You are on page 1of 179

CHAPTER # 04

HIGHWAY DRAINAGE

(8 @ 80 = 10%)

Topics as per Syllabus

  • 4.1 Introduction and Importance of Highway

Drainage System

  • 4.2 Causes of Moisture Variation in Subgrade Soil

  • 4.3 Surface Drainage System

4.3.1

4.3.2

Others)

Different Types of Road Side Drain

Cross Drainage Structures (Culverts and

4.3.3

Different Types of Energy Dissipating

Structures

  • 4.4 Sub-surface Drainage System

4.4.1

4.4.2

6/27/16

4.4.3

Drainage of Infiltered Water

Control of Seepage Flow

Lowering of Water Table

2

Few Shots from Our Urban Roads: Raining on 2071/01/21 Monday Afternoon at Kathmandu

WHAT IS THE MAIN PROBLEM?

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

6/27/16 4
6/27/16 4
6/27/16
6/27/16
6/27/16 5

5

6/27/16 6
6/27/16 6

6/27/16

6/27/16 6
6
6
6/27/16 7
6/27/16 7
6/27/16 7
6/27/16 7
6/27/16 8
6/27/16
6/27/16
6/27/16 8
8
8
6/27/16 9
6/27/16
9

4.1 Introduction and Importance of Highway Drainage System

6/27/16 11
6/27/16 11
6/27/16 11

4.1.1 Introduction of Highway Drainage System

WATER Highway.

is

the

Main

Cause

of

Deterioration

of

Stability

of

Highways

is

Reduced

by

the

Increase in Moisture Contents of the Soil.

So Highway’s Drainage is ESSENTIAL.

DRAINAGE is an INTEGRAL PART of the ECONOMIC HIGHWAY DESIGN and CONSTRUCTION.

6/27/16 13
6/27/16
13

Damage of Highway by Wat

Three

of

the

Most

Important

Aspects of Highway Design –

DRAINAGE

DRAINAGE and

DRAINAGE.

What is Highway Drainage?

Process of Removing

Excess

Surface

and

and Controlling the

Sub-surface

Water

Within the Right-of-Way (ROW).

Includes

Interception

and

Diversion of

Water from Over, Under and the Vicinity of

the Road Surface.

4.1.2 Importance of Highway Drainage System

1.

Softening of Road Surface (of earthen, gravel or WBM road) and Loosening their Strength or Bearing Capacity.

1. Softening of Road Surface (of earthen, gravel or WBM road) and Loosening their Strength or
17
17

6/27/16

6/27/16 18
6/27/16 18

6/27/16

6/27/16 18

18

2. Softening of Subgrade Soil and Reducing its Bearing Capacity.

2. Softening of Subgrade Soil and Reducing its Bearing Capacity . 6/27/16 19
2. Softening of Subgrade Soil and Reducing its Bearing Capacity . 6/27/16 19

6/27/16

2. Softening of Subgrade Soil and Reducing its Bearing Capacity . 6/27/16 19

19

3. Flexible Pavements Fail by Formation of Waves and Corrugation. 6/27/16 20
3. Flexible Pavements Fail by Formation of
Waves and Corrugation.
6/27/16
20

4. Flexible Pavement Fail by Formation of Ruts.

4. Flexible Pavement Fail by Formation of Ruts. 6/27/16 21
4. Flexible Pavement Fail by Formation of Ruts. 6/27/16 21

6/27/16

4. Flexible Pavement Fail by Formation of Ruts. 6/27/16 21

21

6/27/16 22
6/27/16
22

5. Stripping of Bitumen from Aggregates Loosening or Detachment of Some of the Bituminous Layers and Formation of Pot Holes.

5. Stripping of Bitumen from Aggregates  Loosening or Detachment of Some of the Bituminous Layers
23
23

6/27/16

6/27/16 24
6/27/16
6/27/16
24
24

Potholes Formation

Potholes Formation 6/27/16 25
Potholes Formation 6/27/16 25
Potholes Formation 6/27/16 25

6. Mud Pumping in Rigid Pavements

Movement

of

material

underneath

the

slab

or

ejection of material from underneath the slab as a result of water pressure.

Water

accumulated

underneath

a

PCC

slab

will

pressurize when the slab deflects under load.

6. Mud Pumping in Rigid Pavements • Movement of material underneath the slab or ejection of
6. Mud Pumping in Rigid Pavements • Movement of material underneath the slab or ejection of

6/27/16

26

6/27/16 27

6/27/16

27
27

7. Erosion of Soil from Top Surface of Roads and Embankment Slopes Due to Surface Water.

7. Erosion of Soil from Top Surface of Roads and Embankment Slopes Due to Surface Water.
7. Erosion of Soil from Top Surface of Roads and Embankment Slopes Due to Surface Water.

8. Considerable Damage to Shoulder and Edge of Highways.

8. Considerable Damage to Shoulder and Edge of Highways. 6/27/16 29
6/27/16
6/27/16
29
29
6/27/16
6/27/16
6/27/16 30

30

6/27/16 31

9. Failure of Earth Slope or Formation Slope and Embankment Foundation

9. Failure of Earth Slope or Formation Slope and Embankment Foundation 6/27/16 32
9. Failure of Earth Slope or Formation Slope and Embankment Foundation 6/27/16 32
6/27/16 33

6/27/16

33
33

10. Erosion of Side Slopes, Road Side Drains, and Formation of Gullies.

10. Erosion of Side Slopes, Road Side Drains, and Formation of Gullies. 6/27/16 34
10. Erosion of Side Slopes, Road Side Drains, and Formation of Gullies. 6/27/16 34

6/27/16

10. Erosion of Side Slopes, Road Side Drains, and Formation of Gullies. 6/27/16 34

34

6/27/16 35
6/27/16 35

11. Highway/Road Failure because of Slips and Landslides sue to the Flowing of Rain or Surface Water along the Roadside for Long Distances.

11. Highway/Road Failure because of Slips and Landslides sue to the Flowing of Rain or Surface
36
36
11. Highway/Road Failure because of Slips and Landslides sue to the Flowing of Rain or Surface

6/27/16

12. Damage to Highway/Road due to Freezing

Action

Due

Subgrade

to

at

the

Presence of Water in

Places

of Freezing

Temperature in Winter. 6/27/16 37
Temperature in Winter.
6/27/16
37
6/27/16 38
6/27/16
38

13.

Failure

of

Highway/Road

Because

of

Variation in the Volume of Subgrade Due to Variation in M/C in Expansive Soils.

13. Failure of Highway/Road Because of Variation in the Volume of Subgrade Due to Variation in

4.2 Causes of Moisture Variation in Subgrade Soil

Water/Moisture enters to the subgrade from various sources and it also losses from the subgrade.

Main Causes of Moisture Variation in Subgrade Soil

a)

By Free Water

Water seeping towards the subgrade soil from the adjacent higher ground.

Water infiltrated into the subgrade soil through pavement during rainfall.

Water penetrates from the shoulders and the pavement edges.

b)

By Ground Water

Rise and fall of WT.

Capillary rise from the lower soil level/layer.

Movement of water vapour through soil.

6/27/16 41
6/27/16 42

4.3 Surface Drainage System

Process

of

interception,

removal

and

diversion of surface water from highway

and the adjoining

land

is

known

as

Surface Drainage System.

Removal of rain water from road surface

and

road side

Drainage.

ground is called

Surface

Classification of Drainage Works

Surface

Drainage

Surface

Water

is

Intercepted and Diverted to a Natural

Channel or Depression.

Sub-surface

Sub-soil

Drainage

or

Seeping or Sub-surface Water is Intercepted and Removed to a Safe Place.

Cross Drainage Works Water of Natural Drainage Under the Highway is Intercepted and Disposed Off.

Categorization of Surface Drainage

  • 1. Drainage in Rural Highway

  • 2. Drainage in Urban Streets

  • 3. Drainage in Hill Roads

Drainage in Rural Highway

Water has to be Drained Off Both from Pavement with sufficient cambering and Shoulder.

So

Shoulders

are

Constructed

with

Suitable

Cross

Slopes so that

the

Water is Drained Off

to

the

Side

Drains. Usually

Side

Drains are

Open Unlined of Trapezoidal

Shape Cut to Suitable Cross Section and Longitudinal Slopes and are Provided Parallel to the Road Alignment.

In Embankment, the Longitudinal Drains are Provided on One or Both Sides Beyond the Foot of Formation.

In Cuttings, Drains are Provided on Either Sides of the Road Just Adjacent to the Shoulder Width.

In Places where Deep Open Drains are Undesirable Due to Restriction of Space (in cutting) a Covered Drain Properly Filled with Layers of Sand and Gravel may be Used.

6/27/16

46

Camber

Camber 6/27/16 47

Transverse slope

Transverse slope 6/27/16 48

Longitudinal slope

Longitudinal slope 6/27/16 49

Longitudinal channel

Longitudinal channel 6/27/16 50
6/27/16 51
6/27/16 51
6/27/16 51
6/27/16 52
6/27/16 53
6/27/16 53

Drainage in Urban Streets

Underground Drains are More Preferred Because of

the Limitations

of

the Land

and

Presence of Foot

paths, Driving Islands and Road Side Developments.

Water Drained from the Pavement Surface can be

Carried

Between

Forward

in

the Longitudinal Direction

the

Kerb

and

the

Pavement

for

Short

Distances.

This Water May be Collected in the Catch Pits and Lead through Underground Drainage Pipes.

Street inlets are used to drain-off the surface water.

6/27/16 56
6/27/16 57
6/27/16
57
6/27/16 58
6/27/16
58
6/27/16 59
6/27/16 59
6/27/16 59

6/27/16

59

Drainage in Hill Roads

Catch Drains are Provided Running Parallel to the Roadway from which Water is Diverted by Sloping Drains and Across the Road Pavement by Means of Culverts.

Side Drains are Provided Only on the Hill Sides of the Roads not on the Both Sides.

Due to Limitations in the Formation Width, the Side Drains are Constructed to such a Slope that at Emergency the Vehicles could Utilize this Space for Crossing or Parking.

Usual Types of Side Drains are Angle, Saucer, Kerb and Channel Drains.

6/27/16

60

6/27/16 61
6/27/16 62
6/27/16 63
6/27/16 64
6/27/16 65
6/27/16
65
6/27/16 66
6/27/16 67
6/27/16 68

Design of Surface Drainage

Into 2 Phases-

1. Hydrological Analysis

2. Hydraulic Analysis

Hydrological Analysis

Main

Objectives:

To

Estimate the

Maximum Quantity of Water Expected to

Reach

the

Element

of

Drainage

Under Consideration.

System

Various are

Factors Affecting the Run-off

Rate of Rainfall, Type of Soil and Moisture Condition, Topography of the Area, Type of Ground Cover Like Vegetation, etc.

Rational Formula • • Used to estimate the peak run-off water for highway drainage: Q =
Rational Formula
Used to estimate the peak run-off water for highway
drainage:
Q = C i A d
Where, Q = run-off,
C = run-off coefficient (ratio of run-off to rate of
rainfall)
i
= rainfall intensity mm/s
A d = drainage area in 1000
‘C’ depends mainly on the type of surface and its slope.
A d consists of several types of surface run-off coefficients
C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , …… with their respective areas A 1 , A 2 , A 3 , ….
The weighted value of
C =
Design value of ‘i’ is to be determined for the expected
duration of storm and frequency of occurrence.
6/27/16
71

The inlet time for the storm water to flow from the remotest point in the drainage area to the drain inlet is estimated using chart.

72
72

6/27/16

The

time for water

to flow through the drain

between the

inlet

and

outlet

points

is

determined based on the allowable velocity (general range from 0.3 to 1.5 m/s depending on the type of soil) of flow in the drain.

The frequency

of occurrence of the

storm or

the return period may be 5, 10, 25 or 50 years.

The

drainage

area from

which the surface

water is expected to flow to a side drain is determined with the help of contour map or by

studying the topography of the drainage area.

Hydraulic Analysis

After determining the design run-off Q, the next step is the hydraulic design of drains.

Side

drains

and

partially

filled

culverts

are

designed based on the principles of flow through

open channels.

 

If

Q’

is

the

quantity

of

surface water to be

removed by side drain and V’

is the allowable

velocity

of

flow

on

the

side drain, the

area

of

cross section ‘A’ of the channel is found from the relation:

• • Assuming uniform and steady flow through channel of uniform cross-sections and slope, Manning’s Formula
Assuming uniform and steady flow through
channel of uniform cross-sections and
slope, Manning’s Formula
is
used
for
calculating the velocity of flow or the
longitudinal slope.
V =

Where, V = average velocity, m/s n = Manning’s roughness coefficient R = Hydraulic radius, m = S = longitudinal slope of channel

The roughness coefficient values depend on the type of soil in unlined channel.

Value of C

Gravel or WBM

=

0.35 to 0.7

Impervious soil

=

0.4 to 0.65

Soil covered with turf =

0.3 to 0.55

Pervious soil Ordinary earth Heavy vegetation

=

0.05 to 0.3

0.02

= = 0.05-0.10

Concrete = 0.013 Rough rubble masonry =

0.04

Table: Allowable Velocities For Different Materials

 

Allowable

Bed Material

velocity

(m/s)

silt

0.3- 0.5

Loam

0.6- 0.9

Fine sandy or stiff clay

0.9- 1.5

Coarse gravel, rocky soil

1.2 -1.5

Soil covered with well established grass

1.5 - 1.8

Simplified Steps for the Design of Longitudinal Drains of a Highway

1. The frequency of return period such as 10 years, 25 years etc. is decided based on the finances available and desired margin of safety, for the design of drainage system.

  • 2. The values of coefficient of run-off, C from drainage area are found and the weighted value is computed.

  • 3. Inlet time T 1 for the flow of storm water from the farthest point in the drainage area to drain inlet along the steepest path of flow

6/27/16

78

4. Time of flow along the longitudinal • drain T 2 is determined for the estimated
4. Time of flow along the longitudinal
drain
T 2
is determined
for
the
estimated
length of longitudinal drain L upto the nearest
cross drainage, and for the allowable velocity
of flow V in the drain i.e. T 2 =.
5. The total time T for the inlet flow and along
the
drain
is
taken
as
the
time
of
concentration or the design value of rain
fall duration, T =T 1 +T 2 .

6.

From

the

rain

fall

intensity-duration-

frequency curves, the rain fall intensity is

found in mm/sec. corresponding to duration T and frequency of return period.

6. From the rain fall intensity-duration- frequency curves, the rain fall intensity is found in mm/sec.

80

6/27/16

• 7. The total area of drainage A d is found in units of 1000 m
7. The total area of drainage A d is found in units of 1000 m 2 .
8.
The
run-off
quantity
Q
is computed
using Rational
Formula Q
= C i A d .
9. The cross sectional area of flow A of the drain is calculated
A = where V is the allowable speed of flow in the drain.
10. The required depth of flow in the drain is calculated for a
convenient bottom width and the side slope of the drain.
The actual depth of the open channel drain may be
increased slightly to give a free board. The hydraulic mean
radius of flow R is determined.
11.
The
required
longitudinal
slope
S
of
the
drain
is
calculated using manning’s formula adopting suitable
value of roughness coefficient n.
V = (Manning’s Formula)
6/27/16
81

Numerical Examples

1.

The

distance

between

the

turf

covered

drainage area farthest point and point of entry to the side drain is 250 m. the average slope of the area is 2%. The average value of run off coefficient is 0.25. The length of the longitudinal drain on the sandy clay is 540 m (from the inlet point to the cross

drainage)

The allowable velocity in the

.. drain is assumed to be 0.6 m/sec ands 0.02 Manning’s roughness coefficient . Design the cross-section and longitudinal slope of trapezoidal drain assuming the bottom width of the trapezoidal section to be 30 cm, free

82

6/27/16

Solution Hints • • Inlet Time () (for turf with 2% slope for 250 m corresponding
Solution Hints
Inlet Time ()
(for turf with
2%
slope
for 250
m
corresponding distance from the chart)
= 33 min
250 m
33
6/27/16
83
• • Time taken () by the storm water to flow through the drain upto the
Time taken () by the storm water to flow
through the drain upto the cross drainage
@ 0.6 m/sec or, 0.6 x 60 m/min
=
= 15 min
• Total
Duration
of Time
or
Time of
Concentration
(T) =
= 33 + 15
= 48 min
• Drainage Area
() = 540 x 250 = 1,35,000
or, 135 (1000
6/27/16
units)
84
• • From the Rainfall-Intensity-Duration Curve, Corresponding Rainfall Intensity (i) for a 10 year period for
From the Rainfall-Intensity-Duration Curve,
Corresponding Rainfall Intensity (i) for a
10 year period for 48 min
= 70 mm/hr or
=
mm/sec
70
6/27/16
48
85
• • C = 0.25 (Given) • Q = C = 0.25 x x 135 =
C = 0.25
(Given)
Q = C = 0.25 x
x 135 = -------- /sec
Cross-sectional Area of the Drain (A) = =
= --------
---
(1)
(0.3 +
2d)
Since, For the Trapezoidal Section of Drain,
Bottom Width of the Drain = 30 cm = 0.3 m
d
0.3 m
d
Side Slopes = 1:1
1
d
d
1
1
Let, the Depth of Flow = d m,
1
0.3 m
then the Top Width =
(0.3 + 2d) and the
Cross-sectional Area of the Drain = {0.3 + (0.3 + 2d)} x
= (0.6 + 2d) x
= (0.3d + ) --- (2)
Therefore, from (1) and (2),
(0.3d + ) = ------- or,
+ 0.3d –
= 0
Solving this quadratic equation for d,
d = ------- m
6/27/16
86
• • • • • Calculation of Slope of Drain Using Manning’s Formula, the Longitudinal Slope
Calculation of Slope of Drain
Using Manning’s Formula, the Longitudinal Slope is
calculated.
.
For the Assumed Trapezoidal Section, the
Wetted Area of Cross-section = 1.09 and the
Wetted Perimeter = x 2 + 0.3 = ------ m
=
= -------
= V x
= 0.6 x
= ------
Slope , S
= -------
Since, Free Board = 9 cm = 0.09 m
Therefore, Depth of the Side Drain may be taken as
0.9 m + 0.09 m = 0.99 m.

4.3.1 Different Types of Road Side Drain

Surface drain

V shaped drain

Sub surface drain

Trapezoidal drain

 

Flat bed drain Saucer or Tick drain

Lined drain

Unlined drain

Buried drain

Roadside drain Off-road drain

Earthen drain Masonry drain

Precast Concrete drain

Open drain

Covered drain

6/27/16 89
6/27/16 91

4.3.2 Cross Drainage Structures (Culverts and Others)

Whenever

the streams, rivers

or water

courses have to cross by the roadway facilities, cross drainage structures are to be properly provided.

Sometimes these structures are used to divert the waterway from the road side drain to a water course or valley.

6/27/16

92

Types of Cross Drainage Structures

1. Culvert – when the linear waterway ≤ 6 m

2. Bridge – when the linear waterway > 6m

  • 3. Causeways – allow the water to flow over

the roadway

Culverts

Closed

conduit

placed

under

the

embankment

to

carry

water

across

the

roadway.

Culverts lead the water from the side drains under the road to the other (lower) side.

Fitted with aprons, head and wing walls and installed with a similar backfill.

Culvert
Culvert
6/27/16 96
6/27/16 97

Functions of a Culvert

To collect and carry the water across the road so as not to cause damage to road bank or the stream bed by scouring.

To

allow sufficient waterway to

prevent

heading

up

of

water

above

the

road

surface.

Types of Culverts

  • 1. Pipe Culvert

  • 2. Box Culvert

  • 3. Slab Culvert

  • 4. Arch Culvert

Pipe Culverts

When

the

stream

carries

low

discharge

and

alignment has high embankment, pipe culverts are considered more suitable.

Pipe is laid slightly inclined.

 

Minimum diameter of the pipe culvert is limited to 600 mm to facilitate cleaning and avoid blocking.

The standard length of the RCC pipe is fixed at 2.5 m, jointed by collar or tongue and groove.

Pipes may be made of stoneware, concrete, RCC, etc.

The standard size of pipe culverts are 0.5 m, 0.75 m, 1 m, 1.25 m and 2 m in diameter.

6/27/16 101
6/27/16 102
6/27/16
102
6/27/16 103
6/27/16 104
6/27/16 104
6/27/16 104

Box Culverts

Box culvert of square or rectangular shape is made of RCC.

Rectangular shaped culverts – referred to as box culverts - are commonly used to cater for larger crossings.

Box Culverts • Box culvert of square or rectangular shape is made of RCC. Rectangular shaped

105

Box Culverts • Box culvert of square or rectangular shape is made of RCC. Rectangular shaped

6/27/16

6/27/16

6/27/16 106

106

6/27/16 107

Slab Culverts

RCC

slab

is placed

over abutments made of

masonry and the span is generally limited to 3 m.

6/27/16 108
6/27/16
108
6/27/16 109
6/27/16 110
6/27/16 111

Arch Culverts

Generally built using brick or stone masonry, plain cement concrete may also be used.

Arch Culverts • Generally built using brick or stone masonry, plain cement concrete may also be
Arch Culverts • Generally built using brick or stone masonry, plain cement concrete may also be
6/27/16 113

Aqueduct

Open or closed conduit sufficiently above the roadway to drain water across the road.

• Aqueduct Open or closed conduit sufficiently above the roadway to drain water across the road.
6/27/16 115
6/27/16 116

Inverted Siphon

Structure with lowering an invert level of conduit across the road to desired level and both inlet and outlet pits are provided to receive flow from and discharge water to the downstream drain respectively.

Inverted siphons (also called depressed sewers) allow storm water to pass under obstructions such as rivers.

Inverted Siphon • Structure with lowering an invert level of conduit across the road to desired
6/27/16 118

Causeway

Causeway • • Provided instead of culverts on less important road which saves the construction cost.

Provided instead of culverts on less important road which saves the construction cost.

Provided where the maximum depth of flow does not exceed 1.5 m.

May be High Level (Submersible Bridge) Level (Irish Bridge)

Causeway • • Provided instead of culverts on less important road which saves the construction cost.

6/27/16

or Low

119

6/27/16

6/27/16 120

120

High Level Causeway (Submersible Bridge)

• Quite above the stream bed and is provided with vents to allow normal them. floods
Quite above the stream bed and is provided with
vents to allow normal
them.
floods to pass through
During
heavy
floods,
causeways
may
under
water.
6/27/16
121
6/27/16 122
6/27/16 123

Low Level Causeway (Irish Bridge)

Constructed

at

the

bed

level

of the stream which

remains dry for most of the time.

Also

called

Low Water Crossing , causeway in

Australia, Low

Level

Bridge or Irish Bridge.

Crossing or Low

Water

Provides when water flow is low.

Under

high flow

conditions, water runs over the

roadway and stops the vehicular traffic.

This approach is cheaper than building a bridge to raise the level of the road above the highest flood stage of a river, particularly in developing countries or in semi-arid areas with rare high-volume rain.

6/27/16 125
6/27/16 126
6/27/16 127
6/27/16 128

Bridges

Structure constructed over water course to carry traffic over it.

When clear

span

is

more than

6

m,

the

cross

drainage

structures

are

called

bridges. According to Span Length:

A) Minor Bridge : Span Length upto 30 m B) Major Bridge: Span Length > 30 m C) Long Bridge: Span Length > 120 m

6/27/16 130
6/27/16 131

4.3.3 Different Types of Energy Dissipating Structures

At

outlet

of

cross

drainage

structures,

there is always higher velocity than non-

scouring velocity

which

should

be

adequately controlled.

 

Many

measures

suitable

at

different

locations and conditions for Controlling Energy and Erosion.

Types of Energy Dissipating Structures

Lining Drains

•) Ditch Checks

•) Fall or Drop Structures

6/27/16 134
6/27/16 135
6/27/16 136
6/27/16 137
6/27/16 138
6/27/16
138
6/27/16 139
6/27/16 140
6/27/16 141
6/27/16 142
6/27/16 143
6/27/16 144
6/27/16 145
6/27/16 146
6/27/16 147
6/27/16 148
6/27/16 149
6/27/16 150
6/27/16 151
6/27/16 152
6/27/16 153
6/27/16 154
6/27/16 155
6/27/16 156
6/27/16 157

4.4 Sub-surface Drainage System

Change in moisture content of sub-grade are caused by fluctuations in ground water table, seepage flow, percolation of rain water from shoulders, pavement edge and soil formation slopes and capillary rise of moisture and even moisture vapour through soil.

In sub-surface drainage of highways, it is tried to keep

the

variation

minimum.

of

moisture

in

subgrade

soil

to

a

Only the gravitational water is drained by the usual drainage systems.

4.4.1 Drainage of Infiltered Water

By providing suitable subsoil drainage system.

Subsoil drain trenches are excavated to below subgrade level

4.4.1 Drainage of Infiltered Water • By providing suitable subsoil drainage system . • Subsoil drain
Typical Sub-Pavement Drain 6/27/16 160

Typical Sub-Pavement Drain

Foundation Drains 6/27/16 161

Foundation

Drains

4.4.2 Control of Seepage Flow

When the general ground and impervious strata below are slopping, seepage flow is likely to exist.

If the seepage zone is at depth less than 0.6 to 0.9 m from the sub grade level Use Longitudinal Pipe Drain in trench filled with filler material and clay seal may be constructed to intercept the seepage flow.

6/27/16 163
6/27/16 163
6/27/16 164
6/27/16 165
6/27/16 166

4.4.3 Lowering of Water Table

Highest level of water table should be below the subgrade.

• Practically 1.0 to 1.2 m below subgrade

Relatively permeable soil- Longitudinal drains are mainly used

Impermeable soils-

Transverse drains may be necessary in addition to longitudinal drains

6/27/16 168
6/27/16 169

4.4.4 Control of Capillary Rise

If the water reaches the sub grade due to capillary rise is likely to be detrimental, it is possible to solve the problem by

arresting the capillary lowering the water table.

rise

instead

of

2 types of capillary cut-offs can be used. A) Granular Capillary Cut-off

  • B) Impermeable Capillary Cut-off

6/27/16 171
6/27/16 172
6/27/16 173

Design of Subsurface Drainage System

The size of spacing of subsurface drainage system would depend on the quantity of water to be drained off, the type of soil and type drains.

Mostly this is decided based on experience and other practical considerations.

However, proper filter material should be used for back filling the drainage trenches and also for use in all subsurface drainage t

6/27/16

174

Miscellaneous Erosion Control Measures

Vegetation on Slopes of Embankment Dry Stone Pitching Gabion Crates Filled Pitching Stone Masonry Retaining Wall Concrete Block Lining Retaining Wall with Gabion Crates Bank Protection Spurs and Check Dams

6/27/16 176
6/27/16 176
6/27/16 176
6/27/16 176
6/27/16 177

Design of Filter Material

The filter material used in subsurface drain should be designed to have sufficient permeability offering negligible resistance to the flow.

The filter material should also be designed to resist the flowing of the fine foundation soil resulting in problem like piping.

Hence the grain size distribution of filter material is decided based on these two criteria of permeability and piping.

The procedure for design of filter is briefly discussed below:-

1. On

a

grain

size

distribution

chart

plot

the

grain

size

distribution curve for the foundation soil.

2. Find the value of D 15 size of foundation material and plot a

point of

particle size D 15

of foundation to

represent the lower

limit of D 15 size of filter. This to fulfill the permeability condition given by:- (D 15 of filter / D 15 of foundation ) should be > 5.

3. To fulfill the condition to prevent piping :- ( D 15 of filter / D 85 of foundation ) should be less than ( < ) 5, hence plot a point to represent the upper limits of D 15 size of filter given by 5D 85 of foundation.

4. Find the size of perforation in the drain pipe or the gap in the open joints pipes and let this be = D p . Plot a point to represent D 85 size of filter given by the size 2D p .