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Running Head: PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS, DISEASES, AND DRUGS
Psychiatric Disorders, Diseases, and Drugs
Schizophrenics present with symptoms that include hallucinations. and Drugs Conditions that are characterized by the individual presenting with behaviors that are defined as abnormal are termed psychiatric disorders o psychiatric disease. and Drugs 2 Psychiatric Disorders. 2007). bizarre delusions. One of the most complicated of all of these psychiatric diseases is schizophrenia. This alteration or impairment can result in great distress for the individual and may lead to self-defeating and/or dangerous behaviors. Those patients who are diagnosed as suffering psychiatric disorders or diseases may have altered perceptions of reality or have impaired abilities to interpret reality. A number of theories have been advanced about schizophrenia. The behaviors termed abnormal are often also considered socially unacceptable within the culture that is the person’s own (Nevid & Rathus. Diseases. Some theories hold that there is a genetic component to the disease that may be triggered by stress or trauma. An abnormal behavior is one that has been defined within the field of mental health as being atypical or unusual. incoherent thought patterns.Psychiatric Disorders. Other theories hold that individuals who suffer from schizophrenia have . 2007). 2007.481). Diseases. The name of this disease indicates that the mind is experiencing a “splitting of psychic functions” (Pinel. 2005). The range of severity and occurrence of the symptom patterns may vary from individual to individual (Pinel. p. This genetic component can be exacerbated if the sufferer is held back during their early neurodevelopment (Pinel. inappropriate affect and odd behaviors.
and Drugs 3 increased levels of the brain chemical dopamine. SSRI’s and SNRI’s (Pinel. This upholds the concept that early neurodevelopment impairment may contribute to the disease (Pinel. Butyrophenones bind to D2 It was revealed that hyperactivity at the D2 receptor site and not all dopamine receptor sites was evident in schizophrenia (Pinel. p. It holds that depression is correlated with the serotonergic and noradrenergic synapses not working at a less than optimal level (Pinel. tricyclic anti-depressants. Two of these are the monoamine theory and the diathesis-stress theory (Pinel. These disorders are psychiatric disorders of a class that evidence a dramatic effect on an individual’s mood. 2007). This combination is termed bipolar affective disorder. Phenothiazines bind to both D1 and D2 receptors. 2007). Re-uptake of monoamine treatments has been beneficial in helping those with depression. These agonists include such drugs as the MAOI’s. Other disorders include affective disorders. 2007). The dopamine theory was advanced when the D 2 receptors were found to be reactive to phenothiazines and butyrophenones. 492). This theory was developed during Parkinson’s disease research when the drug chlorpromazine was shown to be a receptor blocker (Pinel. Brain imaging studies show that the disease is directly correlated with brain damage. 2007. The involve mania. The success rate remains low at about 25% benefits for those patients treated with monoamine agonists. Diseases. 2007).Psychiatric Disorders. The monoamine theory strives to explain depression. . depression and the combination of the two. 2007). receptors. A wide variety of theories try to account for affective disorders.
2007). Diseases. . Panic disorders can also be part and parcel with phobic anxiety and generalized anxiety disorders. This is coupled with early life stressors that cause permanent sensitization in the brain. obsessive compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (Pinel. are generally treated by the use of benzodiazepines and serotonin agonists. phobic anxiety disorder. 2007). however. Post traumatic stress disorder results from extreme trauma or stress that are followed by significant psychological distress and impaired function (Pinel. The patient with panic disorder will also exhibit severe physical distress and fear (Pinel. When the patient is exposed to these situations or objects. and Drugs 4 In the diathesis-stress model. 2007). Obsessive compulsive disorder is evidenced in patients who display uncontrollable and frequent repetition of anxious thoughts and impulses. They include generalized anxiety disorder. deep seated panic and fear result. panic disorder. Generalized anxiety disorder symptoms include generalized anxiety even in the absence of stressors. depression is seen as a having a strong genetic component. 2007).Psychiatric Disorders. This theory holds that the early stressors lead to overreaction habits in the presence of mild stressors and that these habits last for a lifetime (Pinel. There are five main classes of anxiety disorders. The first three classes of disorders. the anxiety disorders. The intention in their These treatments administration is to decrease the symptoms of anxiety in the patient. Phobic anxiety disorder is characterized by some of the same symptoms as generalized anxiety disorder. the anxiety is directly linked to very specific situations or objects.
Current treatments for this disease include the The success of these administration of medications that block the D2 receptors. sexual dysfunction. p.Psychiatric Disorders. The tics of Tourette’s are repetitive. Diseases.499). Schizophrenic symptoms can be reduced through the use of antipsychotic medications. and Drugs 5 are based on the theory that anxiety disorders are an experience-based disease. The possible implication of genetic predisposition to these diseases may contradict this theory (Pinel. 2007. Tourette’s Syndrome is a disorder that is characterized by involuntary movement and speech. 2007). They must be taken for a prolonged period to produce successful results (Pinel. movements and vocalizations. Pharmaceutical treatments are used for treating many psychiatric diseases and disorders. SSRI’s and tricyclic anti-depressants are often used in the treatment depressive disorders. These medications have been successful in altering monoamine levels. not a neural mis-function. involuntary and stereotyped They range from very minor to very severe (Pinel. Side effects are however. quite significant. 2007). These side effects include addiction. 2007). impaired motor functioning. 2007). serotonin levels or dopamine re-uptake abilities through site receptor blocking (Pinel. 2007). including obsessive compulsive disorder and attention deficit disorder (Pinel. It is seen to be associated with other disorders. MAOI’s. weight gain. treatments leads the theory that Tourette’s is a “neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from excessive dopaminergic innervations of the striatum and the associated limbic cortex” (Pinel. . There is not much information that sheds light on this disorder.
brain damage and experience in various combinations. The class of SSRI drugs is more successfully used in anxiety disorder treatments with the exception of generalilzed anxiety disorder. . There are common threads in psychiatric disorders in that they all cause the sufferer a great deal of personal distress. These drugs give the benefit of anti-anxiety effects of benzodiazepines but eliminate the sedation and impaired motor functioning side effects of those drugs (Pinel. Each psychiatric disorder and disease is characterized by its own set of unique symptoms. With additional research and study into the causes and treatment modalities. and Drugs 6 gastrointestinal problems. it may be possible for many people who suffer from these disorders to enjoy brighter futures. 2007). motor disturbance. 2005). Causes and contributing factors of these disorders and diseases include genetics. tremor and nausea. neurodevelopment issues. This indicates that other treatments and study advances must be made to provide patients with better long term treatments (Morris & Maisto. Benzodiazepines and serotonin agonists are used in the treatment of anxiety disorders. increases in risk of suicidal tendencies and anxiety. Treatments vary widely in their success. Diseases. Benzodiazepines side effects include a high addiction risk as well as heavy sedation.Psychiatric Disorders.
New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. (2007). S. (2005).. & Rathus. J.P.).P. C.). Upper Saddle River. .Psychiatric Disorders. & Maisto.. A. Nevid..G.S. Inc. and Drugs 7 References Morris. Adjustment in the new millenium (9th ed. Basics of biopsychology. Psychology an introduction (12th ed. Psychology and the challenges of life. J. Pinel. John Wiley & Sons. Diseases. Boston: Pearson Education.A. (2005).
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