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HB-11(05)

An ACI Handbook

Troubleshooting Surface
Imperfections

TroubleshootingSurfaceImperfections

Thefollowingconcretesurfaceimperfectionsaredescribed,withdefinitions,photographs,andbibliographies.

PlasticCracking

Honeycomb

Delamination

Crazing

Efflorescence

Curling

BugHoles(BlowHoles)

Popout

AlkaliSilicaReaction(ASR)

Dusting

ConcreteBlisters

Scaling

Blowup

PlasticCracking(PlasticShrinkageCracking)
Plasticcracking(plasticshrinkagecracking)is
crackingthatoccursinthesurfaceofthefresh
concretesoonafteritisplacedandwhileitis
stillplastic.

RELATEDARTICLES:

ComparisonofIndustrialConcreteFloorSlabsintheAucklandandChristchurchMarkets,CementandConcrete
AssociationofNewZealand,Mar.2001,40pp.
Halvorsen,G.T.,TroubleshootingConcreteCrackingDuringConstruction,ConcreteConstruction,Oct.1993,4pp.
Hover,K.,TheGentleArtofFogging,ConcreteConstruction,June2005,2pp.
"PlasticShrinkageCracking,"ConcreteinPractice:What,Why&How?CIP5,NationalReadyMixedConcrete
Association,SilverSpring,MD,1998,2pp.
Senbetta,E.,andBury,M.A.,ControlofPlasticShrinkageCrackinginColdWeather,ConcreteInternational,V.13,
No.3,Mar.1991,pp.4953.
Sprinkel,M.M.,PredictingPlasticShrinkageCrackinginLMCOverlays,ConcreteConstruction,July1988,2pp.
WhatCausesConcretetoCrack?,PortlandCementAssociation,Skokie,IL,1p.
OTHERREFERENCES:
ACICommittee305,HotWeatherConcreting(ACI305R10),AmericanConcreteInstitute,FarmingtonHills,MI,2010,
pp.46,8,11,16,18.
ACICommittee224,ControlofCrackinginConcreteStructures(ACI224R01),AmericanConcreteInstitute,
FarmingtonHills,MI,2001,pp.2627,3638.
ACICommittee223,GuidefortheUseofShrinkageCompensatingConcrete(ACI223R10),AmericanConcrete
Institute,FarmingtonHills,MI,223,2010,p.16.

ACICommittee544,StateoftheArtReportonFiberReinforcedConcrete(ACI544.1R96),AmericanConcrete
Institute,FarmingtonHills,MI,1996,pp.42,47,5152.
Balaguru,P.,UseofFibersforPlasticShrinkageCrackReductioninConcrete,DesignandProductionPracticesto
MitigateCracking(SP204),AmericanConcreteInstitute,FarmingtonHills,MI,2001,pp.171194.
Kosmatka,S.;Kerkhoff,B.;andPanarese,W.,DesignandControlofConcreteMixtures,FourteenthEdition,Portland
CementAssociation,Skokie,IL,2003,372pp.
Lerch,W.,PlasticShrinkage,ACIProceedings,V.53,No.2,1957,pp.797802.
Morris,P.,andDux,P.,AReviewofACIRecommendationsforPreventionofPlasticCracking,ACIMaterialsJournal,
V.102,No.5,Sept.Oct.2005,pp.307314.
Naaman,A.;Wongtanakitcharoen,T.;andHauser,G.,InfluenceofDifferentFibersonPlasticShrinkageCrackingof
Concrete,ACIMaterialsJournal,V.102,No.1,Jan.Feb.2005,pp.4958.

Honeycomb
Honeycombreferstovoidsleftinconcretedueto
failureofthemortartoeffectivelyfillthespacesamong
coarseaggregateparticles.

RELATEDARTICLES:

EngineeringandDesignStandardPracticeforConcreteforCivilWorksStructures,EM111022000,U.S.ArmyCorps
ofEngineers,Feb.1994,pp.81to89.
Ford,J.,TroubleshootingCommonDefectsinVerticalCastinPlaceConcrete,ConcreteConstruction,Dec.1992,pp.
879880.
Honeycombing,CementConcrete&AggregatesAustralia,Sept.2001,2pp.
Hover,K.,VibrationTuneup,ConcreteInternational,Sept.2001,pp.3135.
Troubleshooting:HoneycombandVoids,ConcreteConstruction,Dec.2000,1p.
OTHERREFERENCES:
ACICommittee309,IdentificationandControlofVisibleEffectsofConsolidationonFormedConcreteSurfaces(ACI
309.2R98)(Reapproved2005),AmericanConcreteInstitute,FarmingtonHills,MI,1998,pp.36.
ACICommittee309,GuideforConsolidationofConcrete(ACI309R05),AmericanConcreteInstitute,Farmington
Hills,MI,1998,pp.1718.
ACICommittee546,GuidetoConcreteRepair(ACI546R14),AmericanConcreteInstitute,FarmingtonHills,MI,2014,
70pp.
ACICommittee228,ReportonNondestructiveTestMethodsforEvaluationofConcreteinStructures(ACI228.2R13),
AmericanConcreteInstitute,FarmingtonHills,MI,2013,82pp.[Reportdealswithnondestructivemethodsfor
detectingthepresenceofvoidsandhoneycomb.]
Kosmatka,S.;Kerkhoff,B.;andPanarese,W.,DesignandControlofConcreteMixtures,FourteenthEdition,Portland
CementAssociation,Skokie,IL,2003,pp.4,8.
Smoak,W.G.,GuidetoConcreteRepair,U.S.DepartmentoftheInterior,BureauofReclamation,1998,184pp.
Suprenant,B.,andBasham,K.,PlacingandVibratingPouredConcreteWalls,ConcreteConstruction,Feb.1993,pp.
131134.

Delamination
Delaminationisaseparationalongaplaneparalleltoa
surface.

Delaminationseparation,asintheseparationofacoating
fromasubstrateorthelayersofacoatingfromeach
other,orinthecaseofaconcreteslab,isahorizontal
splitting,cracking,orseparationwithinaslabinaplane
roughlyparallelto,andgenerallynear,theuppersurface.
Itisfoundmostfrequentlyinbridgedecksandcausedby
thecorrosionofreinforingsteelorfreezingandthawing.
Delaminationissimilartospalling,scaling,orpeeling
exceptthatdelaminationaffectslargeareasandcanoften
onlybedetectedbynondestructivetests,suchastapping
orchaindragging.
RELATEDARTICLES:

Bimel,C.,IsDelaminationReallyAMystery?,ConcreteInternational,V.20,No.1,Jan.1998,pp.2934.
ComparisonofIndustrialConcreteFloorSlabsintheAucklandandChristchurchMarkets,CementandConcrete
AssociationofNewZealand,Mar.2001,40pp.
DelaminationofTroweledConcreteSurfaces,ConcreteinPractice:What,Why&How?CIP20,NationalReady
MixedConcreteAssociation,SilverSpring,MD,2004,2pp.
DoPanFloatsCauseBlistersorDelaminations?,ConcreteConstruction,Dec.2000,3pp.
Jana,D.,Concrete,Construction,orSaltWhichCausesScaling?,PartI:ImportanceofAirvoidSysteminConcrete,
ConcreteInternational,V.26,No.11,Nov.2004,pp.3138.
Khan,M.S.,DetectingCorrosionInducedDelaminations,ConcreteInternational,V.25,No.7,July2003,pp.7378.
Lankard,D.R.,AirEntrainmentandDelaminations,ConcreteInternational,V.26,No.11,Nov.2004,pp.2130.
Manning,D.G.,andHolt,F.B.,DetectingDelaminationinConcreteBridgeDecks,ConcreteInternational,V.2,No.
11,Nov.1980,pp.3441.
Samples,L.M.,andRamirez,J.A.,FieldInvestigationsofConcreteBridgeDecksinIndiana:PartI:NewConstruction
&InitialFieldInvestigationofExistingBridgeDecks,ConcreteInternational,V.22,No.2,Feb.2000,pp.5163.
Samples,L.M.,andRamirez,J.A.,FieldInvestigationsofConcreteBridgeDecksinIndiana:PartII:Detailed
InvestigationofExistingDecks,ConcreteInternational,V.22,No.3,Mar.2000,pp.5963.
Suprenant,B.A.,andMalisch,W.R.,DiagnosingSlabDelaminations:Part1,ConcreteConstruction,Jan.1998,4pp.
Suprenant,B.A.,andMalisch,W.R.,DiagnosingSlabDelaminations:Part2,ConcreteConstruction,Feb.1998,pp.
169174.
Suprenant,B.A.,andMalisch,W.R.,DiagnosingSlabDelaminations:Part3,ConcreteConstruction,Mar.1998,pp.
277283.
OTHERREFERENCES:
ACICommittee302,GuideforConcreteFloorandSlabConstruction(ACI302.1R04),AmericanConcreteInstitute,
FarmingtonHills,MI,2004,pp.7,23,30,47,48,52,58,67.

Crazing
Crazingisthedevelopmentofcrazecracks,asystemoffinerandom
cracksinaconcretesurface.
Thepatternofcrazecracksexistinginasurfaceisalsoreferredtoas
crazing.

RELATEDARTICLES:

Crazing:CareandMaintenance,TechnicalBulletin#32,CastStoneInstitute,1p.
CrazingConcreteSurfaces,ConcreteinPractice:What,Why&How?CIP3,NationalReadyMixedConcrete
Association,SilverSpring,MD,1998,2pp.
IsCrazeCrackingaTerminalIllness?,ConcreteConstruction(ProblemClinic),Feb.1997,pp.238.
Malisch,W.,AvoidingCommonOutdoorFlatworkProblems,ConcreteConstruction,July1990,pp.632638.
WhatCausesConcretetoCrack?,PortlandCementAssociation,Skokie,IL,1p.
OTHERREFERENCES:
Fentress,B.,SlabConstructionPracticesComparedbyWearTests,ACIJournal,July1973,pp.486491.
NonStructuralCracksinConcrete,ConcreteSocietyTechnicalReportNo.22,3rdedition,TheConcreteSociety,
London,1992.
WhatisCrazing,WhatCausesItandHowToAvoidIt,CementConcrete&AggregatesAustralia,1p.

Efflorescence
Efflorescenceisadepositusuallywhite
formedonthesurfaceofaconcreteor
masonrysurface.

Saltsorbasesemergeinsolutiontoformthe
deposit,usuallyasaresultofevaporationor
carbonation.

RELATEDARTICLES:

Beall,C.,HowtoStopEfflorescence,MasonryConstruction,May1988,pp.7982.
Troubleshooting:Efflorescence,ConcreteConstruction,Aug.2000,p.82.
Kenney,A.R.,AvoidingEfflorescenceinArchitecturalPrecastConcrete,ConcreteJournal,July
1996,pp.498500.
Neville,A.,EfflorescenceSurfaceBlemishorInternalProblem?,Part1:TheKnowledge,Concrete
International,V.24,No.8,Aug.2002,pp.8690.
Neville,A.,EfflorescenceSurfaceBlemishorInternalProblem?,Part2:SituationinPractice,
ConcreteInternational,V.24,No.9,Sept.2002,pp.8588.
Schierhorn,Carolyn,Efflorescence&Stains:AQuiz,MasonryConstruction,Aug.1995,pp.409
412.
OTHERREFERENCES:
Bensted,J.,EfflorescencePreventionisBetterThanCure,Concrete,Sept.2000,pp.4041.
Higgins,D.D.,EfflorescenceonConcrete,AppearanceMatters,CementandConcreteAssociation
(U.K.),1982,8pp.
Kennerley,R.A.,EfflorescentDepositsonConcrete,NewZealandConcreteConstruction,Dec.1981,
pp.2124.
Kresse,P.,EfflorescenceandItsPrevention,Betonwerk+Fertigteiltechnik(Germany),Oct.1991,pp.
7387.
Ritchie,T.,Efflorescence,CBD2,CanadianBuildingDigest,DivisionofBuildingResearch,National
ResearchCouncil,Feb.1960,4pp.
Suprenant,B.,EfflorescenceMinimizingUnsightlyStaining,ConcreteConstruction,Mar.1992,
pp.240243.

Curling
Curlingistheupwardmovementofa
slab'scornersandedgesdueto
differencesinmoisturecontentor
temperaturebetweenthetopand
bottomofaslab.

Thetopdriesorcoolsandcontracts
morethanthewetterorwarmer
bottom.Becauseofthereduced
subgradesupport,cracksoftendevelop
paralleltojointsorcracks,andatthe
cornerswherejointsintersect.

RELATEDARTICLES:

ComparisonofIndustrialConcreteFloorSlabsintheAucklandandChristchurchMarkets,CementandConcrete
AssociationofNewZealand,Mar.2001,40pp.
CurlingofConcreteSlabs,ConcreteInPractice:What,Why,&How?CIP19,NationalReadyMixedConcrete
Association,SilverSpring,MD,2004,2pp.
Holland,J.A.,andWalker,W.,ControllingCurlingandCrackinginFloorstoReceiveCoverings,Concrete
Construction,July1998,2pp.
Mailvaganam,N.;Springfield,J.;Repette,W.;andTaylor,D.,CurlingofConcreteSlabsonGrade,Construction
TechnologyUpdate,No.44,Dec.2000,2pp.
Ryan,J.T.,"ControllingSlabCurling,"ConcreteConstruction,June1996,3pp.
Suprenant,B.A.,WhySlabsCurl,PartI:ALookattheCurlingMechanismandtheEffectofMoistureandShrinkage
GradientsontheAmountofCurling,ConcreteInternational,V.24,No.3,Mar.2002,pp.5661.
Suprenant,B.A.,WhySlabsCurl,PartII:FactorsAffectingtheAmountofCurling,ConcreteInternational,V.24,No.
4,Apr.2002,pp.5964.
Tarr,S.;Craig,P.;andKanare,H.,ConcreteSlabRepair:GettingFlatisOneThing,StayingFlatisAnother!,Concrete
RepairBulletin,Jan./Feb.2006,pp.1215.
Walker,W.,andHolland,J.A.,TheFirstCommandmentforFloorSlabs:ThouShaltNotCurlNorCrack...(Hopefully),
ConcreteInternational,V.21,No.1,Jan.1999,pp.4753.

Ytterberg,R.F.,ShrinkageandCurlingofSlabsonGrade,PartIDryingShrinkage,ConcreteInternational,V.9,No.
4,Apr.1987,pp.2231.
Ytterberg,R.F.,ShrinkageandCurlingofSlabsonGrade,PartIIWarpingandCurling,ConcreteInternational,V.9,
No.5,May1987,pp.5461.
Ytterberg,R.F.,ShrinkageandCurlingofSlabsonGrade,PartIIIAdditionalSuggestions,ConcreteInternational,V.
9,No.6,June1987,pp.7281.
OTHERREFERENCES:
AbdulWahab,H.M.S.,andJaffar,A.S.,WarpingofReinforcedConcreteSlabsDuetoShrinkage,ACIJournal,
Proceedings,V.80,No.2,Mar.Apr.1983,pp.109115.
AlNasra,M.,andWang,L.R.L.,ParametricStudyofSlabonGradeProblemsduetoInitialWarpingandPoint
Loads,ACIStructuralJournal,V.91,No.2,Mar.Apr.1994,pp.198210.
ACICommittee302,GuideforConcreteFloorandSlabConstruction(ACI302.1R04),AmericanConcreteInstitute,
FarmingtonHills,MI,2004,pp.9,11,50,58,62,7071.
ACICommittee360,DesignofSlabsonGround(ACI360R10),AmericanConcreteInstitute,FarmingtonHills,MI,
2010,72pp.
ConcreteFloorsonGround,PortlandCementAssociation,Skokie,IL,2001,p.106.
Garber,G.,DesignandConstructionofConcreteFloors,JohnWiley&Sons,NewYork,1991,pp.154159.
Suprenant,B.,andMalisch,W.,RepairingCurledSlabs,ConcreteConstruction,May1999,pp.5865.

BugHoles
Bugholes(orblowholes),usuallynotexceeding15mm
(0.6in.)indiameter,resultingfromentrapmentofair
bubblesinthesurfaceofformedconcreteduring
placementandconsolidation.

P3:Ordinarysmoothform,ascastconcretewithnumerousevenly
scatteredbugholes.Mostofthemareinthe1/8to1/4in.range.

P5:Bugholesaslargeas1in.across,seenincombinationwitha
widerangeofothersizesofvoids,someofsignificantdepth.This
wouldqualifyasasmoothformfinishonlyifbugholeslargerthan
3/4in.arefilled.

RELATEDARTICLES:

Bugholes,ConcreteTechnology,PortlandCementAssociation,Skokie,IL,1p.
BugholesinFormedConcrete,ASCCPositionStatement8,AmericanSocietyofConcreteContractors,St.Louis,MO,
2003,1p.
Ford,J.,TroubleshootingCommonDefectsinVerticalCastinPlaceConcrete,ConcreteConstruction,Dec.1992,pp.
879880.
Reading,T.J.,TheBugholeProblem,ACIJournal,Mar.1972,pp.165171.
Samuelsson,P.,VoidsinConcreteSurfaces,ACIJournal,Nov.1970,pp.868874.
OTHERREFERENCES:
ACICommittee309,IdentificationandControlofVisibleEffectsofConsolidationonFormedConcreteSurfaces(ACI
309.2R98),AmericanConcreteInstitute,FarmingtonHills,MI,1998,pp.6,810.
Blake,L.S.;Kinnear,R.G.;andMurphy,W.E.,SymposiumonSurfaceTreatmentofInSituConcrete,Cementand
ConcreteAssociation,London,1964,27pp.
Blowholes(Bugholes),CementConcrete&AggregatesAustralia,Sept.2001,2pp.
BugholesinConcreteSurfaces:AnnotatedBibliography,PortlandCementAssociation,Skokie,IL,2004,4pp.
GuideforSurfaceFinishofFormedConcrete,AmericanSocietyofConcreteContractors,St.Louis,MO,1999,50pp.
Houston,B.J.,MethodsofReducingtheSizeandNumberofVoidsonFormedConcreteSurfaces,TechnicalReport
No.6788,U.S.ArmyEngineerWaterwaysExperimentStation,Vicksburg,MS,July1967.

McGovern,M.,SmoothMoves,ConcreteConstruction,Sept.1999,pp.4850.
Smoak,W.G.,GuidetoConcreteRepair,U.S.DepartmentoftheInterior,BureauofReclamation,1998,184pp.
Thompson,M.S.,BlowholesinConcreteSurfaces,Concrete,(PublishedbyTheConcreteSociety,London),Feb.
1969,pp.6469.

Popout
Apopoutisthebreakingawayofsmallportionsofaconcrete
surfaceduetolocalizedinternalpressurethatleavesashallow,
typicallyconical,depression.

Smallpopoutsleaveholesupto0.4in.(10mm)indiameter;
mediumpopoutsleaveholes0.4to2in.(10to50mm)in
diameter;andlargepopoutsleaveholesgreaterthan2in.(50
mm)indiameter.

RELATEDARTICLES:

Malisch,W.,AvoidingCommonOutdoorFlatworkProblems,ConcreteConstruction,July1990,pp.632638.
Troubleshooting:Popouts,ConcreteConstruction,Oct.2000,1p.
OTHERREFERENCES:
ACICommittee221,GuideforUseofNormalWeightandHeavyweightAggregatesinConcrete(ACI221R
96)(Reapproved2001),AmericanConcreteInstitute,FarmingtonHills,MI,1996,pp.69.
ACICommittee302,GuideforConcretefloorandSlabConstruction(ACI302.1R04),AmericanConcreteInstitute,
FarmingtonHills,MI,2004,pp.6667.
Landgren,R.,andHadley,D.W.,SurfacePopoutsCausedbyAlkaliAggregateReaction,ResearchandDevelopment
BulletinRD121,PortlandCementAssociation,Skokie,IL,2002,20pp.
Popouts,CementConcrete&AggregatesAustralia,Sept.2001,2pp.
Verbeck,G.,andLandgren,R.,InfluenceofPhysicalCharacteristicsofAggregatesonFrostResistanceofConcrete,
ProceedingsoftheAmericanSocietyforTestingandMaterials,V.60,ASTM,WestConshohocken,PA,1960,pp.1063
1079.

AlkaliSilicaReaction
AlkaliSilicaReaction(ASR)isthereactionbetweenalkalies
(sodiumandpotassium)inportlandcementandcertain
siliceousrocksorminerals,suchasopalinechert,strained
quartz,andacidicvolcanicglass,presentinsomeaggregates.

Theproductsofthereactionmaycauseabnormalexpansion
andcrackingofconcreteinservice.

RELATEDARTICLES:

Doran,D.K.,AlkaliSilicaReactioninConcrete(ASR),TheInstitutionofStructuralEngineers,Nov.2004,1p.
Fournier,B.,andMalhotra,V.M.,ReducingExpansionDuetoAlkaliSilicaReactivity,ConcreteInternational,V.18,
No.3,Mar.1996,pp.5559.
GrattanBellew,P.E.,andMitchell,L.,PreventingConcreteDeteriorationDuetoAlkaliAggregateReaction,
ConstructionTechnologyUpdate,No.52,Mar.2002,2pp.
Helmuth,R.,AlkaliSilicaReactivity:AnOverviewofResearch,SHRPC342,StrategicHighwaysResearchProgram;
alsoLT177,PortlandCementAssociation,Skokie,IL,1993,115pp.
Mather,B.,LandmarkSeries:CrackingofConcreteintheTuscaloosaLock,ConcreteInternational,V.26,No.9,
Sept.2004,pp.6186.
MichiganTechTransportationInstitute,GuidelinesforDetection,Analysis,andTreatmentofMaterialsRelated
DistressinConcretePavements,FHWARD01163,FederalHighwayAdministration,McLean,VA,Mar.2002.
PortlandCementAssociation,AlkaliAggregateReaction,2006,1p.
Tuthill,L.H.,AlkaliSilicaReaction40YearsLater,ConcreteInternational,V.4,No.4,Apr.1982,pp.3236.
OTHERREFERENCES:
ACICommittee201,GuidetoDurableConcrete(ACI201.2R08),AmericanConcreteInstitute,FarmingtonHills,MI,
2001,49pp.
ACICommittee221,StateoftheArtReportonAlkaliAggregateReactivity(ACI221.1R98)(Reapproved2008),
AmericanConcreteInstitute,FarmingtonHills,MI,1998,31pp.
AlkaliSilicaReactioninConcrete:2004Edition,BuildingResearchEstablishmentDigest330,BuildingResearch
Establishment,London,2004.
Kosmatka,S.;Kerkhoff,B.;andPanarese,W.,DesignandControlofConcreteMixtures,FourteenthEdition,Portland
CementAssociation,Skokie,IL,2003,372pp.
Stark,D.,AlkaliSilicaReactioninConcrete,SignificanceofTestsandPropertiesofConcreteandConcreteMaking
Materials(ASTMSTP169D),ASTM,WestConshohocken,PA,2006,pp.401409.

Dusting
Dustingisthedevelopmentofasoft,powderymaterialthatcan
beeasilyrubbedoffthesurfaceofhardenedconcrete.

RELATEDARTICLES:

Dustingoffinishedsurfaces
Basham,Kim,ColdWeatherConcreteConstruction,ConcreteInternational,V.27,No.11,Nov.2005,pp.3134.
DustingConcreteSurfaces,ConcreteinPractice:What,Why&How?CIP1,NationalReadyMixedConcrete
Association,SilverSpring,MD,1998,2pp.
Fentress,Blake,SlabConstructionPracticesComparedbyWearTests,ACIJournal,V.70,No.7,July1973,pp.486
491.
Frey,George,ConstructionConsiderationsforServiceableConcreteFloors,ACIJournal,V.70,No.6,June1973,pp.
418419.
Kauer,J.A.,andFreeman,R.L.,EffectofCarbonDioxideonFreshConcrete,ACIJournal,V.52,No.12,Dec.1955,
pp.447454.
Dustingofformedsurfaces
Reading,T.J.,DeleteriousEffectsofWoodFormsonConcreteSurfaces,ConcreteInternational,V.7,No.11,Nov.
1985,pp.5762.
Reading,T.J.,EffectsofReleaseAgentsUsedonPlywoodForms,ConcreteInternational,V.7,No.7,July1985,pp.
1522.
Wastlund,Georg,andEriksson,Anders,WearResistanceTestsonConcreteFloorsandMethodsofDust
Prevention,ACIJournal,V.43,No.10,Oct.1946,pp.181199.
OTHERREFERENCES:
ACICommittee201,GuidetoDurableConcrete(ACI201.2R08),AmericanConcreteInstitute,FarmingtonHills,MI,
2001,pp.27,33.
ACICommittee302,GuideforConcreteFloorandSlabConstruction(ACI302.1R04),AmericanConcreteInstitute,
FarmingtonHills,MI,2004,pp.26,41,43,44,46,62,64,65.
Bakke,K.,AbrasionResistance,SignificanceofTestsandPropertiesofConcreteandConcreteMakingMaterials
(ASTMSTP169D),ASTM,WestConshohocken,PA,2006,pp.184193.
Feld,J.,StudyofDustyConcreteCeilings,ACIJournal,V.45,No.5,May1949,pp.673678.
Garber,G.,DesignandConstructionofConcreteFloors,JohnWiley&Sons,NewYork,1991,pp.245261.
Vassour,V.;Kettle,R.;andSadegzadeh,M.,TheRelativePerformanceofAbrasionApparatusinAccordancewithBS
8204(Part2:1999),Cement,Concrete,andAggregates,V.24,No.2,ASTM,WestConshohocken,PA,2002,pp.7380.

ConcreteBlisters
Blistersareairorwaterfilledbulgesthatformundera
denseskinofmortarduringfinishingofaconcretesurface.

Theycanvaryfromabout1/4to3in.indiameterandmay
moveduringtrowelingorbeapparentonlyafterfinishing
iscompleted.Theybreakundertrafficaftertheconcrete
hashardened.

RELATEDARTICLES:

ConcreteBlisters,ConcreteinPractice:What,Why&How?CIP13,NationalReadyMixedConcreteAssociation,
SilverSpring,MD,2005,2pp.
HardTrowelFinishonAirEntrainedConcrete,ASCCPositionStatement#1,AmericanSocietyofConcrete
Contractors,St.Louis,MO,2003,1p.
Lankard,DavidR.,AirEntrainmentandDelaminations,ConcreteInternational,V.26,No.11,Nov.2004,pp.2130.
Peterson,CarlO.,ConcreteSurfaceBlisteringCausesandCures,ConcreteConstruction,Sept.1970,p.317.
OTHERREFERENCES:
ACICommittee302,GuideforConcreteFloorandSlabConstruction(ACI302.1R04),AmericanConcreteInstitute,
FarmingtonHills,MI,2004,pp.6768.
ConcreteSlabSurfaceDefects:Causes,Prevention,Repair(IS177),PortlandCementAssociation,Skokie,IL,2001,pp.
12.
Rollings,R.S.,andWong,G.S.,InvestigationofaConcreteBlisteringFailure,Materials:Performanceand
PreventionofDeficienciesandFailures,AmericanSocietyofCivilEngineers,Fairfax,VA,1992,pp.1630.
Suprenant,B.,andMalisch,W.,SealingEffectsofFinishingTools,ConcreteConstruction,Sept.1999,pp.3943.

Scaling
Scalingislocalflakingorpeelingawayofthenear
surfaceportionofhardenedconcrete.
ACI11600,CementandConcreteTerminology,defines
degreesofscalingasfollows:
Lightscalingdoesntexposecoarseaggregate.
Mediumscalinglossofsurfacemortarto5to
10mmindepthandexposureofcoarse
aggregate.
Severscalinglossofsurfacemortarto5to10
mmindepthwithsomelossofmortar
surroundingaggregateparticles10to20mmin
depth.

Veryseverescalinglossofcoarseaggregate
particlesaswellasmortargenerallytoadepth
greaterthan20mm.
RELATEDARTICLES:

Browne,FrederickP.,andCady,PhillipD.,DeicerScalingMechanismsinConcrete,DurabilityofConcrete(SP47),
AmericanConcreteInstitute,FarmingtonHills,MI,1975,pp.101119.
Jana,D.,Concrete,Construction,orSaltWhichCausesScaling?Part1,ConcreteInternational,V.26,No.11,Nov.
2004,pp.3138.
Jana,D.,Concrete,Construction,orSaltWhichCausesScaling?Part2,ConcreteInternational,V.26,No.12,Dec.
2004,pp.5156.
Johnston,C.D.,DeicerSaltScalingResistanceandChloridePermeability,ConcreteInternational,V.16,No.8,Aug.
1994,pp.4855.
Lankard,D.,ScalingRevisted,ConcreteInternational,V.23,No.5,May2001,pp.4349.
Malisch,W.,"AvoidingCommonOutdoorFlatworkProblems,"ConcreteConstruction,July1990,pp.632638.
McDonald,D.B.,andPerenchio,W.F.,EffectsofSaltTypeonConcreteScaling,ConcreteInternational,V.19,No.7,
July1997,pp.2326.
MichiganTechTransportationInstitute,GuidelinesforDetection,Analysis,andTreatmentofMaterialsRelated
DistressinConcretePavements,FHWARD01163,FederalHighwayAdministration,McLean,VA,Mar.2002.
Pinto,R.,andHover,K.,FrostandScalingResistanceofHighStrengthConcrete(RD122),PortlandCement
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Deicers:BibliographyofResources(LB05),PortlandCementAssociation,Skokie,IL,2001,6pp.
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CementAssociation,Skokie,IL,2003,372pp.
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Blowup
Ablowupisalocalizedupwardmovementofa
concretecurborslab,usuallyatajointorcrack.

Blowupsoftenoccurwhenjointshavebecome
filledwithincompressiblematerialandthermal
expansionduringhotweathercreatescompressive
forceshighenoughtocausebucklingofpavements,
sidewalks,orcurbs.Crackingmayalsooccur,
paralleltoorperpendiculartojoints.

RELATEDARTICLES:

Albright,RichardO.,BewareofUnrestrainedExpansion,ConcreteConstruction,Apr.1998,pp.371374.
Burke,MartinP.,Jr.,andBugler,JohnW.,TheLongTermPerformanceofUnsealedJointedConcretePavements,
PaperNo.022394,TransportationResearchBoards81stAnnualMeeting,2002,14pp.
Burke,MartinP.,Jr.,ReducingBridgeDamageCausedbyPavementForces,Part1:SomeExamplesConcrete
International,V.26,No.1,Jan.2004,pp.5357.
Burke,MartinP.,Jr.,ReducingBridgeDamageCausedbyPavementForces,Part2:ThePhenomenonConcrete
International,V.26,No.2,Feb.2004,pp.8389.
ConcreteQ&A:ExpansionJointsinExteriorPavements?ConcreteInternational,V.28,No.1,Jan.2006,pp.107
108.
NCHRPW35,RehabilitationStrategiesforHighwayPavements(PartB),AppendixA,PavementDistressTypesand
Causes,pp.A11toA12.
Troubleshooting:Blowup,ConcreteConstruction,Jan.2000,p.106.
OTHERREFERENCES:
Burke,M.P.,Jr.,PavementPressureGeneration:NeglectedAspectofJointedPavementBehavior,Transportation
ResearchRecord1627,TRB,NationalResearchCouncil,Washington,DC,1998,pp.2228.
DesignandConstructionofJointsforConcreteHighways,TB010P,AmericanConcretePavementAssociation,Skokie,
IL,1991,24pp.
Kerr,ArnoldD.,AssessmentofConcretePavementBlowups,JournalofTransportationEngineering,American
SocietyofCivilEngineers,Mar./Apr.1997,pp.123131.