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Introduction:

Programmable logic controllers (PLC) have been evolved out from Relay logic
circuits (RLC).
A typical RLC circuit is as shown in Fig 1.1

L L1-L2 Control Voltage (AC/DC)


1 PB1 Start Pushbutton
PB1 PB2 Stop Pushbutton
R12 R1 Relay
R12 Auxiliary relay

PB2
Circuit Functioning:
When PB1 is pressed, R1 & R12 coils pickup.
This makes R12 Normally open (NO) Contact to
close. Once R12 contact closes even if PB1 is
R1 R12 released, R12 will remain ON as there is an
L alternative path for the coil (Termed as
2 Latching). The only way to break the latch is to
press PB2.
Fig 1.1

As seen the logic circuits are hard wired. When the process became complicated and
automation level increased so did the circuits. These RLC’s had many drawbacks.
Viz.,
1. Circuits were bulky:
a. Apart from relays, external components like counters, timers etc.
were to be used.
b. Relays had limited number of auxiliary contacts. Hence if the
circuits demanded for more contacts, then additional relays (Aux
relays) were to be used in parallel to actual relays (e.g. R12 in
Fig1.1). Hence more relays were required.
2. Troubleshooting was very difficult.
a. If a particular relay was not becoming ON (e.g. R1 in Fig.1.1), the
entire loop had to be traced from one point to other. A rather tedious
process.
3. Inflexible:
a. Logics were built on hardwired circuits. Hence any changes in the
logic, the wiring had to be changed. In some cases it would be
impossible, as the required contacts (Normally open (NO) / Normally
closed (NC) would not be available.
4. If the logic were complicated, sometimes it would not be feasible to
build a RLC.

To overcome the above drawbacks, a new product called the PROGRAMMABLE


LOGIC CONTROLLERS (PLC) Emerged.

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Programmable logic controller (PLC) is a solid-state device, basically designed
to perform logical decision making for industrial control application. Since their
development in early 1970’s, PLC’s have evolved to challenge not only relays but
also other discrete control devices such as stepping switches, drum sequencers etc.

The PLC’s is composed of electronic circuit with a microcomputer centered.


However, it can be equivalently regarded as an integrated body of ordinary relay,
timer, counter etc.

The block diagram of a PLC is as shown in Fig 1.2:

NO PLC
CONTACT POWER RELAY
PUSHBUTTO I SUPPLY O COIL
NC
N N U
CONTACT T LAMP
P
PUSHBUTTO P
N U U
NC T PROCESSOR T SOLENOID
CONTACT S COIL
S
SWITCH

Fig 1.2

Power Supply:
It is basically required for the circuits of the PLC to function. These power
supplies are designed and rated only to operate the internal structure and not the
field elements. The external supply to the PLC can be AC/DC and can be of different
ranges, but the PLC power supply converts these to the appropriate voltages
required for internal functioning of the PLC circuits.

The common voltages are:


AC: 110v, 220v
DC: +24v, 110v

Processor:
This is the heart of the PLC. It interfaces the input and output subsystems
through software written to it. The input and output subsystems are explained in
the preceding discussions.

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INPUT SUB SYSTEM:

The sensing elements (input elements) are wired to the input section of the
PLC. These elements sense the dynamic status of the machine operation or
process.
Inputs are classified into two:
1. Digital
2. Analog

1. Digital inputs:
These inputs have only two states, viz., ON or OFF (digitally 1 or 0). Therefore
these are also called as discrete inputs. Elements used to give the various
commands for e.g. Push buttons, Limit switches, Selector switches, Proximity
switches, Level switches and Pressure switches etc. are directly connected to the
input of the PLC.

2 . Analog inputs:
These inputs have multiple states and rather continuously changing one and
are having a range of values. Electrically these are categorized into two:

i) Voltage : The commonly used ranges are


1. 0 to 10 Vdc -unipolar
2. –10 to +10 Vdc -bipolar
3. 0 to 5Vdc
ii) Current : The commonly used ranges are
1. 0 to 20mA
2. 4 to 20mA

The field parameters like pressure, flow, temperature etc are converted to
electrical parameters through transducers and are converted further to the above
voltage / current signals through transmitters. The output of transmitters is then
connected to analog inputs of the PLC. The PLC in turn converts these voltage /
current signals to their equivalent digital values through the analog to digital
convertors. Typical example is shown below
Pressure
to Resistance
resistance to
Transduce 4-20 mA
Analog
r Transmitte
Process Input of
r
PLC
Range:
4-20 mA to
0 to 10 kg/cm2
4000-20000
counts

The most commonly used range is 4-20mA, as it has no voltage drop for longer
distances and wire cut can be detected as the minimum signal voltage is 4mA.

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OUTPUT SUB SYSTEMS:

The actuating elements (output elements) are wired to the output section.
Output are classified into two:
1.Digital
2.Analog

1.Digital Output:
These have only two states, viz., ON or OFF (digitally 1 or 0). Therefore these are
also called as discrete outputs. These elements are mainly actuators like
contactors. Relays, solenoid coils, indicating lamps, annunciation lamps etc., and
are directly connected to outputs of the PLC.

2.Analog output:
These output have multiple states and rather continuously changing one and are
having a range of values. Electrically these are categorized into two.
1. Voltage: The commonly used ranges are
1.0 to 10VDC -unipolar
2.–10 to +10VDC bipolar
3.0 to 5VDC
2. Current: The commonly used ranges are
1. 0 to 20ma
2. 4 to 20ma

In case of analog outputs, the digital value is converted to analog signals and these
signals are fed to actuators such as control valves. These control valves in turn open
/ close from 0 to 100% depending on digital values fed.

A typical example for analog output is as shown below:

Analo
4000-20000 g
counts to output
4 to 20 mA 0-100%
of PLC Uncontrolled Controlled
Flow Flow

FLAGS:

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Flags are just like auxiliary relays used in conventional RLC systems (ref.
R12 in fig 1.1). These are similar to digital outputs as far as internal execution is
considered. These are internal to the system to store temporary digital data (bit
1/0) and will not have any physical output. These will be accessed as bits.

REGISTERS:

Just as flags are used to store temporary digital data, registers are used to
store temporary analog data. These will be used in mathematical calculations,
Timers, counters etc. These will be accessed as word, and length of word depends
on processor used (for e.g. 16bit, 32 bit etc)

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Wiring of Digital Inputs

The field sensing elements such as pushbuttons,


1 Switches etc., are wired as shown in the fig 1.3
2

3
In case of AC voltage type Digital input cards, L1and L2
can be fed with line and Neutral.

(To remind AC voltage has alternating polarity, hence


COM L1 can either be connected to Line or Neutral with L2
connected the other.)
L1 L2
Fig 1.3

In case of DC voltage type digital input cards, if L1 is connected to 0Vdc and


L2 is connected to +Vdc then inputs are called “Sink type inputs”. When the input
circuit is completed, +ve signal is available at the channel. The input card converts
it to “1” if +ve signal is available and “0” if no signal is available. Hence these are
also called “Positive inputs”.

If L1 is connected to +ve Vdc and L2 is connected to 0Vdc, then inputs are called
“Source type inputs”. When the input circuit is completed, 0Vdc signal is available at
the channel. The input card converts it to “0” if 0Vdc signal is available and “1” if no
signal is available. Hence these are also called “Negative inputs”.

We are positive thinkers and hence the most commonly used input wiring for DC
voltage is the sink type. Source type of cards is used when interfacing devices like
PNP Proximity sensors.

One major advantage of PLC is that, the inputs connected can either be normally
open or normally closed. Internally PLC can generate unlimited number of normally
open and normally closed contacts from it. If normally open (NO) contacts are
wired, then normally the PLC input will be “0”. And when the contact is actuated
then the input will be “1”. If normally closed contacts are wired, then normally the
PLC input will be “1” and when the contact is actuated then the input will be “0”.
Normally NO contacts are used to start applications and NC contacts for stopping. If
equipment couldn’t be started then there much less problem, compared to if the
equipment could not be stopped. Hence the stop signal should be wired as NC
signals as far as possible which then can be termed as “fail safe”.

(Note: The most commonly used DC voltage for I/O interrogation is 24v dc)

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Wiring of digital outputs

The two most common types of digital outputs are


1 1.DC type
2 2.Relay type
3
In case of DC type the field actuators will be connected
to the Digital output card as shown in fig1.4. Here, if L1
is connected to +ve Vdc and L2 is connected to 0Vdc
then the outputs are called “Source type outputs”. When
COM the output circuit is completed, +ve signal is available at
the channel if the PLC writes “1” to the channel and no
L1 L2 signal if PLC writes “0” to it. Hence these are also called
Fig 1.3 “Positive Outputs”.

On the other hand, if L1 is connected to 0Vdc and L2 to +Vdc, then the outputs are
called “ sink type outputs “. When the output circuit is completed, 0 Vdc is available
at the channel if plc writes 1 to the channel and no signal if plc writes 0 to it. Hence
these are also called negative outputs. As in the case of inputs most commonly used
output wiring for dc voltage is the source type. Sink type outputs are used in
specific cases.

L1
1 1
L2
L3
2 2
L4
L5
3 3
L6

COM
L1 L2
Fig 1.4 Fig 1.5

In case of relay type outputs, there are two types.

1.Isolated type :
Here each output is isolated from the other. Hence different voltages can be
fed to different channels. These outputs are potential free contacts. Fig 1.4
shows the wiring details of isolated relay type outputs.
2.Non-isolated type:
Here all the outputs are grouped into one. Hence only one type of voltage can
be fed to the group. Fig 1.5 shows the wiring details of non-isolated or
Partially Isolated relay type outputs.

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Wiring of analog input:

For 4wire and 2 wire current transducers, the wiring diagram is as shown in Fig1.6
and fig 1.7 respectively. Fig1.8 shows the wiring diagram of voltage transducers to
the analog input card.

Cable Cable
Shield Shield
+ I ref + +
Voltage
AC/DC 4WT Transducer
- Ret - -

Signal Signal
Earth Analog Earth Analog
Input Input
Fig 1.6 (Current) (Voltage)
Fig 1.8

Cable
Shield
+ + 2WT - I ref Note:
POWER
SUPPLY Analog inputs are like meters, just
- Ret
as voltmeters are connected in
parallel and ammeters are
Signal connected in series, the wiring to
Earth Analog the analog input cards should be
Input
(Current)
done similarly
Fig 1.7

Wiring of Analog Output:


Cable Cable
Shield Shield
+ I ref + +
Load Load

- Ret - -

Signal Signal
Analog Analog
Earth Earth
Output Output
(Current) (Voltage)
Fig 1.9 Fig 1.10

The wiring for analog output for current and voltage is as shown in fig 1.9 and Fig
1.10 respectively. In case of current analog outputs, the required voltages are
generated with the analog signal itself.
Tip: In case of analog inputs, wiring should be done in such way considering analog
input cards as the measuring meter. On the other hand, in case of analog outputs,
wiring should be done in such a way considering the “load” as measuring meter.
There is another classification of PLC input / outputs (I/O).
1.Local I/Os.
2.Remote I/Os.

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1.Local I/Os:
If the PLC I/Os are connected directly to the PLC CPU system, then
P C I I the I/Os are termed as Local I/Os. Fig 1.13 shows the scheme of local
S P / / I/Os. Here all the input and output wiring will be done directly to CPU
U U O O system.

Fig. 1.13

2.Remote I/Os:
If the PLC I/Os are connected through Remote
C
P C O Fig. 1.14 communication card (COMM) to the PLC system, then the
S P M I/Os are termed as of Remote I/Os. Fig1.14 shows the
U U M
scheme of remote I/Os. Here the I/Os are wired and
communicate to the interface unit (IU). These units in turn
communicate to the communication card on the PLC
IU 1 IU 2 IU 3
system. These I/O’s are interconnected in a daisy chain
I/O I/O I/O fashion.
I/O I/O I/O

I/O I/O I/O

Remote I/Os have following advantages over the local I/Os.


• Wiring is minimum, as the I/O wiring is done locally to the equipment. Only
one communication cable is used to interface the communication card on the
CPU rack and interface unit on the I/O rack remotely placed. Hence cable cost
is considerably brought down.
• Diagnosis becomes simpler, as the I/O related to the remotely located
equipment can be checked near the equipment itself.

Various communication protocols (pattern) are used to communicate between the


communication cards and interface units.
Some of them are Device-net, Profibus etc. Also, there are quite a few proprietary
protocols from various manufacturer of the PLC. Efforts are being made to
standardize these protocols.

Addressing of Inputs and Outputs in PLC:

PLC considers each input, output be it analog or digital or be it flags or


registers as different memory location. Various addressing methods are used and

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depend on vendor how they decide to differentiate the different memory locations
viz., Digital input, analog input, Digital output, analog output, flags, registers.
Also the individual channels can be addressed in different formats viz.,
1.Decimal: 1,2,3….9, 10, 11 etc.
2.octal:0, 1, 2,..7,10,11 etc.
3.Hexadecimal: 1,2…9,A, B, C, D, E, F, 10, 11 etc
These are prefixed with some characters to differentiate the different I/Os.

For e.g.:
Digital inputs : X1,X2…
Digital outputs: Y1,Y2…
Analog Inputs: XX1, XX2….
Analog outputs: YY1, YY2….
Flags: F1, F2….
Registers: R1, R2….

Sample ladder program:

Consider the electrical network shown in Fig 1.1. If the same has to be replaced
by the plc, then the pushbutton PB1, PB2 would be the inputs and relay coil R1 as
output. The auxiliary contactor R12 can be omitted. Suppose PB1, PB2 are
connected to 1st and 2nd channel of the digital input card of the PLC and R1 is
connected to 1st channel of the digital output card of PLC then the PLC program will
be as shown in the above example.

X1 X2 Y1

Y1

Fig 1.11

The auxiliary relay R12 in Fig 1.1 is omitted and is replaced by a contact of output
itself. This is permitted in PLC. Outputs are memory addresses, which can be read
as well as written. Hence if it read, a contact is placed and when it is written a coil is
SERVICE
placed in the logic. As seen Fig.1.11 looks like a ladder,
COMMUNICATIONS HOUSE that is why this is termed as
KEEPING
ladder program.

PLC SCAN
HOW DOES A PLC WORK? INPUT SCAN
OUTPUT SCAN

LOGIC SCAN
Page 10 of 41

Fig 1.12
Most PLC systems execute a scan sequence. Fig 1.12 displays the various blocks in
this sequence.

House keeping consists of internal checksums and diagnostics that the processor
executes every scan cycle. These can be done at the beginning or the end of the
scan cycle or both depending upon the PLC.

Input scan consists of reading the current state for each input connected to the
PLC system and updating the input memory tables (buffer memory).

Logic scan consists of reading the use program that has been stored in the PLC
memory. These programs can be written in ladder logic, instruction list, sequential
Flow charts, function block, structure text, c code or state logic depending upon
their manufacturer of the system. Some system supports programming using
combination of languages within the same program.

Output scan consists of adjusting the values of the outputs connected to the
system based upon the status of inputs and execution of the logic.

Service communications consists of opening the window of time for the processor
to communicate to other devices. These can be programming devices, operator
interface devices, remote IO controllers, other PLC’s or any other devices having
communication capability that is compatible with the PLC system.

INTRODUCTION TO

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GE FANUC has a wide range of PLC’s catering various sectors of industrial
requirements.

90-70 PLC’s for I/Os ranging from 4096 to


unlimited.

90-30 PLC’s for I/Os ranging from 16 to


4096

Versamax PLC’s for small & medium applications.

Apart from these, a range of I/O modules from the simple I/O’s to power monitoring
systems are available.

Built on Microsoft windows platform is the programming software for all these range
of PLC’s.

GE FANUC has also developed a high powerful


Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA)
Software called the

PLC addressing in GEFanuc PLC’s:

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All addressing in GEFanuc series of PLC’s is in the decimal format. The different
memory locations are prefixed with characters as follows

1 Digital input: %IXXXX


2 Digital output: %QXXXX
3 Analog input: %AIXXX
4.Analog output: %AQXXXX
5.Registers: %RXXXX
6.Flags: %MXXXX
7.Temporary bits: %TXXXX
8.System bits: %SXXXX
9.Global bits: %GXXX

10 Slot Base

90-30 PLC’s:
Rack Expansion

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Fig 2.1
Power
CPU I/Os
Supply
The different parts of a 90-30 PLC are as shown in Fig 2.1. The base plates are of
two types
1 CPU base plates
a. IC693CHS397 five slot modular CPU base plate
b. IC693CHS391 ten slot modular CPU base plate

2 Expansion base plate


a. IC693CHS398 five slot expansion base plate
b. IC693CHS3392 ten slot expansion base plate

The ranges of power supply modules for 90-30 PLC are as follows:

Catalog number Nominal input voltage Output voltage


IC693PWR321 100 TO 240 VAC OR 125 VDC +5VDC,15WATTS
IC693PWR330 100 TO 240 VAC OR 125 VDC +5VDC,30 WATTS
IC693PWR322 24 OR 48 VDC +5VDC,15 WATTS
IC693PWR328 48 VDC +5VDC,15 WATTS
IC693PWR331 24 VDC +5VDC,30 WATTS
IC693PWR332 12 VDC +5VDC,30 WATTS

The range of CPUs along specification is given as follows

CPU type(IC693CPUxxx) 331 340 341 350 351 352

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No. Of expansion base plates 4 4 4 7 7 7
Load required from +5v dc supply 350ma 490ma 490ma 670ma 890ma 890ma
Processor Speed (mega hertz) 10 20 20 25 25 25
Processor type 80188 80c188xl 80c188xl 80386ex 80386ex 80386ex
Operating temperature (in dg .c) 0- 60 0-60 0-60 0-60 0-60 0-60
Typical scan rate (ms/1k of logic) 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.22 0.22 0.22
User program memory (max) 16kb 32kb 80kb 32kb 240kb 240kb
Discrete input points-%I 512 512 512 2048 2048 2048
Discrete output points-%Q 512 512 512 2048 2048 2048
Discrete global memory-%G 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280
Internal coils-%M 1024 1024 1024 4096 4096 4096
Output temporary coils-%T 256 256 256 256 256 256
System status reference-%S 128 128 128 128 128 128
Register memory-%R 2048 9999 9999 9999 16384 16384
Analog Inputs-%AI 128 1024 1024 2048 16384 16384
Analog Outputs-%AQ 64 256 256 512 16384 16384
System registers-%SR 16 16 16 28 28 28
Timers/Counters 680 >2000 >2000 >2000 >2000 >2000
Interrupts
No Yes YES Yes Yes Yes

Types of memory storage RAM RAM RAM RAM RAM RAM


Optional memory EEPROM FLASH FLASH FLASH FLASH FLASH
No. Of programming ports 1 1 1 1 3 3
Built in Ethernet ports No No No No No No

CPU Type (IC693CPUXXX) 360 363 364

No of expansion base plates 7 7 7


Load required from +5v dc supply 670 mA 890mA 1.51A

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Processor speed (MHz) 25 25 25
Processor type 80386EX 80386EX 80386EX
Operating temperature in *c 0 to 60 0 to 60 0 to 60
Typical san rate (ms/1k of logic) 0.22 0.22 0.22
User program memory (max) 240 kb 240 kb 240 kb
Discrete input points %I 2048 2048 2048
Discrete output points %q 2048 2048 2048
Discrete global memory %G 1280 1280 1280
Internal coils %M 4096 4096 4096
Output (temporary) coils %T 256 256 256
System status reference %S 128 128 128
Register memory %R 16384 16384 16384
Analog inputs %AI 16384 16384 16384
Analog outputs %AQ 16384 16384 16384
System registers %R 28 28 28
Timers / counters >2000 >2000 >2000
Interrupts Yes Yes Yes
Type of memory storage RAM RAM RAM
Optional memory Flash Flash Flash
Floating point math support Yes Yes Yes
No. Of programming ports 1 3 1
Built in Ethernet port No No Yes

Features of the latest CPU in the market is IC693CPU374

CPU type : Single slot CPU with embedded Ethernet interface


Processor speed : 133 MHz
Processor type : embedded 586
Typical scan rate : 0.15 ms/1k of logic (Boolean contacts)
Type of memory storage : RAM and flash
User memory (total) : 240kb
Discrete input points %I : 2048 (fixed)

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Discrete output points % Q : 2048 (fixed)
Discrete global memory %G : 1280 bits fixed
Internal coils %M : 4096 bits fixed
Output (temporary)coils %T : 256 bits fixed
System status references % S : 128 bits (%S,%SA,%SB,%SC 32 bits each) (fixed)
Register memory %R configurable : 128 to 32640 words
Analog inputs %AI configurable : 128 to 32640 words
Analog outputs %AQ configurable : 128 to 32640 words
System registers % SR : 28 words (fixed)
Timers/counters : > 2000 (depends on available user memory)
Battery backed clock) : yes
Load required from power supply : 7,4 watts of 5v dc
Ez program storage device : yes
Total base plate per system : 8 ( CPU base plate + 7 expansion and /or remote)
Interrupt support : supports the periodic subroutine feature
Floating point math : yes, hardware floating point math
Built in serial ports :supports RS485 port on the power supply
Built in Ethernet : communications Ethernet (built in) 10/100base T/TX
Ethernet switch
No. of Ethernet ports : 2,both are 10/100 base T/TX ports with auto sensing RJ
45 connection
No. of IP addresses :1
Operating Temperature :0 to 60 °C (32 to 140 °F) ambient
Storage Temperature :-40 °C to +85 °C

Types of Discrete/Digital Input Modules:

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Types of Discrete/Digital Output Modules:

Types of Discrete Mixed Modules

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Types of Analog Input Modules:

Types of Analog Output Modules:

Types of Analog Mixed Modules:

LADDER PROGRAMMING:

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As earlier discussed, ladder program is one of the methods of programming the
PLC’s. The flow of the program is “Left to right top to bottom”

GE Fanuc PLC’s has a powerful set of functions and categorically divided as under
1.Relay functions
2.Timers and counters
3.Math functions
4.Relational functions
5.Bit operation functions
6.Data move functions
7.Table functions
8.Conversion functions
9.Control functions

1.RELAY FUNCTIONS:

Relay function is composed of contacts and coils as is so in a relay.

Contacts: XXX
1.Logical “Normally Open” contact (NO)
A NO contact acts as a switch that passes power flow if associated reference is ON
XXX
2.Logical “Normally Closed” contact (NC)
A NC contact acts as a switch that passes power flow if associated reference is OFF

(Note: XXX means the reference address which can be %I ,%Q,%M,%S, %G or %T)

Example:
%I001 %I003 %M0100 %Q010 %S007 %T01 %G02 %Q01

In the above example %Q001 will be ON if %I001, %Q010, %S007 and %G002 is
ON (1) and %I003, %M0100 and %T001 is OFF (0)

Ladder logic permits only 9 contacts and a coil in series. If the number of contact is
more than 9 then, continuation contact
Can be used in combination with continuation coil

For e.g.:

%I001 %I003 %M0100 %Q010 %S007 %T01 %G02 %I05 %I06

<+>
%I007 %Q01
<+>

Coils:

Types of coils:

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Normally open coil

Negated coil. The referenced coil will be ON when the conditions


previous to it i.e., the contacts does not satisfy the power flow

S Set coil. The referenced coil will be ON when the conditions previous to
it i.e., the contact satisfies. Once the coil is ON, it will remain ON even
when the condition previous to it does not satisfy the power flow
anymore. The only way to reset the coil is by a reset coil to the same
referenced address.

R Reset coil. The referenced coil, which has been made ON through a set
Coil, is made OFF through reset coil. The set and reset coil together
form a latch.

Positive transition coil. The referenced coil will be ON once the


condition (contacts) previous to it satisfy and give a power-flow to the
coil. The coil will be ON only for one PLC scan time.
For e.g.:
%I001 %Q001
Here %M001 will be
ON the moment
%I001 is ON only for 1 PLC scan. If %M001 has to
become
ON again, then %I001 has to go OFF and become ON again.

Negative transition coil. The referenced coil will be ON once the


condition (contacts) previous does not satisfy and there is power-flow.
The coil will be ON only for one PLC scan time.
%I001 %Q001

Here %M001 will be ON the moment %I001 is OFF from ON. %M001 will be ON only
for 1 PLC scan. If %M001 has to become ON again, then %I001 has to go ON and
become OFF again.

Important things to remember when using coils:

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Tip1: Avoid multiple coils of the same referenced address i.e.,

%I001 %I002 %Q001

%M001 %I004 %Q001

PLC considers the bottom most coil in such case, and the first rung never gets
satisfied. If two or more conditions can, make a coil ON, then the logic should be as
under:

%I001 %I002 %M1001

%M001 %I004 %M1002

%M1001 %Q001

%M1002

Tip2: Coils can be used only for %M, %Q, %T & %G bits.

Tip3: Use the %Q bits at the end of the program preferably. It’s a good
programming practice.

2.Timers and counters:

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Timers:

There are three types of timer functions:

Normal timer
On-delay timer
Off- delay timer

Normal timer

TMR
Tb
Enable Done

????
???? - %R reference (3 consecutive)
Tb -Time Base
1 tenth, 1 hundredth, 1
PV
thousandth of a second
PV -Preset Value

Enable Necessarily has to be contacts and can be a single or series of contacts.


Done Necessarily has to be a coil
PV Can be a constant or %R reference
???? Must be necessarily %R reference. Once a register is specified,
automatically the other 2 consecutive registers are taken. These 3 %R
reference should not be used anywhere else in the logic.

Actual time = PV * time base

Function:

When the timer enable is ON, the “TMR” block starts counting the specified time
(PV*Tb). Once the actual time has elapsed, the timer done bit is made ON till the
timer enable is ON. If the timer enable is OFF the timer resets to zero.

2. On-delay timer:

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Enable TMR
Tb
Done
Reset
???? ???? - %R reference (3 consecutive)
Tb -Time Base
1 tenth, 1 hundredth, 1
PV thousandth of a second
PV -Preset Value

Enable & Reset Necessarily has to be contacts and can be a single or series
of contacts.
Done Necessarily has to be a coil
PV Can be a constant or %R reference
???? Must be necessarily %R reference. Once a register is
specified, automatically the other 2 consecutive registers are
taken. There 3 %R reference should not be used anywhere
else in the logic.

Actual time = PV * time base

Function:

When the timer enable is ON & timer reset is OFF, the “TMR” block starts counting
the specified time (PV*Tb). Once the actual time has elapsed, the timer bit is made
ON and will remain ON till the timer enable is ON. Incase, If the timer enable is
OFF, the timer is counting the on-delay timer retains the elapsed time and will
resume counting timer when the enable input becomes ON again. The only way to
reset the On-delay timer is by making the timer reset ON. This timer can be used as
RETENTIVE TIMER.

3. Off- delay timer OFDT


Tb
Enable Done

???? ???? - %R reference (3 consecutive)


Page 24 of 41 Tb -Time Base
PV 1 tenth, 1 hundredth, 1
thousandth of a second
PV -Preset Value
Enable Necessarily has to be contacts and can be a single or series of
Contacts
Done Necessarily has to be a coil
PV can be a constant or %R reference
???? Must be necessarily %R reference. Once a register is specified,
automatically the other 2 consecutive registers are taken. There
3 %R reference should not be used anywhere else in the logic.

Actual time = PV * time base

Function: When the timer enable is ON, timer done is also ON. Once the timer
enable is OFF, the “TMR” block starts counting the specified time (PV*Tb). Once the
actual time has elapsed, the timer done bit is made OFF and will remain OFF till the
timer enable is ON.

E.g.:
A typical; application is with turbine and its associated lubrication oil pump. The
requirement is as long as turbine is running; lubrication oil pump also must be ON.
When the turbine stops electrically, lubrication pump should continue to be ON for
some time (because turbine is till running mechanically due to moment of inertia).
Here OFF delay timer can be used by giving the turbine running contact to timer
enable, and lubrication pump output to timer done.

Counters:

Page 25 of 41
There are two types of counters
1. Up counter
2. Down counter

Up-counter:
Counting
Pulse
UPCTR

Done
Reset ????
???? - %R reference (3 consecutive)
PV -Preset Value
PV

Counting pulse Necessarily has to be a contact


& Reset
Done Necessarily has to be a coil
PV Can be a constant or %R reference
???? Must be necessarily %R reference. Once register is specified,
Automatically the other 2 consecutive registers are taken.
These 3 %R reference should not be used anywhere else in
the logic

Function:

The counter increments by one when, there is a transition high at Counting Pulse
input. The initial value of the counter will be zero. Once the counter reaches the PV,
the counter dome bit becomes ON.

Down-counter:
Counting
Pulse
DNCTR

Done
Reset ????
???? - %R reference (3 consecutive)
PV -Preset Value
PV

Function: Every time the down counter receives a high transition input at the
counting pulse, the counter decrements by one. The initial value of the counter will
be PV. Once the counter reaches the zero, the counter dome bit becomes ON.

3.Math Functions:

Page 26 of 41
Before the discussion about Math function, Data types needs to be explained.
Data is the operand on which the operation or function is performed. There are
various data types. Viz.,

Int- Signed Integer-


Signed integers use 16 bit memory data locations, and are represented in 2’s
complement notation. The valid range of an INT data type is – 32,768 to 32,767.

Dint- Double Precision Signed Integer


Double precision-signed integer is stored in 32 bit data memory locations (actually
two consecutive 16 bit memory locations) and represented in 2’s complement
notation (Bit 32 is the sign bit) The valid range of a DINT data type is
2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647.

Bit- bit
A bit data type is the smallest unit of memory. It has two states, 1 or 0.A BIT string
may have length N

Byte- byte
A byte data type has an 8-bit value. The valid ranges is 0 to 255 (0 to FF in
Hexadecimal)

Word- word
A word data type uses 16 consecutive bits of data memory; but, instead of the bits
in the data location representing a number, the bits are independent of each other.
Each bit represents its own binary state (1 or 0) and the bits are not looked at
together to represent an integer number. The valid ranges of word values is 0 to
FFFF

Dword- Double word


A double word data type has the same characteristics as a single word data type,
except that it uses 32 consecutive bits in data memory instead of 16 bits.

BCD-4-Four-Digit Binary Coded Decimal


Four-digit BCD numbers use 16-bit data memory locations. Each BCD digit uses four
bits and can represent numbers between 0 and 9. This BCD coding of the 16 bits
has a legal value range of 0 to 9999.

Real-Floating point.
Real numbers use 32 consecutive bits (actually two consecutive 16-bit memory
locations). The range of numbers that can be stored in this format
+/- 1.401298 E-45 to +/- 3.402823 E+38

The various Math functions available in 90-30 PLCs are:

Page 27 of 41
Standard Math Functions:

ADD (Addition)
SUB (Subtraction)
MUL (Multiplication)
DIV (Division)
MOD (Modular Division) – division to obtain the reminder

E
???? XXX PF
YYY ????
???? I1
Q

I2
E- Enable
PF- Power flow
XXX- Function name (Add, Sub, etc)
YYY- Data type
I1- Operand1
I2- Operand2
Q- Result of (I1 function I2)

ADD, SUB, MUL & DIV operate on INT, DINT & REAL data types.
MOD operates only on INT & DINT data types.

Note: PF can be used as enabling conditions for a cascaded function.

Special Math functions:

1. SQRT- Square root


2. SIN, COS, TAN, ASIN, ACOS, ATAN- Trignometric functions
3. LOG, LN, EXP, EXPT- Logarithmic/exponential Functions.
4. RAD, DEG- Radian conversion Functions

E- Enable
PF- Power flow
E XXX PF XXX- Function name (LOG, SQRT, etc)
YYY YYY- Data type
IN- Operand
Q- Result of (Function (IN))
???? ????
IN Q SQRT operate on INT, DINT & REAL data types. Other
functions operate only on REAL data types.

4.Relational Functions:

Relational Functions are used to determine the relationship of two values.


E- Enable
XXX- Function name (EQ, GE, etc)
Standard Relational Functions:YYY- Data type
EQ (Equals to) I1- Operand1
I2- Operand2
Q- ON if (I1 function I2) is true

PageEQ,
28 NE, GT, GE, LT, & LE operate on INT,
of 41
DINT & REAL data types.
NE (Not Equal to)
GT (Greater than)
GE (Greater than or equal to)
LT (Less than)
LE (less than or equal to)

E XXX
YYY
????
Q
???? I1

I2

Range Relational Function:

1. Range (Greater than low limit and less than high limit)
E- Enable
RANGE YYY- Data type
????
????
YYY L1- Lower limit
L1
???? L2- Upper limit
L2 Q IN- Data Input
Q- ON if (IN is > L1 and < L2)
IN

Range function operates on INT, DINT & WORD data types.

Note: “ Q “ can be given to a coil or can be used as an enable input to the next cascaded function.

5.BIT Operations

Logical:

AND, OR, XOR

E
???? XXX PF
YYY ????
???? I1
Q

I2

Page 29 of 41
E- Enable
PF- Power flow
XXX- Function name (AND, OR etc)
YYY- Data type is always WORD
I1- Operand1
I2- Operand2
Q- Result of (I1 function I2)

NOT

E NOT PF
WORD
???? ????

I1 Q

E- Enable
PF- Power flow
I1- Operand1
Q- Result of (I1 NOT)

Note: PF can be used as enabling conditions for a cascaded function.

SHIFT:

When enabled, the group of bits at “IN” are shifted “N” times in the direction
specified. When shifted, the result is placed in “Q”. “B2” provides power-flow based
on last bit shifted out.

E
???? XXX
PF
YYY
???? IN
LEN
B2
???? ????
???? N

E- Q Enable
B1
PF- Power flow

Page 30 of 41
XXX- Function name (SHL / SHR)
YYY- Data type is always WORD
IN- Operand
N- Number of times to be shifted
Q- Result after shift
LEN-1 to 256

ROTATE:

When enabled, the group of bits at “IN” are rotated within the group “N” times in
the direction of the rotate. The bits shifted out goes to “Q” and to the other end of
the group. Power-flow occurs after the instruction when enabled.

E XXX
???? YYY
PF
LEN
????
IN
???? ????

N Q

E- Enable
PF- Power flow
XXX- Function name (SHL / SHR)
YYY- Data type is always WORD
IN- Operand
N- Number of times to be shifted
Q- Result after shift
LEN-1 to 256

BIT TEST:

When enabled, the bit specified at “BIT” within the group at “IN” will be tested. The
results will be indicated with power-flow at “Q”.

E- Enable
E BIT
???? TEST
IN- Operand
LEN
WORD BIT- Bit to be tested
???? Q
IN
Q- Result (1 if Tested bit is ON, 0 if Tested bit
????
is OFF)
BIT
LEN- 1 to 256

BIT MANUPULATION:

BITSET, BIT RESET

When enabled, the bit specified at “BIT” will be set or cleared. If enabled and the
“BIT” is within the group of bits, power-flow will occur after the instruction.
E- Enable
XXX- BIT_SET, BIT_CLR
IN- Operand
BIT-31Bit
Page of to
41be manipulated
LEN- 1 to 256
E XXX
???? WORD
LEN Q
IN
????
????

BIT BIT POSITION:

When enabled, the group of bits specified at “BIN” will be searched for an “ON”
condition. When found, the bit number will be placed in “POS”. Power-flow after the
instruction will occur when enabled.

E- Enable
E XXX
LEN
WORD
XXX- BIT_POS
???? IN- Operand
???? POS- Bit position
????
LEN- 1 to 256
IN
POS

BIT SEQUENCER: The Bit Sequencer (BITSEQ) function performs a bit sequence shift
through an array of bits.

LEN Length specifies the number of bits (starting at ST) that


E
R this instruction will step through. Acceptable values
BITSEQ
LEN range from 1-256.
???? Add The control word for the BIT_SEQ function. The default
???? R
data type is BIT_SEQ. This data type is 3-words long.
???? Current step number = word 1.
Length of sequence in bits = word 2.
DIR
Control word = word 3.
???? R When R is energized, the bit sequencer's step number is
STEP
set to the value in STEP (default = 1), and the bit
Add sequencer is filled with zeros, except for the current step
???? number bit.
ST
DIR When DIR is energized, the bit sequencer's step number
is incremented prior to the shift. Otherwise, it is
decremented.
N When R is energized, the step number is set to this value.
ST ST contains the first word of the bit sequencer.

6.DATA MOVE:

MOVE: Source to Destination

E- Enable
E MOVE
LEN
XXX
XXX- INT, BIT, WORD,REAL
???? IN- Source
???? ???? LEN- 1 to 256
Q- Destination
IN Q

Page 32 of 41
BLOCK MOVE: Source to Destination

E BLKMV
XXX
E- Enable
???? XXX- INT, WORD, REAL
IN1
????
???? IN2
IN1 to 7- Source & Constant
???? ???? Q- Destination
IN3
????
???? IN4 Q
???? IN5
IN6
IN7

BLOCK CLEAR: Source to Zero

E- Enable
E BLKCL
LEN
R
XXX- WORD
????
XXX IN- Source
???? LEN- 1 to 256

IN
SHIFT REGISTER: Shift data words or bits to a new memory location or in the
same memory location.

E E- Enable
R SHFR
LEN
XXX
R- Reset
???? XXX- BIT, WORD
IN- Source
???? ????
LEN- 1 to 256
IN Q
???? ST- First bit or word of the shift register
Q- Contains the bit or word shifted out of the
ST
shift register. For variables of type BIT, any
discrete reference may be used.

COMMREQ: Use the COMMREQ function to send a command request to specialty modules
like the Genius Bus Controller, Ethernet Interface, CMM or PCM modules. When the
COMMREQ receives power flow, the command block defined by IN is sent to the specialty
module located at the rack/slot location specified by the SYSID parameter.

IN Contains the location of the command block. Refer to


E
COMM the documentation for your specialty module to define
???? REQ the command block. Data Type: WORD
SYSID Contains the rack/slot location of the intelligent
module. Data Type: WORD
???? IN
TASK Contains information specific to your specialty module.
Refer to the documentation for your specialty module to define
???? SYS this field. Data Type: WORD
FT FT is energized if the COMMREQ fails.

TASK

Page 33 of 41
7.TABLE FUNCTIONS:

ARRAY MOVE(BOOL,BYTE,INT,DINT & WORD): The Array Move (Array Move) function to
copy a specified number of data elements from a source array to a destination array.
The Array Move function has five input parameters and two output parameters. When the
function receives power flow, the number of data elements in the count indicator (N) is
extracted from the input array starting with the indexed location (SR + SNX – 1). The data
elements are written to the output array starting with the indexed location (DS + DNX –
1). The variable length specifies the number of elements that make up each array.

XXX The length specifies the number of elements (starting at


E
R SR and DS) that make up each array.
ARRAY
SR SR contains the starting address of the source array. For
MOVE
LEN an Array Move with the data type BIT, any reference may
???? XXX
????
SR
be used; it does not need to be byte aligned.
???? Data Types: WORD, WORD Length 2, BIT, and BYTE
SNX SNX contains the index of the source array.
Data Type: WORD
???? SNX
DNX DNX contains the index of the destination array.
Data Type: WORD
DNX
N N provides a count indicator.
Data Type: WORD
DS DS contains the starting address of the destination array.
N
For an Array Move with the data type BIT, any reference
may be used; it does not need to be byte aligned.

Data Types: WORD, WORD Length 2, BIT, and BYTE


SEARCH (BOOL,BYTE,INT,DINT & WORD):

The Search function to search a value in a array of values. This search function has four
input parameters and two output parameters. When the function receives power, the array
is searched starting at (AR + INX). This is the starting address of the array (AR) plus the
index into this array (INX).
The search continues until condition of the search object (IN) is found or until the end of
the array is reached. If an array element is found, output parameter (FD) is set ON and
output parameter (ONX) is set to the relative position of this element within the array. If
no array element is found before the end of the array is reached, then output parameter
(FD) is set OFF and output parameter (ONX) is set to zero.

XX Length. The length specifies the number of elements


E
(starting at AR) that make up the array to be searched.
SEARCH
Acceptable values range from 1-32767.
YY
???? XX
AR AR contains the starting address of the array to be
searched.
???? Data Types: WORD, WORD Length 2, and BYTE
AR
???? INX Input NX (INX) contains the index into the array at which
to begin the search.
INX
Data Type: UINT
IN IN contains the object of the search.
IN
Data Types: WORD, WORD Length 2, and BYTE
ONX Output NX (ONX) holds the position within the array of
the search target. Data Type: UINT
FD FD indicates that an array element has been found and
the function was successful.
YY
Page 34EQ,
ofNE,
41 GT, GE, LT & LE.
8. CONVERSION

BCD4 to INT, BCD4 to REAL, DINT to REAL, INT to BCD4, INT to REAL, REAL to DINT, REAL
to INT, REAL to WORD, WORD to REAL CONVERSIONS.

XXX CONVERSION
E
BCD4 to INT, BCD4 to REAL, DINT to REAL, INT to BCD4,
XXX
INT to REAL, REAL to DINT, REAL to INT, REAL to WORD,
WORD to REAL.
???? IN INPUT DATA
Q OUTPUT DATA AFTER CONVERSION
IN Q
Data Types: WORD, WORD Length 2, BIT, and BYTE
9. CONTROL

CALL: To call Ladder blocks.

E
CALL

. Blocks should exist in the folder prior to making the Call.


·The PLC will only allow a maximum of 8 nested calls before an "Application Stack
Overflow" fault is logged and the PLC transitions to STOP/FAULT mode.
·You can use up to 64 blocks in a folder (subject to available memory). The maximum
number of block calls within a given block is 64. The maximum number of calls to a
particular block is 255. (A block can be executed any number of times, but there can be no
more than 255 explicit calls to any given block.)

Page 35 of 41
PID (ISA,IND):
For Proportional Integral & Derivative closedloop control algorithms.

The PID function is designed to solve one loop equation in one execution. The function
block data uses 40 registers in a loop data table. The first 35 registers are reserved for the
function and should not be used by any application. The last 5 registers are reserved for
external use.

Registers cannot be shared. If there are multiple occurrences of the same PID function
controlling multiple loops, each occurrence requires a separate block of 40 registers.

The PID function has six input parameters: a process set point (SP), a process variable
(PV), a manual/auto Boolean switch (MAN), a manual mode up adjustment input (UP),
and a manual mode down adjustment (DN). It also has an address, which specifies the
location of a block of parameters associated with the function. It has two output
parameters, a successful Boolean output and the control variable result (CV).

If power flow is provided to the Manual input contact, the PID block is placed in Manual
mode and the output Control Variable is set from the Manual Command parameter
%Ref+13. If either the UP or DN inputs have power flow, the Manual Command word is
incremented or decremented by one CV count every PID solution. For faster manual
changes of the output Control Variable, it is also possible to add or subtract any CV count
value directly to/from the Manual Command word.

VersaPro allows you to tune PID instructions in real-time. Series 90 PLCs use the
Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative (PID_ISA and PID_IND) function for control of
real time processes. To access the Tuning Parameters dialog box, choose Tuning
Parameters from the PLC menu. Use the Tuning Parameters dialog box to customize
operation of the PID loop in your application. the following describes each field that
appears on this dialog box.

Loop No.
(Loop number) Uniquely identifies the PID block for reference by external devices, operator
interfaces.

Manual Command
If the PID block is in Automatic mode, this value is set to the current CV output. If the PID block is
switched to Manual mode, this value is used to set the CV output and the internal value of the
integrator, within the Upper and Lower Clamp and Slew Time limits.

Control
This internal parameter is normally set to 0. If Override is ON, these bits and internal SP, PV and CV
words will be used for remote operation of this PID block. This allows operator interface devices, such
as a computer, to control the PID loop remotely.
CAUTION: If you do not want to enable remote control, set Override to OFF.

Enable: Tracks the enable input into the function block and is used to determine whether or not the
function block is active.

Page 36 of 41
Override: Enables remote control of the PID block. If Override is OFF (default), use the other control
bits to track the status of the PID input contacts. If Override is ON, the PID function will be controlled
by remote devices by modifying internal SP, PV and CV words. When the override bit is ON, the
function block executes based on the current values of manual, up, and down, that is, the next three
fields. When the override is OFF, the manual, up, and down values are set to the values as defined
by the function block's discrete inputs.

Manual: If ON, block is in manual mode. If OFF, block is in automatic mode.


Up: If ON and Manual is ON, CV is incremented every solution.
Down: If ON and Manual is ON, CV is decremented every solution.

Tuning

Proportional (Proportional Gain): Sets the proportional gain (0.01 seconds timebase).
Derivation (Derivation Gain): Sets the derivation gain (0.01 seconds timebase).
Integral (Integral Rate): Sets the integral rate with a timebase of .001 repeats per second.

SP, PV and CV Percentage Bar Graphs

Calculated based on the SP (Set Point Value) and PV (Preset Value) values. The maximum
and minimum scale values are set by the user.
CV graph is calculated based on the value of CV (Current Value) and the lower and upper
clamp parameters.

SP/PV Range
Optional integer values in PV Counts that define the highest and lowest display value for the SP and
PV bar graphs.

SP Value
Represents the process Set Point input. In PID control, the loop adjusts the output CV so that PV
matches SP.

Sample Period
Shortest time, in 10 millisecond increments, between solutions of the PID loop. If 0, the loop is
solved every time the block is called.
Note: The PID loop is solved only if the current PLC elapsed time clock is at or later than the last
PID solution time plus this sample period. The PLC sweep time should be less than 10% of the
sample period to ensure a regular solution time. If not, the sample period should be set to 0.00,
specifying execution every sweep.

Bias
A value (in CV Counts) added to the PID Output before the rate and amplitude clamps. It can be
used to set non-zero CV values if using only Kp Proportional gains, or for feed forward control of this
PID loop output from another control loop. The usual setting for the Bias field is +16000 to let the
function regulate error around the output midpoint.

Dead Band Upper and Lower


Integer values defining the upper and lower dead band limits. If no dead band is required, set these
two values to 0. Read the following notes if setting dead band limits:
1.If the PID Error (SP - PV) or (PV - SP) between the dead band limits, the PID
calculations are solved with an Error of 0.
2.If setting the dead band limits, Dead Band Upper must greater than 0 and Dead Band
Lower must be less than 0 or the PID block will not function.

Page 37 of 41
3.You should leave the dead band limits set to 0 until the PID loop gains are setup or
tuned. It may then be desirable to add Dead Band to avoid small CV output changes due to
small variations in error, perhaps to reduce mechanical wear.

Upper Clamp and Lower Clamp


Integers (in CV Counts) that define the high and low values for CV. The clamps are used to define
limits based on physical limits for a CV output. The Upper Clamp must have a more positive value
than the Lower Clamp, or the PID loop will not work. The PID block has anti-reset windup to modify
the integrator value when a CV clamp is reached The upper clamp is usually set to +32,000 to allow
the CV output to take on the full range of values.

Error Term
Selects how the error will be calculated.

Min Slew Time


Defines the minimum number of seconds for the CV output to move from 0 to full travel of 100% or
32000 CV Counts. It is an inverse rate limit on how fast the CV output can be changed. If positive,
CV cannot change more than 32000 CV Counts times Delta Time (seconds) divided by Minimum Slew
Time. For example, if the Sample Period was 2.5 seconds and the Minimum Slew Time is 500
seconds, CV cannot change more than 32000*2.5/500 or 160 CV Counts per PID solution. As with
the CV Clamps, there is an anti-windup feature that adjusts the integrator value if the CV rate limit is
exceeded. If Minimum Slew Time is 0, there is no CV rate limit.

Note: Make sure you set Minimum Slew Time to 0 while you are tuning or adjusting PID
loop gains.

Derivative Action
Selects how the derivative action is applied.

Output Polarity
Selects the output polarity of the CV.

Update Folder Button


Saves values which have been edited in the dialog box to the stored value field of the PID variable.
Clicking this button will cause the PLC status to become Not Saved. In order for this button to
function, the variable assigned to the Address parameter must have a length of 40 words. If you are
online and equal, you will have to rebuild your equipment folder, then Verify equality or Check All to
regain equality with the attached PLC.

Update PLC Button


If you are online and equal with the PLC CPU, click this button to update edited values in the PLC.

There are two types of algorithm ( INDEPENDENT & ISA)

1.The Independent term PID (PID_IND) algorithm calculates the output as:
PID Output = Kp * Error + Ki * Error * dt + Kd * Derivative + CV Bias

2.The standard ISA (PID_ISA) algorithm has a different form:


PID Output = Kc * (Error + Error * dt/Ti + Td * Derivative) + CV Bias

Page 38 of 41
Fault diagnosis & Troubleshooting

For PLC diagnosis & troubleshooting, The Series 90 PLCs maintain two fault tables, the I/O
fault table for faults generated by I/O devices (including I/O controllers) and the PLC fault
table for internal PLC faults. Both tables contain similar information. The fault data in
these tables only exists in the PLC.

• The PLC fault table contains:


. Fault location.
. Fault description.
. Date and time of fault.

Stores upto 16 fault entries, 8 Oldest and 8 latest. After 16 faults, the latest fault entry is
over-written on to the 16th fault, with 16th shifting to 15th and downwards until the 9th fault
entry. The 9th entry is over-written by the 10th, thereby deleting the 9th entry.

• The I/O fault table contains:


. Fault location.
. Reference address.
. Fault category.
. Fault type.
. Date and time of fault.

Stores upto 32 fault entries, 16 Oldest and 16 latest. After 32 faults, the latest fault entry
is over-written on to the 32nd fault, with 32nd shifting to 31st and downwards until the 17th
fault entry. The 17th entry is over-written by the 18th, thereby deleting the 17th entry.

The system status can also be monitored by the help of System reference bits:

System reference bits are internal bits used to indicate PLC status. The system reference
bits are assigned to the %S data memory type. The %S(System status table) is divided
into four groups: %S1 to %S32, %SA1 to %SA32, %SB1 to %SB32 and %SC1 to %SC32.
%S1 through %S32 are set by the PLC and are defined in the table below

Page 39 of 41
The references in the %SA, %SB and %SC tables are used to indicate system and I/O
faults.

Faults are segregated


Fatal faults: Faults that halt the system (Drop the CPU out of RUN Mode), set the
Corresponding system references and are logged to the fault table.
Diagnostic faults: These faults do not halt the system, but they do set the appropriate
system references and are logged to the fault table.
Information faults: These faults do not halt the system, but they are logged to the fault
tables.

Page 40 of 41
Page 41 of 41