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Startup:

I have 40.4 g of Neon @ STP. What


is its volume? I then raise the
temperature to 350K and cut the volume
to 0.3 of its original measure. What is the
pressure?

(STP 1.013x105 N/m2 and 273K)

Solution:
Part 1

PV = nRT

Therefore V=nRT
P
R = Universal Gas Constant =8.315 J/
(molK)

Molecular weight of Neon is 20.2, and


we have 2.00 moles.

V= (2)(8.315)(273)
1.013 x105

V= 0.0448 m3

Part 2

P1V1 P2V2
T1 T2
(1.013 x 105)(0.0448) = (P)(0.3)(0.0448)
273 350

P = 4.33x 105 or 432905.96 N/m2

KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER

The Kinetic theory of matter is best


summed up in one sentence. All matter is
made of atoms that are ALWAYS in
motion.

To be complicated about it, it can be


broken down into 4 postulates:

1. There are a large number of


molecules (N) with a known mass
(m) moving in random directions at
any number of individual speeds.
2. The molecules are farther apart than
the radius of one atom.
3. The molecules are assumed to follow
the laws of classical mechanics
(velocity, momentum etc.)
4. The collisions that occur are elastic in
that they always bounce and do not
stick together.

A good example that helps explain the


concept is Boyle’s “Law”. If we cut the
volume in half, we cut the distance
between molecules in half, which means
twice as many molecules are hitting any
1 given area of a container, transferring
momentum onto the container by
bouncing off, thereby doubling the
pressure with the aid of run-on
sentences.

To simplify the most important parts of


this and skipping the derivation in the
interest of expediency, we can sum this
up as

Average KE=(1/2)mv2 =(3/2)kT

Where v is the average velocity of any


given group of particles, m is the mass of
any one molecule/atom, T is the
temperature in Kelvin, and k is a number
named Boltzmann’s Constant = 1.38 x
10-23 J/K.

Which means:
The average kinetic energy of
molecules in a gas is directly
proportional to the absolute
temperature.

Sample: 1

What is the average KE of a given


molecule of any gas at 310K?

Solution:

Average KE = (3/2)kT

=(3/2)(1.38x10-23)(310)
=6.42x10-21 J
Sample 2

What is the average velocity of a


MOLECULE of oxygen sealed in a
container at 310K?

Solution

m = mass of one molecule or in the case


of oxygen, 2 atoms. Each atom is made
of 16 elementary particles with an
average mass of 1.67x10-27 kg

From the previous sample we have


already calculated the average KE @
310K.

Avg KE = (1/2)m(v2)

6.42x10-21=(1/2)(32)(1.67x10-23)(v2)
v2 = 24.0

v= 4.90 m/s