Centrifugal Compressor Performance Calculations

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Centrifugal Compressor Performance Calculations

© All Rights Reserved

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The Centrifugal Compressor Performance Calculations below shall be utilized to monitor the

centrifugal compressor stage efficiencies to compare to the original performance data. In

addition: a separate power calculation is included to determine the power on a change in

process conditions (i.e. Moleweight, pressure, flow, temperature, etc...).

(Reference: Compressor Performance by M. Theodore Gresh)

The Following Input Data is required to perform a compressor performance analysis:

(1) Inlet Conditions:

FR = Inlet Gas Flowrate SCFM

T1 = Inlet Gas Temperature (F)

P1 = Inlet Gas Pressure (psig)

T2 = Discharge Temp (F)

P2 = Discharge Press (psi)

K = Specific Heat Ratio (cp/c v) and dimensionless

MW = Moleweight of gas ( mole )

Rc = Universal Gas Constant (1545 lb-ft/R-mole)

v = Specific Volume of Gas (ft3/lb)

Pc = Critical gas Pressure

Tc = Critical Gas Temperature

g = Gravitational Constant (32.174 ft/sec2)

(1) Conversion of SCFM (flowrate) to ACFM (flowrate)

SCFM = Standard Cubic Feet per Minute at operting condition

ACFM = Actual Cubic Feet per Minute at ambient conditions

Ps = Standard pressure at ambient conditions (14.7 psi)

Ts = Standard Temperature at ambient conditions (60 F)

Zs = Standard Compressibility at ambient conditions (1.0)

Ps T1 Zs

P1 Ts Z1

ACFM = SCFM

(2) Calculate the Volumetric Flow coefficient for the inlet conditions

v1 = Volumetric flow value for inlet conditions (ft3/lb)

Z1 = Compressibility value for inlet conditions

R = Gas Constant (1545 mole-ft/R/Moleweight)

T1 = Temperature at inlet conditions (F)

p1 = Pressure at inlet conditions (psi)

Z1

R

T1

MW

p1

v1 =

MF = Mass Flowrate (lbs/min)

v1 = Volumetric flow Conditions at inlet (ft3/lb)

ACFM = Actual Cubic Feet per Minute (ft3/min)

ACFM = MF v1

where;

MF =

ACFM

v1

P2

P1

n=

v1

ln

v2

ln

rp =

P2

P1

n 1

n n

Headpoly = Z1

T1

1

rp

MW

n

Rc

7) Polytropic Efficiency

T2

T1

n=

P2

ln

P1

ln

k 1 n

k n 1

poly =

MF Headpoly

Hppoly =

poly 33000

lb ft

min hp

9) Adiabatic Conditions

a) Calculate Adiabatic Head

Headadia

k 1

k k

=

T1

1

rp

MW

k

Rc

b) Adiabatic Efficiency

adia

k 1

k

T1 rp

1

=

T2 T1

Hpadia =

MF Headadia

adia 33000

lb ft

min hp

Bearing Horsepower Losses are generated by the following Formula only if the

system uses Light Turbine Oil (32 SSU or ISO Grade 15). The following

nomenclature shall be used in the equation for both the plain and thrust end bearings:

a) Journal Bearing Calculations (Reference Shigley 5th Ed.)

1) Sommerfield Number (S)

2

r N

S=

c P

L

d

Ld =

T = f W

d

2

Hbearing =

T N

1050

1) Calculate Radial and Tangential slope parameters

(Note: The Radial tilt is defined as Zero and the standand angle for the

tangential tilt is 0.03333 degrees)

mr =

R1

hc

and

m =

R1

hc

where;

m =

R1 =

hc =

g =

Slope parameter

Thrust Pad ID (inches)

Thrust clearance at load point (inches)

Angular movement (degrees)

2

W hc

6 ( R2 R1)

= Bearing_Loading

hmin

hc

= film_thickness

4) Horsepower Calculation

H hc

2

( R2 R1)

= Horsepower

Nomograph in Volume II

of CRC Lubrication

manual (pages

(427-429)

where;

R2 = Outside Radius of Bearing Pad(inches)

R1 = Inside Radius of Bearing Pad (inches)

m = Oil viscosity (mreyn)

hc = Axial clearance of the rotor (inches)

w = Angular Velocity (rad/sec)

N = Rotational Speed (rpm)

W = Unit Load of Bearing (lbf)

hmin = Minimum film thickness of bearing (inches)

BHP = 0.05 ( Hppoly_case1 + Hp.poly_case2 + Hbearing_losses + Hseal)

BHP

motor

Powermotor =

Amps =

and

Powermotor

1.73 E motor PF

acceptable and will not overload the 21,000Hp motor during start up. In addition;

compare the performance data to the original performance data running on Syn Gas.

(1) Given input data: (Make-up Compressor Only)

Calculating for Syn Gas First for Reference)

a) Inlet Conditions

Discharge Conditions

T1 := 560 R

P1 := 343

T2 := 869 R

lb

in

Methane as substitute for Natural

Gas.

+ Patm

P1 = 357.7 lb in

P2 := 1205

lb

in

Gage

+ Patm

3 lb

2

P2 = 1.22 10

in

1

N := 6

d := 19.0 in

SCFM := 111965

ft

min

Gas Composition

mol

hr

mol

CO := 3727 lb

hr

H2O := 47.36 lb

CO2 := 1424 lb

mol

hr

C1 := 306.94 lb

mol

hr

AR := 17.54 lb

mol

hr

mol

hr

mol

N2 := 28.06 lb

hr

H2 := 11988.18 lb

MW h2o := 18.02 mol

MW c1 := 16.04 mol

MW co := 28.01 mol

MW h2 := 2.02 mol

MW n2 := 28.02 mol

Mtotal := H2O + CO + CO2 + C1 + H2 + N2 + AR

and

4

Mtotal = 1.754 10 lb

mol

hr

Mcp_h2o := 7.98

Mcp_co := 6.96

Mcp_co2 := 8.71

Mcp_h2 := 6.86

Mcp_n2 := 6.96

Mcp_ar := 4.97

Mcp_c1 := 8.38

(4) Percentages of each gas in the mixture

Ph2o :=

Pco :=

Pco2 :=

Pc1 :=

H2O

Mtotal

CO

Mtotal

CO2

Mtotal

C1

Mtotal

Ph2o = 2.7 10

Pco = 0.212

Pco2 = 0.081

Pc1 = 0.018

MW ar := 39.94 mol

Ph2 :=

H2

Mtotal

Ph2 = 0.684

Pn2 :=

N2

Mtotal

Pn2 = 1.6 10

Par :=

AR

Mtotal

Par = 1 10

Mh2o := MWh2o Ph2o

Mc1 := MW c1 Pc1

Mh2 := MW h2 Ph2

Mn2 := MW n2 Pn2

MW = 11.32

(6) Critical Pressures and Temperatures of each gas

Critical Pressures

Critical Temperatures

Pcr_h2o := 3208 lb in

Pcr_co := 510 lb in

Pcr_co2 := 1073 lb in

Pcr_c1 := 673 lb in

Pcr_h2 := 188 lb in

Pcr_n2 := 492 lb in

Pcr_ar := 705 lb in

2

2

Tcr_h2o := 1166 R

Tcr_co := 242 R

Tcr_co2 := 548 R

Tcr_c1 := 344 R

Tcr_h2 := 60 R

Tcr_n2 := 228 R

Tcr_ar := 272 R

Cp_h2o := Pcr_h2o Ph2o

Cp_h2o = 8.662 lb in

Cp_co = 108.373 lb in

Ct_h2o = 3.148 R

Ct_co := Tcr_co Pco

Ct_co = 51.424 R

Cp_co2 = 87.117 lb in

2

Ct_co2 = 44.492 R

Cp_c1 = 11.778 lb in

Ct_c1 = 6.02 R

Cp_h2 = 128.5 lb in

Ct_h2 = 41.011 R

Cp_n2 = 0.787 lb in

Ct_n2 = 0.365 R

Cp_ar = 0.705 lb in

2

Ct_ar = 0.272 R

Pcritical_mix := Cp_h2o + Cp_co + Cp_co2 + Cp_c1 + Cp_h2 + Cp_n2 + Cp_ar

Pcritical_mix = 345.923 lb in

Tcritical_mix := Ct_h2o + Ct_co + Ct_co2 + Ct_c1 + Ct_h2 + Ct_n2 + Ct_ar

Tcritical_mix = 146.733 R

(4) Determine the Specific Heat Ratio

Mc_h2o := Mcp_h2o Ph2o

Mc_co := Mcp_co Pco

Mc_co2 := Mcp_co2 Pco2

Mc_c1 := Mcp_c1 Pc1

Mc_n2 := Mcp_n2 Pn2

Mc_ar := Mcp_ar Par

Mcp = 7.059

k :=

Mcp

where

Mcp 1.985

k = 1.391

b) Determine Compressibility Value by determining Tr1, Pr1, Tr2 & Pr2. Compressibility

values (Z) are determined from Compressibility Chart in above Reference (Pg. 112)

TR1 :=

T1

Tcritical_mix

where

TR1 = 3.816

Z1 := 1.024

PR1 :=

TR2 :=

P1

Pcritical_mix

T2

Tcritical_mix

where

PR1 = 1.034

where

TR2 = 5.922

Z2 := 1.027

PR2 :=

P2

Pcritical_mix

PR2 = 3.526

where

Ps T1 Zs

P1 Ts Z1 where;

ACFM := SCFM

Inlet Conditions

Discharge Conditions

Rc

T1

MW

Z1

v1 :=

P1

3

v1 = 1.519

ft

lb

Rc

T2

MW

Z2

v2 :=

P2

3

v2 = 0.694 ft lb

3

3 ft

ACFM = 4.839 10

min

where;

ACFM = MF v1

MF :=

3 lb

and

MF = 3.185 10

ACFM

v1

min

P2

P1

n :=

v1

ln

v2

ln

where

n = 1.564

rp :=

P2

where

P1

rp = 3.41

n 1

n n

Headpoly := Z1

T1

1

rp

MW

n

Rc

Headpoly = 1.207 10 ft

h) Polytropic Efficiency

poly :=

k 1 n

k n 1

where

poly = 0.78

Hppoly_makeup :=

MF Headpoly

wher

e

lb ft

poly 33000

min hp

Hppoly_makeup = 1.494 10 hp

n 1

T2d_makeup := T1 rp

where

T2d_makeup = 871.546 R

Adiabatic Conditions

1) Calculate Adiabatic Head

k 1

k k

Headadia :=

T1

1

rp

MW

k

Rc

Headadia = 1.12 10 ft

2) Adiabatic Efficiency

k 1

k

T1 rp

1

adia :=

where

T2 T1

adia = 0.746

Hpadia :=

MF Headadia

lb ft

adia 33000

min hp

where

(1) Given input data: (Recycle Compressor Only)

Calculating for Syn Gas First for Reference)

a) Inlet Conditions

Methane as substitute for Natural

Gas.

Discharge Conditions

T1 := 560 R

P1 := 1133

Hpadia = 1.447 10 hp

T2 := 570 R

lb

in

3

+ Patm

P1 = 1.148 10 lb in

P2 := 1220.79

lb

+ Patm

2

in

3 lb

P2 = 1.235 10

2

in

1

N := 1

d := 19.0 in

SCFM := 487738

ft

min

Gas Composition

H2O := 206 lb

mol

hr

CO := 16843 lb

mol

hr

CO2 := 32517 lb

mol

hr

C1 := 184519 lb

mol

hr

H2 := 421218 lb

mol

hr

N2 := 18768 lb

mol

hr

mol

METH := 2474 lb

hr

AR := 10999.7 lb

mol

hr

MW h2o := 18.02 mol

MW c1 := 16.04 mol

MW co := 28.01 mol

MW h2 := 2.02 mol

MW n2 := 28.02 mol

Mtotal := H2O + CO + CO2 + C1 + H2 + N2 + AR

and

5

Mtotal = 6.851 10 lb

mol

hr

Mcp_h2o := 7.98

Mcp_co := 6.96

Mcp_co2 := 8.71

Mcp_c1 := 8.38

Mcp_h2 := 6.86

Mcp_n2 := 6.96

Mcp_ar := 4.97

Mcp_meth := 10.5

Ph2o :=

Pco :=

Pco2 :=

H2O

Mtotal

CO

Mtotal

CO2

Mtotal

Ph2o = 3.007 10

Pco = 0.025

Pco2 = 0.047

MW ar := 39.94 mol

MW meth := 32.04 mol

Pc1 :=

C1

Mtotal

Pc1 = 0.269

Ph2 :=

H2

Mtotal

Ph2 = 0.615

Pn2 :=

N2

Mtotal

Pn2 = 0.027

Par :=

AR

Mtotal

Par = 0.016

Pmeth :=

METH

Mtotal

Pmeth = 3.611 10

Mh2o := MWh2o Ph2o

Mc1 := MW c1 Pc1

Mh2 := MW h2 Ph2

Mn2 := MW n2 Pn2

Mmeth := MW meth Pmeth

MW = 9.87

(6) Critical Pressures and Temperatures of each gas

Critical Pressures

Critical Temperatures

Pcr_h2o := 3208 lb in

Pcr_co := 510 lb in

Pcr_co2 := 1073 lb in

Pcr_c1 := 673 lb in

Pcr_n2 := 492 lb in

Tcr_co2 := 548 R

Tcr_c1 := 344 R

Tcr_h2 := 60 R

Tcr_n2 := 228 R

Pcr_meth := 1157 lb in

Tcr_h2o := 1166 R

Tcr_co := 242 R

Pcr_h2 := 188 lb in

Pcr_ar := 705 lb in

Tcr_ar := 272 R

2

Tcr_meth := 924 R

Cp_h2o := Pcr_h2o Ph2o

Cp_h2o = 0.965 lb in

Ct_h2o = 0.351 R

Cp_co = 12.539 lb in

Cp_co2 = 50.93 lb in

Ct_co = 5.95 R

Ct_co2 := Tcr_co2 Pco2

Ct_co2 = 26.011 R

Cp_c1 = 181.268 lb in

Ct_c1 = 92.654 R

Cp_h2 = 115.592 lb in

Ct_h2 = 36.891 R

Ct_n2 := Tcr_n2 Pn2

Cp_n2 = 13.479 lb in

Cp_ar = 11.32 lb in

Ct_n2 = 6.246 R

2

Cp_meth = 4.178 lb in

Ct_ar = 4.367 R

Ct_meth := Tcr_meth Pmeth

Ct_ar = 4.367 R

Pcritical_mix := Cp_h2o + Cp_co + Cp_co2 + Cp_c1 + Cp_h2 + Cp_n2 + Cp_ar + Cp_meth

Pcritical_mix = 390.27 lb in

Tcritical_mix := Ct_h2o + Ct_co + Ct_co2 + Ct_c1 + Ct_h2 + Ct_n2 + Ct_ar + Ct_meth

Tcritical_mix = 175.807 R

(4) Determine the Specific Heat Ratio

Mc_h2o := Mcp_h2o Ph2o

Mcp = 7.37

k :=

Mcp

where

Mcp 1.985

k = 1.369

b) Determine Compressibility Value by determining Tr1, Pr1, Tr2 & Pr2. Compressibility

values (Z) are determined from Compressibility Chart in above Reference (Pg. 112)

TR1 :=

PR1 :=

TR2 :=

PR2 :=

T1

where

TR1 = 3.816

Z1 := 1.013

Tcritical_mix

P1

where

PR1 = 1.034

where

TR2 = 5.922

Pcritical_mix

T2

Tcritical_mix

P2

Z2 := 1.013

where

PR2 = 3.526

Pcritical_mix

Ps T1 Zs

P1 Ts Z1 where;

ACFM := SCFM

3

3 ft

ACFM = 6.641 10

min

Inlet Conditions

Discharge Conditions

Rc

T1

MW

Rc

T2

MW

Z1

v1 :=

Z2

v2 :=

P1

P2

v1 = 0.537

ft

lb

v2 = 0.508 ft lb

where;

ACFM = MF v1

MF :=

4 lb

and

MF = 1.236 10

ACFM

v1

min

P2

P1

n :=

v1

ln

v2

ln

where

n = 1.316

rp :=

P2

P1

where

rp = 1.076

n 1

n n

Headpoly := Z1

T1

rp

1

MW

n 1

Rc

Headpoly = 6.604 10 ft

h) Polytropic Efficiency

poly :=

k 1 n

k n 1

where

poly = 1.122

Hppoly_recycle :=

MF Headpoly

where

lb ft

poly 33000

min hp

Hppoly_recycle = 2.205 10 hp

n 1

T2d_recycle := T1 rp

where

T2d_recycle = 570 R

Adiabatic Conditions

1) Calculate Adiabatic Head

Headadia

k 1

k k

:=

T1

1

rp

MW

k

Rc

Headadia = 6.526 10 ft

2) Adiabatic Efficiency

k 1

k

T1 rp

1

adia :=

where

T2 T1

adia = 1.123

Hpadia :=

MF Headadia

adia 33000

lb ft

min hp

where

Hpadia = 2.177 10 hp

Bearing Losses

Given : Compressor Speed is 10800 rpm, ID of pad 4.125", OD of pad 11.18 (pad

effective areas is 27 square inches), Radial clearance is 0.006 - 0.008", viscosity is

50EE-5 reyn, Length of journal is 1.625", .

6

D1 := 4.125 in

:= 7 10

reyn

c := 0.006 in

N := 10800

rev

min

P := 50

R1 :=

D1

2

lb

in

therefore;

PL := 50

:= 2 N

lbf

in

R1 = 0.172 ft

L := 1.625 in

3 1

= 1.131 10 s

= 0.032 ft

lb s

1) Sommerfield Number (S)

2

S :=

R1 N

c PL

S = 2.978

Ld :=

L

D1

Ld = 0.394

W = Rotor Weights (800 lb)

W1 := 800 lbf

Reference Figure 12-17, using the Sommerfield number & L/D ratio in

Shigley 5th

R1

c

f := 75

T := f W1

f :=

75 c

R1

f = 0.218

D1

2

T = 360 lbf in

Hbearing := T N

Hbearing = 9.818 hp

Htotal_4 := 4 Hbearing

=

Htotal_4 = 39.273 hp

Note :Bearing count is 2 journals with this approximate size for the 2

compressors and additional size increase to 6" Dia & 6 " wide for the

compressor and gear HSP). There are three (3) sets of bearings for the Motor

and the Low speed gear shaft not accounted for. Use the same formula listed

above for these calculations.

Hjournal_total := Htotal_4 + Htotal_6 + Htotal_10

3

Hjournal_total = 1.235 10 hp

b) Thrust Bearing Calculations

1) Calculate Radial and Tangential slope parameters

(Note: The Radial tilt is defined as Zero and the standand angle for the

tangential tilt is 0.03333 degrees)

r := 0

:=

0.03333 2

360

= 5.817 10

hc := 0.012 in

therefore;

mr :=

R1

hc

and

m :=

R1

hc

where;

m =

R1 =

hc =

g =

Slope parameter

Thrust Pad ID (inches)

Thrust clearance at load point (inches)

Angular movement (degrees)

mr = 0

m = 0.1

DT1 := 4.125 in + 1 in

RT1 :=

DT2 := 11.18 in

RT2 :=

DT1

2

DT2

2

Nomograph in Volume II

of CRC Lubrication

manual (pages

(427-429)

W hc

6 ( R2 R1)

= 0.006

where;

W := 0.006 6 ( RT2 RT1)

W = 0.333 lb s

hmin

hc

= 0.95

hmin := 0.95 hc

hc = 0.012 in

hmin = 0.011 in

4) Horsepower Calculation

H hc

2

( RT2 RT1)

= 2.5

3 1

= 1.131 10 s

where;

2.5 ( ) ( RT2 RT1)

2

Hthrust :=

hc

Hthrust = 23.744 hp

Hthrust_total := 4 Hthrust

Hthrust_total = 94.976 hp

Htotal := Hjournal_total + Hthrust_total

Htotal = 1.33 10 hp

c) Seal losses are accounted for by using nomograph for Seal leakage. Reference

Elliott sizing criteria charts.

Hseal := 6 60 hp

=

Hseal = 360 hp

d) Gear losses are accounted for by taking a 5% increase in the total Horsepower

requirements of all the driven equipment.

GearBHP := 0.05 ( Hppoly_makeup + Hppoly_recycle + Htotal + Hseal)

GearBHP = 941.98 hp

Conclusion: Total Horsepower required by the motor is as follows:

BHP := GearBHP + ( Hppoly_makeup + Hppoly_recycle + Htotal)

4

BHP = 1.942 10 hp

a) Power required for the motor to operate

Powermotor :=

BHP

motor

where

motor := 0.98

Powermotor = 1.982 10 hp

b) Amperage Draw Requirements

Amps :=

Powermotor

1.73 E motor PF

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