Eastern Punjab.

Rathi, is very commonly spoken in Ratia and Tohana in India

Powadh or Puadh or Powadha is a region of Punjab and parts of Haryana between the Satluj
and Ghaggar rivers. The part lying south, south-east and east of Rupnagar adjacent to Ambala
District (Haryana) is Powadhi. The Powadh extends from that part of the Rupnagar District
which lies near Satluj up to the Ghaggar river in the east, which separates the states of Punjab
and Haryana. Parts of Fatehgarh Sahib district, and parts of Patiala districts like Rajpura are
also part of Powadh. The language is spoken over a large area in present Punjab as well as
Haryana. In Punjab, Kharar, Kurali, Ropar, Nurpurbedi, Morinda, Pail, Rajpura and Samrala
are the areas where the Puadhi language is spoken and the area itself is claimed as including
from Pinjore, Kalka to Bangar area in Hisar district which includes even Nabha and Patiala in


Although Dogri is generally considered a separate language having its own vocabulary, some
sources consider it a dialect of Punjabi. It is spoken by about 3.5 million peoples in the Jammu
region of India.


Saraiki or Siraiki is a dialect continuum of jhangochi dialect of Punjabi and Sindhi.It is now
considered to be a separate language, instead of merely a dialect of Punjabi.It is mostly
spoken in southern and western districts of Punjab,which comprises Multan,
Lodhran,Bahawalpur, Mianwali, Bhakkar, Layyah, Dera Ghazi Khan, Rahim Yar Khan,
Vehari, some parts of Khanewal,Bahawalnagar and Khushab districts. It is also spoken by
majority of population of Dera Ismail Khan district in NWFP province, kachi plain of
Balochistan, northern part Sindh, and cities of Hyderabad and Karachi.


The people of Pothohar speak Pothohari dialect. However, the people of Chakwal or the
Dhanni area in particular do not speak Pothohari and are ethnologically not regarded as
Potoharis. They speak a distinctive Chakwali or Dhanni dialect of Punjabi, which is closer to
Shahpuri, a dialect spoken in the Shahpur-Salt Range area and also has a slight element of
Saraiki and Pothohari.

Baar di Boli

Baar di Boli, this is a foreign dialect which evolved mostly in the United Kingdom and is
spoken by the immigrants living there. This has a number of English words. The word Baar di Boli
means, language of the outside or language from the foreign land.
Jangli, spoken in Pakistan side of Punjab. Mostly in Jhang, Khanewal, Chistian and
Bhawalnagr along with adjoining areas. This is considered to be a very old dialect and is more
like eastern Punjabi spoken in a Siraiki tone. Among the most distinct difference is the use of the
word “Then” in most Punjabi dialects it is “tay” in Jangli it is “wut”. And the Jangli speakers have
a tendency to use it more often than required.
Ghebi, spoken in Pindi Gheb, Fatehjhang and adjoining areas, however it is spoken in a belt
with a large mix Punjabi dialects.
Chakwali, Spoken by the people of Chakwal and adjoin area. This is a southern Potohar dialect,
very close to dialects spoken in Sahiwal region .
Lubanki, an almost extinct dialect, was spoken in Rajasthan and Gujrat regions of India and in
some parts of Pakistan .
Gojri, This dialect was used by the Gujjars from both sides of Punjab. Mostly the northern part of

Classification by Ethnologue
Because of the stature of Ethnologue as a widely accepted authority on the identification and
classification of dialects and languages, their divergent views of the geographical distribution
and dialectal naming of the Punjabi language merit mention. They designate what tradition
calls "Punjabi" as "Eastern Punjabi" and they have implicitly adopted the belief (contradicted
by other specialists) that the language border between "western Panjabi" and "eastern
Panjabi" has shifted since 1947 to coincide with the international border.
English Majhi, Lahori/Amritsari Pothohari Dogri Pahari

What are you doing? Ke karde Ke (kay) peya

Ki karda ae? Ka karne uo?
(masculine) o? kare-nanh?

What are you doing? Ke (kay) pai
Ke karani
(masculine to address Ki kardi aa? Ka karani ay? (payi) kare-
female) neenh?
Tudda ke haal e
How are you? Ki haal hai, Keh aal e? ke aal a?
Tusi Punjabi Bol laende Punjabii bolne Punjabi Punjabi uburne
Do you speak Punjabi?
ho ? uo? bolde o? o?
Tusi kidhar to ho?/ Tusi Tusa kudhr Tus kudhr
Where are you from? Kathe ne o?
kidron aaye ho? nay aiyo? to o?


Front Central Back

Close iː uː


Close-mid eː ə oː

Open ɛː ɑː ɔː

Punjabi has three phonemically distinct tones that developed from the lost murmured (or "voiced
aspirate") series of consonants. Phonetically the tones are rising or rising-falling contours and they
can span over one syllable or two, but phonemically they can be distinguished as high, mid, and
low.A historical murmured consonant (voiced aspirate consonant) in word initial position became
tenuis and left a low tone on the two syllables following it: ghoṛā [kòːɽɑ̀ː] "horse". A stem final
murmured consonant became voiced and left a high tone on the two syllables preceding it: māgh
[mɑ́ːɡ] "October". A stem medial murmured consonant which appeared after a short vowel and
before a long vowel became voiced and left a low tone on the two syllables following it: maghāṇā
[məɡɑ̀ːɳɑ̀ː] "to be lit". Other syllables and words have mid tone.

Writing system
There are several different scripts used for writing the Punjabi language, depending on the region and
the dialect spoken, as well as the religion of the speaker. In the Punjab province of Pakistan, the script
used is Shahmukhi. The eastern part of the Punjab region, located in India, is divided into three states.
In the state of Punjab, the Gurmukhī script is generally used for writing Punjabi. Punjabi Hindus, who
are mainly concentrated in the neighbouring Indian states such of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, as
well as the national capital territory of Delhi, sometimes use the Devanāgarī script to write Punjabi.
Punjabi in modern culture
Punjabi is becoming more acceptable among Punjabis in modern media and communications. Punjabi
has always been an intergal part of Indian Bollywood cinema. In recent years a trend of Bollywood
songs written totally in Punjabi can be observed. Punjabi pop and folk songs are very popular both in
India and Pakistan at the national level. A number of television dramas based on Punjabi characters
are telecast by different channels. The number of students opting for Punjabi literature has increased
in Pakistani Punjab. Punjabi cinema in India has also seen a revival and more and more Punjabi
movies are being produced

Punjabi literature
Punjabi literature refers to literary works written in the Punjabi
language particularly by peoples from the historical Punjab region of
India and Pakistan including the Punjabi diaspora. The Punjabi
language is written in several different scripts, of which the
Shahmukhi, the Gurmukhī scripts are the most commonly used.

Early Punjabi literature (c. 11th-13th century)

Whereas the oldest Punjabi literature can be found in the fragments of writings of the 11th Nath yogis
Gorakshanath and Charpatnah, the Punjabi literary tradition is generally conceived to commence
with Fariduddin Ganjshakar (1173–1266). Farid's mostly spiritual and devotional verse were
compiled after his death in the Adi Granth.
So says Farid
My bread is of wood
And hunger is my sauce
Those who eat the rich food
Do suffer from a fatal mood and
The severe agonies

The Mughal and Sikh periods (c. 16th century - 1849)

The Janamsakhis, stories on the life and legend of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), are early examples of
Punjabi prose literature. Nanak himself composed Punjabi verse incorporating vocabulary from
Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, and other Indic languages as characteristic of the Gurbani tradition. Sufi
poetry developed under Shah Hussain (1538–1599), Sultan Bahu (1628–1691), Shah Sharaf (1640–
1724), Ali Haider (1690–1785), and Bulleh Shah (1680–1757). In contrast to Persian poets who had
preferred the ghazal for poetic expression, Punjabi Sufi poets tended to compose in the Kafi.
Punjabi Sufi poetry also influenced other Punjabi literary traditions particularly the Punjabi Qissa, a
genre of romantic tragedy which also derived inspiration from Indic, Persian and Quranic sources.
The Qissa of Heer Ranjha by Waris Shah (1706–1798) is among the most popular of Punjabi qissa.
Rañjha Ranjha kar di niñ maeñ
ape Rañjha hoi
Ranjha maeñ no har koi akho Heer na akho koi
Other popular stories include Sohni Mahiwal by Fazal Shah, Mirza Sahiba by Hafiz Barkhudar
(1658–1707), Sassi Punnun by Hashim Shah (1735?-1843?), and Qissa Puran Bhagat by
Qadaryar (1802–1892).
Heroic ballads known as Vaar enjoy a rich oral tradition in Punjabi. Prominent examples of heroic or
epic poetry include Guru Gobind Singh's in Chandi di Var (1666–1708). The semi-historical Nadir
Shah Di Vaar by Najabat describes the invasion of India by Nadir Shah in 1739. The Jangnama of
Shah Mohammad (1780–1862) recounts the First Anglo-Sikh War of 1854-56.

Modern Punjabi literature (c. 1860-1947)

The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature
through the introduction of British education during colonial rule.
The setting up of a Christian mission at Ludhiana in 1835 (where a printing press was installed for
using Gurmukhi fonts, and which also issued the first Punjabi grammar in 1838), the publication of a
Punjabi dictionary by Reverend J. Newton in 1854 and the ripple-down effect of the strengthening
and modernizing the education system under the patronage of the Singh Sabha Movement in 1860s,
were some of the developments that made it possible for ‘modernism’ to emerge in Punjabi literary
culture. ‘Modernism’ here refers to a range of developments in the Punjabi literary culture, starting
with the break from tradition or the past to a commitment to progressive ideology, from the
experimental nature of the avant-garde to the newness of the forward-looking.
The Punjabi novel developed through Nanak Singh (1897–1971) and Vir Singh. Both in the realms of
Punjabi poetry and novel, it is Vir Singh who is often seen as the harbinger of modernism. Starting
off as a pamphleteer, he soon evolved into a major literary figure of his times, contributing a large
body of qualitative and trail-blazing literature. If Bhai Vir Singh retrieved Punjabi poetry from the
excesses of Persian poetry, he also energized the narrative tradition by adapting the Western form of
the novel to his indigenous expression and ideology. Nanak Singh however actually grounded the
novel into local culture. Turning to the indigenous modes of story telling such as Qissa, popular in the
medieval period, Nanak Singh gave to the Punjabi novel a distinctive local character and habitation. It
was through his efforts that the novel managed to reclaim not only its vital link with the oral tradition,
but also its soft, delicate formless texture. In the novels of Nanak Singh, fluidity of sentimentalism
goes hand in hand with the ideological concerns of a social reformer, something that Sohan Singh
Seetal and Jaswant Singh Kanwal, who were to come later, also tried to emulate, fairly successfully.
The novels, short stories and poetry of Amrita Pritam (1919–2005) highlighted, among other themes,
the experience of women, and the Partition of India. Poetry began to explore more the experiences
of the common man and the poor through the work of Puran Singh (1881–1931) whereas Dhani Ram
Chatrik (1876–1957), Diwan Singh (1897–1944) and Ustad Daman (1911–1984) composed
nationalist poetry during and after the Indian freedom movement. The Punjabi diaspora also produced
poetry whose theme was revolt against British rule in Ghadar di Gunj ('Echoes of Mutiny')[5].
Modernism was meanwhile introduced into Punjabi poetry through Prof. Mohan Singh (1905–78) and
Shareef Kunjahi.

Post-Independence literature (since 1947)

Among the more prominent Punjabi poets since 1947 are included Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Shiv
Kumar Batalvi (1936–1973), Munir Niazi (1928–2006), Surjit Paatar (1944 - ) and Pash (1950–
1988). This generation sought to re-inscribe the ideology and aesthetics of Punjabi poetry in the
modern context. Though in some form or the other, their poetry bore the scars of the trauma of
Partition, each one of them wrote in as varied an idiom and as distinct a voice as anyone could.
Brought up on a heavy dose of English and American poetry, Puran Singh was definitely more liberal
and direct than most of his predecessors, and his poetic expression always bristled with naked
sensuousness and primal celebration of human body. Most explicitly Freudian, he openly proclaims
in one of his poems, "I want to be an animal again."
Mohan Singh could be described as a ‘progressive modern’ for it was he who liberated Punjabi poetry
from the constraints of mysticism and/or revivalism. His range was simply astounding as he moved
imperceptibly from the romantic felicities of Saave Pattar to the political consciousness of Adhvate,
from the Freudian flights of Kasumbhara to the socialist fancies of Vadda Vela. If there is anything
that defines Amrita Pritam's poetry, it is the boldness of her expression, pungency of her social
criticism and relentless critique of defunct morality that often works to the detriment of women.
In 1950s, when Mohan Singh and Amrita Pritam had already won great accolades and the future of
the Punjabi poetry didn’t appear to be very encouraging, it was the soul-stirring lyricism of Shiv
Batalavi and the thought-content of Harbhajan Singh that infused new possibilities into it. Attuning
himself to the raw, jagged rhythms of his work-a-day, earthy life, Shiv Batalavi created such haunting
melodies of pain and suffering that they continue to resound in our hearts, even today. A skilful
craftsman of words, he had this rare ability to make even a fleeting, ordinary moment pulsate with
eternal possibilities. To this day, his poetic drama Luna, in which he re-interpreted the popular legend
of Puran Bhagat from a woman's standpoint, remains one of the best works ever produced in
contemporary Punjabi literature.
The rediscovery of Punjabi identity in Pakistan has been explored in the novels of Fakhar Zaman and
Afzal Ahsan Randhawa. Literary criticism in Punjabi has also emerged through the writings of
Shafqat Tanvir Mirza (b. 1932), Ahmad Salim, and Najm Hosain Syed (b. 1936).
In the Punjabi language, however, Charan Singh Shaheed, Joshua Fazal Deen, Heera Singh Dard and
Nanak Singh were among the early practitioners of the short story. Some of the factors that helped in
popularizing this form in its early days were the proliferation of printing presses across Punjab, the
mushrooming of literary magazines, journals and newspapers, and the spread of literary education. In
its initial stages, at least, the Punjabi short story was subversively used as a tool for propagating Sikh
ideology and thought, as most of the story-tellers also happened to be strong votaries of the Singh
Sabha Movement, too.
Unlike the short story, drama as a form in Punjabi has not had a very eventful or a consistent track
record of growth and evolution, as it has been somewhat sporadic and fitful. Interestingly, the
beginnings of the Punjabi drama/theatre are often traced back to the fortuitous efforts of Norah
Richards, the Irish wife of a Unitarian minister preaching in Punjab.
Around 1913-14, Norah started drama competitions among her students of Dyal Singh College,
Lahore, where she was teaching then. It was in one of these competitions that Ishwar Nanda, then a
student and now widely recognized as one of the pioneers of Punjabi drama, discovered his talent for
playwriting. His one-act play Suhag (1913) was adjudged the best and that marked the beginning of
the indigenous theatre movement in Punjabi. Ishwar Nanda went on to write over twenty one-act
plays, all of which show a definite influence of Ibsen, fired as he was by an unsparing zeal for social
reform and change.

Pakistani Punjabi literature

Pakistan is where the majority of Punjabis live. Due to politics Urdu has displaced the natural local
language so not many writers write in Punjabi. A few do and have contributed positively to the
corpus. These include Afzal Sahir, Mazhar Tirmazi, Najm Hosain Syed and Nadir Ali. Mansha Yaad
is the author of twenty one books including award winning novel ‘Tawan TawaN Tara‘ (Masud
Khadarposh Award and Waris Shah Award for 1998), and a collection of short fiction ‘Wagda Paani‘
(Waris Shah Award 1987). He also won a Pride of Performance from the Pakistan Government in
2004 for his literary contributions.
Nadir Ali's last collection Kahani Praga was given the Waris Shah Memorial Award as the best
book of the year in Punjabi in 2005 by Pakistan Academy of Letters. A few of his short stories
have been translated into English and Urdu. Also, Lahore Television dramatized his story Ik Maani
DaaniyaaN Di in 1999.
Some of the important Punjabi poetry books of 2004 are: Sada Cheter Ajey Naheen Aya by Ashiq,
Kach Dian Tooban by Dr Adal Siddiqui, , Baree Wich Samunder by Majeed Khawar, Dil
Dyaan Baran by A.G. Hosh and Dubdey Paindoo Da Dhola by Mohammad Azeem. Sufne
Tayyaba De is a collection of Punjabi Na'ats by Muhammad Sharif Anjum. Naveen Punjabi
Nazam De Rattan by Akram Bajwa is a collection of critical writings on 13 modern Punjabi poets. In
a large and well-organized ceremony held at the Alhamra Arts Centre, Lahore, in April 2004, prizes
were awarded for Punjabi books published in 2003. The following writers received first prizes:
Saleem Ahang (poetry), Amin Malik (prose), Dr Syed Akhter Jaafri (criticism), M.A. Azad Khokhar
(religious literature), and Babu Javed Garjakhi (children's literature).

Diaspora Punjabi literature

Punjabi Diaspora literature has developed through writers in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia,
the United States as well as writers in Africa such as Ajaib Kamal (b. 1932) in Kenya. Some of the
themes explored by diaspora writers include the cross-cultural experience of Punjabi migrants, racial
discrimination, exclusion, and assimilation, the experience of women in the diaspora, and spirituality
in the modern world. Second generation writers of Punjabi ancestry such as Rupinderpal Singh
Dhillon (b. 1969) have explored the relationship between British Punjabis and their immigrant
parents as well as experiment with surrealism, science-fiction and crime-fiction. The vast majority of
Diaspora writers are immigrants from the Punjab whose primary language is not English. Very few
have been born and raised outside of India, and choose to write in Punjabi. The western mindset is
somewhat different to the east. The current tendency in the West is towards non-realistic and anti-
realistic literature and realism is being considered inauthentic now, which can be seen in the works of
western raised Punjabis.

 Canadian Punjabi literature

Sadhu Binning is probably the most modern exponent in Canada. His writings mix western ideals
with immigrant experiences. Binning is a central figure in the Punjabi arts community in B.C. As an
author and a UBC professor, he is a big reason why the Punjabi language has flourished in this
province in recent decades. Binning has published several books of poetry, fiction and plays in
English and Punjabi since here as a 19-year-old in 1967. His works have been included in more than
20 anthologies in both languages. These include the ground breaking Jugtu (2002) and the popular
Kis Da Kasoor.
Binning is also one of the founders of the Punjabi Language Education Association, which has
successfully got Punjabi courses introduced into the public school curriculum across the Lower
Mainland. He has often used many loan words from English, which reflect how Punjabi spoken in the
west has adapted and often replaced traditional Punjabi wrords with western nouns, which are in the
west now more familiar. This has been a change in the language, influenced by living in the west. In
many cases where there were not any Punjabi nouns, English words have been adapted.
Surjeet Kalsey has also made waves in Canada and India.Surjeet Kalsey is an accomplished Punjabi
Canadian author of poetry, short fiction and drama. In her writings, Surjeet explores the lives of
Punjabi Canadian women and communities from aware ‘immigrant’ perspectives
Ajmer Rode is a Punjabi Canadian author living in Vancouver BC. A poet, playwright, translator and
a cultural activist he writes both in English and Punjabi. Rode is one of the poets whose work has
been added to Poetry international web with eight of his poems in English along with Punjabi
translations. One of the poems ‘Kalli’ reflecting on the bonding between human and animal life in
Punjab, received special attention from editors. The poem was also displayed with a painting
Homecoming in a Surrey Arts Gallery exhibition (Jarnail Singh – Discovering the soul of Punjab) in

 British Punjabi literature
Mazhar Tirmazi(1950-) is a British Punjabi Poet and Playwright. He is a distinct voice in modern
Punjabi literature as he explores the theme of separation from the homeland with persistence, and in
all its manifestations till it evolves into a constant longing for the lost/unattainable.
Author of four collections of poetry, Tirmazi's work is a part of the curriculum in Punjabi language
courses at Chandigargh University; his play on partition titled ‘A Lifetime on Tiptoes – Healing the
Wounds of Partition’ has been performed/read in English, Wellish and Punjabi in India, Pakistan and
UK. He is a recipient of the British parliamentary award ‘Punjabis in Britain’ that recognizes poetic
acumen, linguistic ability and promotion of Punjabi culture. And most important, Tirmazi is the
author of a beautiful and popular song ‘UmraN LangiaN PabaN Bhaar’ (a lifetime on tiptoes).
His published work includes ‘Jag da Sufna’ (dream of awakening), ‘Thandi Bhubal’ (cold ashes),
‘Kaya Kagad’ (1998) and ‘Dooja Hath Sawali’ (2001). His poetry also features in Kings College
anthology ‘Mother Tongues’, and in a collection of underground poems titled ‘Waiting Room’.
Tirmazi has worked as a journalist in London for Urdu-English bilingual daily newspaper Awaaz
International and Akbar Wattan, and has organized conferences to promote Punjabi language in
Britain and Australia.
Roop Dhillon (Rupinderpal Singh Dhillon) ( 1969-) is one of a few born and raised westerners who
have chosen to write in Punjabi. His generation has blended English and Punjabi in such a way as to
produce a new dialect, codified to English grammar, yet distinctly Punjabi. This Creole can be called
a "Khichadi" Punjabi. He has chosen to write in this manner, thus being a pioneer. Known as the
Godfather of British Punjabi prose, he has written the adventure novel Neela Noor ( 2007), and
many science fiction and surrealist short stories.

Muslim Sufis And Punjabi Poets

1. Hazrat Baba Farid-ud-din Masud Ganj-Shakkar
Do not speak a word that pains,
For in everyone the true Lord reigns,

Do not break the hearts to whirl,
For each man’s heart, is a priceless pearl

Hazrat Ji, commonly known as Baba Farid was a Sufi preacher, saint and a poet, belonging to the
Chishtia Order of Sufis.Baba Farid is generally recognized as the first major poet of the Punjabi
language and is one of the pivotal saints of the Punjab. Revered by Muslims and Hindus alike, he is
also considered one of the fifteen Sikh Bhagats within Sikhism and his works form part of the Guru
Granth Sahib, the Sikh sacred scripture. He was born on the first day of Ramzan in 1173 in the city
of Kothiwal, near Dipalpur in West Punjab. He was given this name after the great Sufi poet Farid-
ud-Din Attar. Baba Ji’s birth place is now called Pak Pattan; but its original name as recorded in
history books was Ajodhan. . The present city of Pak Pattan lies on the banks of the river Sutlej. The
name Ganj Shakar has an interesting tale. Baba Farid’s parents took extreme care that their child
offered regular prayers and got an insightful religious education. The parents kept sweets under his
pillow as a reward for the prayers their son offered. It was an incentive to keep him going that way.
One day his mother found out that there were no more sweets in the house.
Fearing that their child would not pray without the promised prize the parents decided to collect some
pebbles and place them under Baba Farid’s prayer mat. Farid woke and went straight to his prayer-
mat, the moment he finished the prayers and reached for the prize his mother shouted, “No, sonny,
they are not sweets; your father has gone to the bazaar to bring them.”
“But they are sweets,” said Baba Farid and placed them in his mouth one by one.
“No!” the mother shouted again.
But the child kept munching sweets and to his mother’s astonishment found them sweeter than
before.The bewildered parents witnessed a miracle. From that day, Sheikh Farid came to be known as
Ganj-e-Shakar [the store-house of sweets]. Allah had kept child’s faith intact.
YOU are my protection
O Lord, my salvation
Grant to Sheikh Farid
Thy blessing
Of thy adoration
O Lord
Farid endured severe penance and asceticism under Khwaja Qutbuddin’s training. He went through
strenuous physical exercises and suffered pain and hunger, and narrated his experiences in a number
of his verses:
So says Farid
My bread is of wood
And hunger is my sauce
Those who eat the rich food
Do suffer from a fatal mood and
The severe agonies

Baba Sheikh Farid Shakarganj is quite truly regarded as the founder of Punjabi poetry. His verse goes
deep into the soul, and induces in man the vision of the ideal life, a rising emotion in the heart, more
purified than before.
2. Bulleh Shah: The Mystic Voice of Punjab

‫بل ھیا کی جاناں میں کون‬

‫ نہ میں وچ کفر دیاں ریتاں‬،‫نہ میں مومن وچ مسیتاں‬
‫ نہ میں موس ٰی نہ فرعون‬،‫نہ میں پاکاں وچ پلیتاں‬
‫ نہ بھنگاں نہ وچ شراباں‬،‫نہ میں اندر بھید کتاباں‬
‫ نہ وچ جاگن وچ سون‬،‫نہ وچ رنداں مست خرباں‬
‫ نہ میں وچ پلیتی پاکی‬،‫نہ وچ شادی نہ غمناکی‬
‫ نہ میں آتش نہ میں پون‬،‫نہ میں آبی نہ میں خاکی‬
‫ نہ میں ھندی شہر نگوری‬،‫نہ میں عربی نہ لہوری‬
‫ نہ ميں ریندا وچ چندَون‬،‫نہ ھندو نہ ترک پشوری‬
‫ نہ میں آدم حوا جایا‬،‫نہ میں بھید مزہب دا پایہ‬
‫ نہ وچ بھیٹن نہ وچ بھون‬،‫نہ میں اپنا نام دھرایا‬
‫ نہ کوئی دوجہ ہور پچھانہ‬،‫اول آحر آپ نوں جاناں‬
?‫ بلہا اوہ کھڑا اے کون‬،‫میتھوں ہور نہ کوئی سیانا‬

Bulleh Shah was a Sufi poet who lived in Pakistan from 1680
to 1758. His given name was Abdullah Shah, Bulleh was a nickname and it is the name he chose to
use as a poet. Bullah traveled to Lahore in search of a Murshid(Master). He found Hazrat Shah
Inayat, a well-known Qadiri Sufi and gardener by profession. He asked Inayat, "I wish to know how
to realize God." Inayat Shah replied, "What is the problem in finding God? One only needs to be
uprooted from here and replanted there." Inayat graced Bulleh
with the secret of spiritual insight and the Knowledge of God. [6]

Then who can dare put strife to me,

Who dare anyone harm to me,
Shah Inayat graces me,
Gives riddance of wrangles and of me,
My master, my Shah is with Me.

Bulleh Shah spent rest of his life in total self denial; he did not
care at all of the concern and hostility that orthodox mullahs
unleashed at him for his rebellious poetry. He danced ecstatically,
fearlessly, perpetually and thus treaded the path of spiritual realization and atonement. He preached
love and humanism with a firm rejection of any formal religious authority on the affairs of the people.
So it was no surprise that on his death in 1758, he was denied a burial in Muslim cemetery and was
thus laid to rest in isolation outside the main city of Qasur. But his massage of love, his fight against
religious bigots, the traditional hierarchs of different theological schools in the subcontinent, made
him a people’s wali or saint.
RaateeN jaageyN kareyN ibaadat
You wake up at night to pray
RaateeN jaagan kuttey teython uttey
Dogs are awake at night too, more than you

Bhonkanon band mool naa hundey

They never stop barking
Jaa ruree tey suttey, teythoN uttey
and sleep on heap of dump, are better than you

Khasam apney da dar na chhaddey

They never leave the door of their provider
BhaaweyN so so wajjan jutey
even if beaten by shoes

Bulleh shah kooee rakht weyhaaj ley

Bulleh Shah get into love someone
Baazee ley gaey kuttey tethoN uttey
Or the dogs are better than you. [7]

Me the first, me is the last,

Me don’t know, no one else,

3. Waris Shah
Waris Shah (Punjabi: ‫وارث شاہ‬,) was a Punjabi Muslim poet, born in what is now Pakistani Punjab,
living from 1722 – 1798. He is best-known for his seminal work Heer Ranjha, based on the
traditional folk tale of Heer and her lover Ranjha. Heer is considered one of the quintessential works
of classical Punjabi literature. The story of Heer was also put to paper by several other writers,
including Damodar Das, Mukbal, and Ahmed Gujjar, but Waris Shah's version is by far the most
popular today. Shah who was born in Jandiala Sher Khan is popular in India and Pakistan, especially
in the Punjab region.
Waris Shah was born into a reputed Syed family, the descendant of Islamic prophet Muhammad. He
was born in the village of Jandiala Sher Khan, Sheikhupura District, Punjab in or around 1722.
Shakespeare of the Punjabi language
Waris Shah is also called Shakespeare of the Punjabi language because of his great poetic love story,
Heer Ranjha. Some critics say that through this story of romantic love, he tried to portray the love of
man for God (the quintessential subject of Sufi literature).

Waris Shah's Heer Ranjha in Universities

Waris Shah's Heer Ranjha is taught in many universities, including Punjab University, Lahore and
Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, as a great legendary love story and classic example of
Punjabi language writing.
Waris Shah's Heer is best expressed in a vocal format by the late Alam Lohar.These are the opening
lines[1] from Waris Shah's rendering of Heer:

“ Awwal hamad khuda da

vird kariye
Ishq kita su jag da mool mian
Pehlaan aap hi rabb ne ishq kita
Te mashooq he nabi rasool mian ”
Of all the folk tales of Punjab, Waris Shah’s Heer is the most
widely read, recited (actually, sung), commented upon and quoted
love story. People have even done Ph.Ds on it. It is a very long
poem, written in the Punjabi baint meter, comprising of 630 odd
stanzas of 6 to 12 or more lines each. Waris Shah wrote it sometime
in the 1760s.

Ajj aakhañ Waaris Shah nooñ, kitoñ Qabrañ vichooñ bol!

te ajj Kitab-e-ishq da koi agla varka phol!
ik roi si dhee punjab dee tuu likh-likh mare vaiñrh
ajj lakkhañ Dheeyañ rondiañ tainuuñ Waaris Shah nooñ kaehn

uth Darmandañ diaa dardiaa uth tak apñrha Punjaab!
ajj bele laashaañ vichhiaañ te laoo dii bharii Chenaab![8]

Punjabi Dictionaries:
• Singh, Maya. The Panjabi dictionary. Lahore: Munshi Gulab Singh & Sons, 1895.
• Punjabi Dictionary English to Punjabi Dictionary
• Punjabi to English Dictionary English to Punjabi Dictionary
• Online translator English to Punjabi, or vice-versa
• Punjabi Kashmiri Dictionary by Omkar N Koul and Rattan Lal Talashi. Patiala: Language
Department. 1998.
• Pothohari (Nothern Lahnda,pahari or Modern panjistani) dictionary by Sharif Shad



3. “India's culture through the ages” by Mohan Lal Vidyarthi.

Published by Tapeshwari Sahitya Mandir, 1952. Page 148

4. Punjabis Without Punjabi By Ishtiaq Ahmed. The News, 24 May


5. Gill, Tejwant Singh, "Reading Modern Punjabi Poetry: From Bhai Vir

Singh to Surjit Patar" in Journal of Punjab Studies (Spring-Fall 2006,

Volume 13, No. 1 &2)

6. The Life of Bulleh Shah By: J.R. Puri and T.R. Shangari

7. Bulleh's Poetry Translated by Shuman Kashyap

8. Translation from a book in English by Darshan Singh Maini titled:

Studies in Punjabi Poetry