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# 2. Softening of Subgrade Soil and Reducing its Bearing Capacity.

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3. Flexible Pavements Fail by Formation of
Waves and Corrugation.
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# of Freezing

Temperature in Winter.
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#  Rate of Rainfall,  Type of Soil and Moisture Condition,  Topography of the Area,  Type of Ground Cover Like Vegetation, etc.

Rational Formula
Used to estimate the peak run-off water for highway
drainage:
Q = C i A d
Where, Q = run-off,
C = run-off coefficient (ratio of run-off to rate of
rainfall)
i
= rainfall intensity mm/s
A d = drainage area in 1000
‘C’ depends mainly on the type of surface and its slope.
A d consists of several types of surface run-off coefficients
C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , …… with their respective areas A 1 , A 2 , A 3 , ….
The weighted value of
C =
Design value of ‘i’ is to be determined for the expected
duration of storm and frequency of occurrence.
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# cross section ‘A’ of the channel is found from the relation:

Assuming uniform and steady flow through
channel of uniform cross-sections and
slope, Manning’s Formula
is
used
for
calculating the velocity of flow or the
longitudinal slope.
V =

• # 3. Inlet time T 1for the flow of storm water from the farthest point in the drainage area to drain inlet along the steepest path of flow

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4. Time of flow along the longitudinal
drain
T 2
is determined
for
the
estimated
length of longitudinal drain L upto the nearest
cross drainage, and for the allowable velocity
of flow V in the drain i.e. T 2 =.
5. The total time T for the inlet flow and along
the
drain
is
taken
as
the
time
of
concentration or the design value of rain
fall duration, T =T 1 +T 2 .

# found in mm/sec. corresponding to duration T and frequency of return period.

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7. The total area of drainage A d is found in units of 1000 m 2 .
8.
The
run-off
quantity
Q
is computed
using Rational
Formula Q
= C i A d .
9. The cross sectional area of flow A of the drain is calculated
A = where V is the allowable speed of flow in the drain.
10. The required depth of flow in the drain is calculated for a
convenient bottom width and the side slope of the drain.
The actual depth of the open channel drain may be
increased slightly to give a free board. The hydraulic mean
radius of flow R is determined.
11.
The
required
longitudinal
slope
S
of
the
drain
is
calculated using manning’s formula adopting suitable
value of roughness coefficient n.
V = (Manning’s Formula)
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# .. drain is assumed to be 0.6 m/sec ands 0.02 Manning’s roughness coefficient . Design the cross-section and longitudinal slope of trapezoidal drain assuming the bottom width of the trapezoidal section to be 30 cm, free

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Solution Hints
Inlet Time ()
(for turf with
2%
slope
for 250
m
corresponding distance from the chart)
= 33 min
250 m
33
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Time taken () by the storm water to flow
through the drain upto the cross drainage
@ 0.6 m/sec or, 0.6 x 60 m/min
=
= 15 min
• Total
Duration
of Time
or
Time of
Concentration
(T) =
= 33 + 15
= 48 min
• Drainage Area
() = 540 x 250 = 1,35,000
or, 135 (1000
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units)
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From the Rainfall-Intensity-Duration Curve,
Corresponding Rainfall Intensity (i) for a
10 year period for 48 min
= 70 mm/hr or
=
mm/sec
70
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C = 0.25
(Given)
Q = C = 0.25 x
x 135 = -------- /sec
Cross-sectional Area of the Drain (A) = =
= --------
---
(1)
(0.3 +
2d)
Since, For the Trapezoidal Section of Drain,
Bottom Width of the Drain = 30 cm = 0.3 m
d
0.3 m
d
Side Slopes = 1:1
1
d
d
1
1
Let, the Depth of Flow = d m,
1
0.3 m
then the Top Width =
(0.3 + 2d) and the
Cross-sectional Area of the Drain = {0.3 + (0.3 + 2d)} x
= (0.6 + 2d) x
= (0.3d + ) --- (2)
Therefore, from (1) and (2),
(0.3d + ) = ------- or,
+ 0.3d –
= 0
Solving this quadratic equation for d,
d = ------- m
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Calculation of Slope of Drain
Using Manning’s Formula, the Longitudinal Slope is
calculated.
.
For the Assumed Trapezoidal Section, the
Wetted Area of Cross-section = 1.09 and the
Wetted Perimeter = x 2 + 0.3 = ------ m
=
= -------
= V x
= 0.6 x
= ------
Slope , S
= -------
Since, Free Board = 9 cm = 0.09 m
Therefore, Depth of the Side Drain may be taken as
0.9 m + 0.09 m = 0.99 m.

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Culvert

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# High Level Causeway (Submersible Bridge)

Quite above the stream bed and is provided with
vents to allow normal
them.
floods to pass through
During
heavy
floods,
causeways
may
under
water.
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