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# (Syn - Gas Conditions)

## Centrifugal Compressor Performance Calculations

The Centrifugal Compressor Performance Calculations below shall be utilized to monitor the
centrifugal compressor stage efficiencies to compare to the original performance data. In
addition: a separate power calculation is included to determine the power on a change in
process conditions (i.e. Moleweight, pressure, flow, temperature, etc...).
(Reference: Compressor Performance by M. Theodore Gresh)
The Following Input Data is required to perform a compressor performance analysis:
(1) Inlet Conditions:
FR = Inlet Gas Flowrate SCFM
T1 = Inlet Gas Temperature (F)
P1 = Inlet Gas Pressure (psig)
T2 = Discharge Temp (F)
P2 = Discharge Press (psi)
K = Specific Heat Ratio (cp/c v) and dimensionless
MW = Moleweight of gas ( mole )
Rc = Universal Gas Constant (1545 lb-ft/R-mole)
v = Specific Volume of Gas (ft3/lb)
Pc = Critical gas Pressure
Tc = Critical Gas Temperature
g = Gravitational Constant (32.174 ft/sec2)

## Applicable Equations are as follows:

(1) Conversion of SCFM (flowrate) to ACFM (flowrate)
SCFM = Standard Cubic Feet per Minute at operting condition
ACFM = Actual Cubic Feet per Minute at ambient conditions
Ps = Standard pressure at ambient conditions (14.7 psi)
Ts = Standard Temperature at ambient conditions (60 F)
Zs = Standard Compressibility at ambient conditions (1.0)

Ps T1 Zs

P1 Ts Z1

ACFM = SCFM

(2) Calculate the Volumetric Flow coefficient for the inlet conditions
v1 = Volumetric flow value for inlet conditions (ft3/lb)
Z1 = Compressibility value for inlet conditions
R = Gas Constant (1545 mole-ft/R/Moleweight)
T1 = Temperature at inlet conditions (F)
p1 = Pressure at inlet conditions (psi)
Z1

R
T1
MW
p1

v1 =

## (3) Calculate the Weight (mass) Flow (lbs./min)

MF = Mass Flowrate (lbs/min)
v1 = Volumetric flow Conditions at inlet (ft3/lb)
ACFM = Actual Cubic Feet per Minute (ft3/min)
ACFM = MF v1

where;

MF =

ACFM
v1

P2

P1

n=
v1
ln
v2
ln

rp =

P2
P1

## 6) Calculate the generated head of the compressor (polytropic)

n 1
n n

T1
1
rp
MW
n

Rc

7) Polytropic Efficiency

T2

T1
n=
P2
ln
P1
ln

k 1 n

k n 1

poly =

Hppoly =

poly 33000

lb ft
min hp

k 1
k k

=
T1
1
rp
MW
k

Rc

k 1
k

T1 rp
1
=
T2 T1

lb ft
min hp

## 10) Horsepower Losses

Bearing Horsepower Losses are generated by the following Formula only if the
system uses Light Turbine Oil (32 SSU or ISO Grade 15). The following
nomenclature shall be used in the equation for both the plain and thrust end bearings:
a) Journal Bearing Calculations (Reference Shigley 5th Ed.)
1) Sommerfield Number (S)
2
r N

S=
c P

L
d

Ld =

T = f W

d
2

Hbearing =

T N
1050

## b) Thrust Bearing Calculations

1) Calculate Radial and Tangential slope parameters
(Note: The Radial tilt is defined as Zero and the standand angle for the
tangential tilt is 0.03333 degrees)
mr =

R1
hc

and

m =

R1
hc

where;
m =
R1 =
hc =
g =

Slope parameter
Thrust clearance at load point (inches)
Angular movement (degrees)

2

W hc

6 ( R2 R1)

## 3) Minmum Film Thickness

hmin
hc

= film_thickness

4) Horsepower Calculation
H hc
2

( R2 R1)

= Horsepower

## Note: Need to reference

Nomograph in Volume II
of CRC Lubrication
manual (pages
(427-429)

where;
m = Oil viscosity (mreyn)
hc = Axial clearance of the rotor (inches)
N = Rotational Speed (rpm)
W = Unit Load of Bearing (lbf)
hmin = Minimum film thickness of bearing (inches)

## c) Gear Losses (addition of Horsepower)

BHP = 0.05 ( Hppoly_case1 + Hp.poly_case2 + Hbearing_losses + Hseal)

BHP
motor

Powermotor =

Amps =

and

Powermotor
1.73 E motor PF

## Problem: Analze C3 Compressor Performance to determine if start up on Natural Gas is

acceptable and will not overload the 21,000Hp motor during start up. In addition;
compare the performance data to the original performance data running on Syn Gas.

## Solution #1: (makeup)

(1) Given input data: (Make-up Compressor Only)
Calculating for Syn Gas First for Reference)
a) Inlet Conditions

Discharge Conditions

T1 := 560 R
P1 := 343

T2 := 869 R

lb
in

## Note: Using Mollier diagram

Methane as substitute for Natural
Gas.

+ Patm

P1 = 357.7 lb in

P2 := 1205

lb
in

Gage

+ Patm

3 lb
2

P2 = 1.22 10

in

1

N := 6
d := 19.0 in

SCFM := 111965

ft
min

## (Note: Calculate the moleweight,k and critical T & P)

Gas Composition
mol
hr
mol
CO := 3727 lb
hr
H2O := 47.36 lb

CO2 := 1424 lb

mol
hr

C1 := 306.94 lb

mol
hr

AR := 17.54 lb

mol
hr

mol
hr
mol
N2 := 28.06 lb
hr
H2 := 11988.18 lb

## (1) Mole Weight of Each Gas

MW h2o := 18.02 mol

MW c1 := 16.04 mol

MW co := 28.01 mol

MW h2 := 2.02 mol

## MW co2 := 44.01 mol

MW n2 := 28.02 mol

## (2) Total Gas Mass in Mixture

Mtotal := H2O + CO + CO2 + C1 + H2 + N2 + AR
and
4

Mtotal = 1.754 10 lb

mol
hr

## (3) Mcp values for each gas in the composition

Mcp_h2o := 7.98
Mcp_co := 6.96
Mcp_co2 := 8.71

Mcp_h2 := 6.86
Mcp_n2 := 6.96
Mcp_ar := 4.97

Mcp_c1 := 8.38
(4) Percentages of each gas in the mixture
Ph2o :=

Pco :=

Pco2 :=

Pc1 :=

H2O
Mtotal
CO
Mtotal
CO2
Mtotal
C1
Mtotal

Ph2o = 2.7 10

Pco = 0.212

Pco2 = 0.081

Pc1 = 0.018

MW ar := 39.94 mol

Ph2 :=

H2
Mtotal

Ph2 = 0.684

Pn2 :=

N2
Mtotal

Pn2 = 1.6 10

Par :=

AR
Mtotal

Par = 1 10

## (5) Computing Gas Moleweight (Total)

Mh2o := MWh2o Ph2o

Mc1 := MW c1 Pc1

Mh2 := MW h2 Ph2

Mn2 := MW n2 Pn2

## MW := Mh2o + Mco + Mco2 + Mc1 + Mh2 + Mn2 + Mar

MW = 11.32
(6) Critical Pressures and Temperatures of each gas
Critical Pressures

Critical Temperatures

Pcr_h2o := 3208 lb in
Pcr_co := 510 lb in

Pcr_co2 := 1073 lb in
Pcr_c1 := 673 lb in

Pcr_h2 := 188 lb in
Pcr_n2 := 492 lb in
Pcr_ar := 705 lb in

2
2

Tcr_h2o := 1166 R
Tcr_co := 242 R
Tcr_co2 := 548 R
Tcr_c1 := 344 R
Tcr_h2 := 60 R
Tcr_n2 := 228 R
Tcr_ar := 272 R

## (1) Percentile of Pcr_xx x Pxx

Cp_h2o := Pcr_h2o Ph2o
Cp_h2o = 8.662 lb in

## Cp_co := Pcr_co Pco

Cp_co = 108.373 lb in

## Percentile of Tcr_xx x Txx

Ct_h2o = 3.148 R
Ct_co := Tcr_co Pco

Ct_co = 51.424 R

## Cp_co2 := Pcr_co2 Pco2

Cp_co2 = 87.117 lb in

## Ct_co2 := Tcr_co2 Pco2

2

Ct_co2 = 44.492 R

## Ct_c1 := Tcr_c1 Pc1

Cp_c1 = 11.778 lb in

Ct_c1 = 6.02 R

## Ct_h2 := Tcr_h2 Ph2

Cp_h2 = 128.5 lb in

Ct_h2 = 41.011 R

## Ct_n2 := Tcr_n2 Pn2

Cp_n2 = 0.787 lb in

Ct_n2 = 0.365 R

## Cp_ar := Pcr_ar Par

Cp_ar = 0.705 lb in

2

Ct_ar = 0.272 R

## (2) Critical Pressure

Pcritical_mix := Cp_h2o + Cp_co + Cp_co2 + Cp_c1 + Cp_h2 + Cp_n2 + Cp_ar
Pcritical_mix = 345.923 lb in

## (3) Critical Temperature

Tcritical_mix := Ct_h2o + Ct_co + Ct_co2 + Ct_c1 + Ct_h2 + Ct_n2 + Ct_ar
Tcritical_mix = 146.733 R
(4) Determine the Specific Heat Ratio
Mc_h2o := Mcp_h2o Ph2o
Mc_co := Mcp_co Pco
Mc_co2 := Mcp_co2 Pco2
Mc_c1 := Mcp_c1 Pc1

## Mc_h2 := Mcp_h2 Ph2

Mc_n2 := Mcp_n2 Pn2
Mc_ar := Mcp_ar Par

## Mcp := Mc_h2o + Mc_co + Mc_co2 + Mc_c1 + Mc_h2 + Mc_n2 + Mc_ar

Mcp = 7.059

k :=

Mcp

where

Mcp 1.985

k = 1.391

b) Determine Compressibility Value by determining Tr1, Pr1, Tr2 & Pr2. Compressibility
values (Z) are determined from Compressibility Chart in above Reference (Pg. 112)

TR1 :=

T1
Tcritical_mix

where

TR1 = 3.816
Z1 := 1.024

PR1 :=

TR2 :=

P1
Pcritical_mix
T2
Tcritical_mix

where

PR1 = 1.034

where

TR2 = 5.922
Z2 := 1.027

PR2 :=

P2
Pcritical_mix

PR2 = 3.526

where

Ps T1 Zs

P1 Ts Z1 where;

ACFM := SCFM

## c) Calculate the volumetric conditions at Inlet and Discharge Conditions

Inlet Conditions

Discharge Conditions

Rc
T1
MW

Z1
v1 :=

P1
3

v1 = 1.519

ft
lb

Rc
T2
MW

Z2
v2 :=

P2
3

v2 = 0.694 ft lb

3
3 ft

ACFM = 4.839 10

min

where;

ACFM = MF v1

MF :=

3 lb

and

MF = 3.185 10

ACFM
v1

min

P2

P1
n :=
v1
ln
v2
ln

where

n = 1.564

rp :=

P2

where

P1

rp = 3.41

## g) Calculate the generated head of the compressor (polytropic)

n 1
n n

T1
1
rp
MW
n

Rc

h) Polytropic Efficiency

poly :=

k 1 n
k n 1

where

poly = 0.78

## i) Calculate Gas Horsepower

Hppoly_makeup :=

wher
e

lb ft
poly 33000
min hp

Hppoly_makeup = 1.494 10 hp

## j) Calculated Discharge Temperature

n 1

T2d_makeup := T1 rp

where

T2d_makeup = 871.546 R

k 1
k k

T1
1
rp
MW
k

Rc

k 1
k

T1 rp
1

where

T2 T1

lb ft
min hp

where

## Solution #2: (Recycle Case)

(1) Given input data: (Recycle Compressor Only)
Calculating for Syn Gas First for Reference)
a) Inlet Conditions

## Note: Using Mollier diagram

Methane as substitute for Natural
Gas.

Discharge Conditions

T1 := 560 R
P1 := 1133

T2 := 570 R
lb

in
3

+ Patm

P1 = 1.148 10 lb in

P2 := 1220.79

lb

+ Patm
2
in
3 lb
P2 = 1.235 10
2
in

1

N := 1
d := 19.0 in

SCFM := 487738

ft
min

Gas Composition
H2O := 206 lb

mol
hr

CO := 16843 lb

mol
hr

CO2 := 32517 lb

mol
hr

C1 := 184519 lb

mol
hr

H2 := 421218 lb

mol
hr

N2 := 18768 lb

mol
hr
mol
METH := 2474 lb
hr
AR := 10999.7 lb

mol
hr

## (1) Mole Weight of Each Gas

MW h2o := 18.02 mol

MW c1 := 16.04 mol

MW co := 28.01 mol

MW h2 := 2.02 mol

## MW co2 := 44.01 mol

MW n2 := 28.02 mol

## (2) Total Gas Mass in Mixture

Mtotal := H2O + CO + CO2 + C1 + H2 + N2 + AR
and
5

Mtotal = 6.851 10 lb

mol
hr

Mcp_h2o := 7.98
Mcp_co := 6.96
Mcp_co2 := 8.71
Mcp_c1 := 8.38

Mcp_h2 := 6.86
Mcp_n2 := 6.96
Mcp_ar := 4.97
Mcp_meth := 10.5

## (4) Percentages of each gas in the mixture

Ph2o :=

Pco :=

Pco2 :=

H2O
Mtotal
CO
Mtotal
CO2
Mtotal

Ph2o = 3.007 10

Pco = 0.025

Pco2 = 0.047

MW ar := 39.94 mol
MW meth := 32.04 mol

Pc1 :=

C1
Mtotal

Pc1 = 0.269

Ph2 :=

H2
Mtotal

Ph2 = 0.615

Pn2 :=

N2
Mtotal

Pn2 = 0.027

Par :=

AR
Mtotal

Par = 0.016

Pmeth :=

METH
Mtotal

Pmeth = 3.611 10

## (5) Computing Gas Moleweight (Total)

Mh2o := MWh2o Ph2o

Mc1 := MW c1 Pc1

Mh2 := MW h2 Ph2

Mn2 := MW n2 Pn2

## Mar := MWar Par

Mmeth := MW meth Pmeth

## MW := Mh2o + Mco + Mco2 + Mc1 + Mh2 + Mn2 + Mar + Mmeth

MW = 9.87
(6) Critical Pressures and Temperatures of each gas
Critical Pressures

Critical Temperatures

Pcr_h2o := 3208 lb in
Pcr_co := 510 lb in

Pcr_co2 := 1073 lb in
Pcr_c1 := 673 lb in

Pcr_n2 := 492 lb in

Tcr_co2 := 548 R
Tcr_c1 := 344 R

Tcr_h2 := 60 R

Tcr_n2 := 228 R

Pcr_meth := 1157 lb in

Tcr_h2o := 1166 R
Tcr_co := 242 R

Pcr_h2 := 188 lb in

Pcr_ar := 705 lb in

Tcr_ar := 272 R
2

Tcr_meth := 924 R

## (1) Percentile of Pcr_xx x Pxx

Cp_h2o := Pcr_h2o Ph2o
Cp_h2o = 0.965 lb in

Ct_h2o = 0.351 R

## Ct_co := Tcr_co Pco

Cp_co = 12.539 lb in

## Cp_co2 := Pcr_co2 Pco2

Cp_co2 = 50.93 lb in

Ct_co = 5.95 R
Ct_co2 := Tcr_co2 Pco2

## Cp_c1 := Pcr_c1 Pc1

Ct_co2 = 26.011 R

## Ct_c1 := Tcr_c1 Pc1

Cp_c1 = 181.268 lb in

Ct_c1 = 92.654 R

## Ct_h2 := Tcr_h2 Ph2

Cp_h2 = 115.592 lb in

## Cp_n2 := Pcr_n2 Pn2

Ct_h2 = 36.891 R
Ct_n2 := Tcr_n2 Pn2

Cp_n2 = 13.479 lb in

## Cp_ar := Pcr_ar Par

Cp_ar = 11.32 lb in

Ct_n2 = 6.246 R

2

## Cp_meth := Pcr_meth Pmeth

Cp_meth = 4.178 lb in

Ct_ar = 4.367 R
Ct_meth := Tcr_meth Pmeth
Ct_ar = 4.367 R

## (2) Critical Pressure

Pcritical_mix := Cp_h2o + Cp_co + Cp_co2 + Cp_c1 + Cp_h2 + Cp_n2 + Cp_ar + Cp_meth
Pcritical_mix = 390.27 lb in

## (3) Critical Temperature

Tcritical_mix := Ct_h2o + Ct_co + Ct_co2 + Ct_c1 + Ct_h2 + Ct_n2 + Ct_ar + Ct_meth
Tcritical_mix = 175.807 R
(4) Determine the Specific Heat Ratio
Mc_h2o := Mcp_h2o Ph2o

## Mcp := Mc_h2o + Mc_co + Mc_co2 + Mc_c1 + Mc_h2 + Mc_n2 + Mc_ar + Mc_meth

Mcp = 7.37

k :=

Mcp

where

Mcp 1.985

k = 1.369

b) Determine Compressibility Value by determining Tr1, Pr1, Tr2 & Pr2. Compressibility
values (Z) are determined from Compressibility Chart in above Reference (Pg. 112)

TR1 :=

PR1 :=

TR2 :=

PR2 :=

T1

where

TR1 = 3.816
Z1 := 1.013

Tcritical_mix
P1

where

PR1 = 1.034

where

TR2 = 5.922

Pcritical_mix
T2
Tcritical_mix
P2

Z2 := 1.013
where

PR2 = 3.526

Pcritical_mix

Ps T1 Zs

P1 Ts Z1 where;

ACFM := SCFM

3
3 ft

ACFM = 6.641 10

min

## c) Calculate the volumetric conditions at Inlet and Discharge Conditions

Inlet Conditions

Discharge Conditions

Rc
T1
MW

Rc
T2
MW

Z1
v1 :=

Z2
v2 :=

P1

P2

v1 = 0.537

ft
lb

v2 = 0.508 ft lb

where;

ACFM = MF v1

MF :=

4 lb

and

MF = 1.236 10

ACFM
v1

min

P2

P1

n :=
v1
ln
v2
ln

where

n = 1.316

rp :=

P2
P1

where

rp = 1.076

## g) Calculate the generated head of the compressor (polytropic)

n 1

n n

T1
rp
1

MW
n 1
Rc

h) Polytropic Efficiency

poly :=

k 1 n
k n 1

where

poly = 1.122

## i) Calculate Gas Horsepower

Hppoly_recycle :=

where

lb ft
poly 33000
min hp

Hppoly_recycle = 2.205 10 hp

## j) Calculated Discharge Temperature

n 1

T2d_recycle := T1 rp

where

T2d_recycle = 570 R

k 1

k k

:=
T1
1
rp
MW
k

Rc

k 1
k

T1 rp
1

where

T2 T1

## 3) Calculate the Adiabatic Horsepower

lb ft
min hp

where

Bearing Losses
effective areas is 27 square inches), Radial clearance is 0.006 - 0.008", viscosity is
50EE-5 reyn, Length of journal is 1.625", .
6

D1 := 4.125 in

:= 7 10

reyn

c := 0.006 in

N := 10800

rev
min

P := 50

R1 :=

D1
2

lb
in

therefore;

PL := 50

:= 2 N

lbf
in

R1 = 0.172 ft

L := 1.625 in

3 1

= 1.131 10 s

= 0.032 ft

lb s

## a) Compressor and High Speed Gear Journal Bearing Calculations

1) Sommerfield Number (S)
2

S :=

R1 N

c PL

S = 2.978

Ld :=

L
D1

Ld = 0.394

## 3) Determine the Torque Requirements

W = Rotor Weights (800 lb)

W1 := 800 lbf

Reference Figure 12-17, using the Sommerfield number & L/D ratio in
Shigley 5th
R1
c

f := 75

T := f W1

f :=

75 c
R1

f = 0.218

D1
2

T = 360 lbf in

## 4) Determine the Power Lost in Hp

Hbearing := T N

Hbearing = 9.818 hp

Htotal_4 := 4 Hbearing
=

Htotal_4 = 39.273 hp
Note :Bearing count is 2 journals with this approximate size for the 2
compressors and additional size increase to 6" Dia & 6 " wide for the
compressor and gear HSP). There are three (3) sets of bearings for the Motor
and the Low speed gear shaft not accounted for. Use the same formula listed
above for these calculations.
Hjournal_total := Htotal_4 + Htotal_6 + Htotal_10
3

Hjournal_total = 1.235 10 hp
b) Thrust Bearing Calculations
1) Calculate Radial and Tangential slope parameters
(Note: The Radial tilt is defined as Zero and the standand angle for the
tangential tilt is 0.03333 degrees)
r := 0

:=

0.03333 2
360

= 5.817 10

hc := 0.012 in

therefore;

mr :=

R1
hc

and

m :=

R1
hc

where;
m =
R1 =
hc =
g =

Slope parameter
Thrust clearance at load point (inches)
Angular movement (degrees)

mr = 0

m = 0.1

DT1 := 4.125 in + 1 in

RT1 :=

DT2 := 11.18 in

RT2 :=

DT1
2
DT2
2

## Note: Need to reference

Nomograph in Volume II
of CRC Lubrication
manual (pages
(427-429)

W hc

6 ( R2 R1)

= 0.006

where;
W := 0.006 6 ( RT2 RT1)
W = 0.333 lb s

## 3) Minmum Film Thickness

hmin
hc

= 0.95

hmin := 0.95 hc

hc = 0.012 in

hmin = 0.011 in
4) Horsepower Calculation
H hc
2

( RT2 RT1)

= 2.5

3 1

= 1.131 10 s

where;
2.5 ( ) ( RT2 RT1)
2

Hthrust :=

hc

Hthrust = 23.744 hp
Hthrust_total := 4 Hthrust

Hthrust_total = 94.976 hp

## 5) The total accounted for Horsepower for bearings is:

Htotal := Hjournal_total + Hthrust_total

Htotal = 1.33 10 hp

c) Seal losses are accounted for by using nomograph for Seal leakage. Reference
Elliott sizing criteria charts.
Hseal := 6 60 hp
=

Hseal = 360 hp
d) Gear losses are accounted for by taking a 5% increase in the total Horsepower
requirements of all the driven equipment.
GearBHP := 0.05 ( Hppoly_makeup + Hppoly_recycle + Htotal + Hseal)
GearBHP = 941.98 hp
Conclusion: Total Horsepower required by the motor is as follows:
BHP := GearBHP + ( Hppoly_makeup + Hppoly_recycle + Htotal)
4

BHP = 1.942 10 hp
a) Power required for the motor to operate

Powermotor :=

BHP
motor

where

motor := 0.98

Powermotor = 1.982 10 hp
b) Amperage Draw Requirements

Amps :=

Powermotor
1.73 E motor PF