DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION FROM RICE HUSK

GASIFICATION IN RURAL MYANMAR
MIN LWIN SWE
MASTER OF ENGINEERING
IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
CHIANG MAI UNIVERSITY
MAY 2009

DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION FROM RICE HUSK
GASIFICATION IN RURAL MYANMAR
MIN LWIN SWE
A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ENGINEERING
IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
CHIANG MAI UNIVERSITY
MAY 2009

DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION FROM RICE HUSK
GASIFICATION IN RURAL MYANMAR
MIN LWIN SWE
THIS THESIS HAS BEEN APPROVED
TO BE A PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING
IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
EXAMINING COMMITTEE
............................................................................................................CHAIRPERSON
Asst. Prof. Dr. Chatchawan Chaichana
……………………………………………………………………………...MEMBER
Asst. Prof. Dr. Nakorn Tippayawong
…………………………………………………………………………...…MEMBER
Dr. Yucho Sadamichi
……………………………………………………………………………...MEMBER
Asst. Prof. Dr. Kriengkrai Assawamartbunlue
28 May 2009
© Copyright by Chiang Mai University
iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost, I would like to express my profound gratitude and respect
to my advisor Assistant Professor Dr. Nakorn Tippayawong, Department of
Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Thailand
for his invaluable supervision, helpful suggestion and necessary assistance through
out the preparation of my thesis.
My deep gratitude also goes to my co-advisor Assistant Professor Dr.
Chatchawan Chaichana for his peer review, priceless comments, suggestion and
encouragement. I am also equally grateful to other member of academic advisory
committee Dr. Yucho Sadamichi and Dr. Kriengkrai Assawamartbunlue for their
suggestions and advice on my thesis.
Special thanks are also extended to Department of Alternative Energy
Development and Efficiency, Ministry of Energy, Thailand for financial support and
the Energy Planning Department of Myanmar, the Myanmar Engineering Society, the
Energy Research and Development Institute in Chiang Mai University and the
villagers of Dagoon Daing Village, Twantay Township, Yangon, Myanmar for their
support and helpful.
Many thanks are extended to Ministry of Science and Technology, Union of
Myanmar for providing me the opportunity to pursue this master’s degree. I am very
much delighted to pay thanks for the warm and cordial friendship provided by all
Mechanical students-juniors, mates as well as seniors from Chiang Mai University,
Thailand. Moreover, my sincere thanks are to all academic and administrative staffs
of Chiang Mai University for their helps. Many thanks also go to all oversea
Myanmar students for sharing joyful moments in Chiang Mai.
Finally, I wish to thanks everyone whose names could not be mentioned
individually.
Min Lwin Swe
iv
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vi
Thesis Title Distributed Power Generation from Rice Husk
Gasification in Rural Myanmar
Author Mr. Min Lwin Swe
Degree Master of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering)
Thesis Advisor Asst. Prof. Dr. Nakorn Tippayawong

ABSTRACT
Myanmar is known for her natural diversity and abundance in agricultural and
forestry products. Major biomass residues available include rice husk, wood and
bamboo. These renewable energy sources have great potential to be utilized for power
generation, considering the fact that the country experiences shortage in electricity
supply, especially in rural areas. In this thesis, a rice husk gasifier-engine-generator
system and electrification system had been constructed and operated successfully for
4 hours per day. This engine was modified so that can use both diesel and producer
gas produced by the gasifier. The maximum generator capacity of the unit is 50 kW.
Lamp posts and electricity line were also installed along main roads, and connected to
local school, temple and 304 households in Dagoon Daing village, Twantay
Township, 50 km away from Yangon. Almost 400 light bulbs were fitted, serving
nearly 1500 villagers. From the test results, it was found that at 31.28 kW, rice husk
consumption rate was 32.64 kg/h, representing a diesel replacement rate of about 65%
with overall energy efficiency of 13.5%. The electricity cost has been estimated to be
in the range between $0.12-0.23/kWh (150-300 kyat/kWh) in compression to
$0.60/kWh (800 kyat/kWh) from an existing diesel system. The utilization of rice
husk as an energy source for this kind of gasifier could save the annual oil
expenditure.

vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Acknowledgements iii
Abstract (Thai) iv
Abstract (English) vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Rural electrification 1
1.2 Literature reviews 3
1.2.1 Small distributed generation 3
1.2.2 Biomass gasification 4
1.2.3 Impacts on people 7
1.3 Objectives 7
1.4 Scope of the thesis 8
Chapter 2 Background Theory 9
2.1 Distributed generation 9
2.2 Gasification 10
2.2.1 Drying zone 11
2.2.2 Pyrolysis zone 11
2.2.3 Combustion zone 12
2.2.4 Reduction zone 12
2.3 Biomass resources 18
2.3.1 Rice husk 18
2.3.2 Wood 19

viii
2.3.3 Bamboo 20
2.4 Economic analysis 21
2.4.1 Net present value 21
2.4.2 Internal rate of return 22
2.4.3 Payback period 22
Chapter 3 Methodology 24
3.1 Energy Efficiency 24
3.1.1 System efficiency 24
3.1.2 Engine efficiency 25
3.2 Social and economic impacts from field survey 25
3.3 Measuring equipment for gasification project 26
3.3.1 Multifunction power meter 26
3.3.2 AC power clamp meter 27
3.3.3 Digital tachometer 27
3.3.4 Measured fuel consumption 28
Chapter 4 Distributed Generation System 29
4.1 Site selection and survey 29
4.1.1 Twantay Township 29
4.1.2 Site visit 30
4.1.3 Data collection 31
4.1.4 Data interpretation 31
4.1.5 Site selection 31
4.2 Biomass analysis 35
4.2.1 Potential biomass as fuels in Myanmar 35
4.2.2 Fuel analysis methods 35
4.3 Biomass gasification system 38
4.3.1 Downdraft gasifier system 39
4.3.2 Cyclone separator 39
4.3.3 Venturi scrubber 40

ix
4.3.4 Gas cooler 41
4.3.5 Carbon fiber filter 41
4.3.6 Fine filter unit 42
4.3.7 Gas damper 42
4.3.8 Water pump 43
4.4 Electrification system 44
4.4.1 Engine 44
4.4.2 Generator 45
4.4.3 Electric control panel 46
4.5 Building 46
4.6 System installation, wiring, and testing 47
4.6.1 System installation 47
4.6.2 Electricity wiring and network 47
4.6.3 System operation 50
4.6.3.1 Preparation 50
4.6.3.2 System operating procedures 51
4.6.3.3 Maintenance 53
4.6.3.4 The treatments and recycling program
to Waste products 54
4.7 Test runs 55
Chapter 5 Results and discussions 56
5.1 Technical results 56
5.1.1 Biomass fuel analysis 56
5.1.2 System testing 57
5.2 Socio-economic impacts 66
5.3 Other impacts 68
Chapter 6 Conclusions and recommendations for future works 69
6.1 Conclusions 69
6.2 Recommendations 70

x
References 71
Appendices Appendix A Nomination of Potential Sites 74
Appendix B Selection of Dagoon Daing Village 76
Appendix C Biomass Fuel Analysis Results 78
Appendix D Questionnaires 115
Appendix E Publication 124
Curriculum Vitae 137
xi
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
2.1 Annual production of paddy 19
2.2 Forest area by types of forests 20
3.1 Detail of electricity loads use pattern 26
4.1 Detail data of the four purposed sites 32
4.2 Weighting and decision making table 34
5.1 Ultimate Analysis 56
5.2 Proximate analysis, heating value and density 56
5.3 Ash analysis 57
5.4 Properties of rice husk at different loads 60
5.5 Electricity consumption in the villages at different loads 60
5.6 Comparison of electricity cost between diesel and dual fuel operation 65
5.7 Waste water analysis 65
xii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1.1 Hydropower Potentials of Myanmar (State and Division Wise) 2
1.2 Gasification Processes and products 4
2.1 Small Distributed Generation for villagers 9
2.2 Updraft gasifier 13
2.3 Downdraft gasifier 15
2.4 Crossdraft gasifier 16
2.5 Fluidized bed gasifier 17
2.6 Rice Husk 18
2.7 Wood 20
2.8 Bamboo 21
3.1 Field survey in the study area 25
3.2 Multifunctional power meter 27
3.3 AC power clamp meter 27
3.4 Digital tachometer 28
3.5 Platform scale 28
4.1 Twantay Township and road transport to Yangon 30
4.2 Location of the four purposed sites 30
4.3 Potential biomass resources 35
4.4 Rice Huck Gasification System 38
4.5 Downdraft Gasifier 39
4.6 Cyclone 40
4.7 Venturi scrubber 40
4.8 Gas cooler 41
4.9 Carbon fiber filter 41
4.10 Fine filter unit 42
4.11 Gas damper 43
4.12 Water pump 43
xiii
Figure Page
4.13 Engine 44
4.14 Automatic governor 44
4.15 Generator 45
4.16 Generator nameplate 45
4.17 Electric control panel 46
4.18 Picture of the building 46
4.19 Installation of the gasification system inside the building 47
4.20 Electricity distribution lines and power plant location in the village 48
4.21 Three-phase electricity lines from the system building 49
4.22 Electricity poles along the main road 49
4.23 Lamp posts along the main road 49
4.24 Rice husk storage 50
4.25 Rice husk level 50
4.26 Water level in the circulating pond and the dust cooler 51
4.27 Radiator, diesel and lubricant oil tanks 51
4.28 Air control valve 52
4.29 The key of starting engine 52
4.30 Ash removal system 53
4.31 Ash at the pond and the tray 54
4.32 Filters 54
5.1 Electrical current and power 57
5.2 Electrical voltage and power 58
5.3 Power factor and power 58
5.4 Relationship between power generated and rice husk Consumption 59
5.5 Relationship between power generated and diesel consumption 59
5.6 Operators in action 67
5.7 Lighting for extra reading at night 67
5.8 Snooker game at night 68
5.9 Evening entertainment 68
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Rural Electrification
Increasing demand of energy and negative impacts of fossil fuels on the
environment has emphasized the need of harnessing energy from renewable sources.
These sources can create a significant impact in the generation of grid electricity.
55.4 million of people live in Union of Myanmar, but 70 percent of people live
in rural areas and earn a living based on agriculture. There are plenty of biomass and
agricultural by-products in the country. In order to reinforce the present national grid
system and to facilitate power transmission from new generating stations, Ministry of
Electric Power (MEP) carried out 21 transmission line projects at present and planned
more transmission line projects to be implemented in the near future.
The information below, currently found on the website of the Myanmar
Ministry of Energy, has not been updated since the Ministry of Electric Power was
reconstituted as two separate ministries in May 2006. However, the data provides a
useful picture of the Ministry and its resource as they existed in 2000 and is useful for
historical purposes. It also includes map, Figure 1.1 is the locations of 29 hydro-
electric projects then on the drawing boards.
The generation of electricity from hydropower plants during 1999-2000 has
been approximately 959.46 million kWh constituting about 21 percent of the total
power generation. MEP has developed hydropower projects mostly in remote border
areas. The electricity generation in Myanmar increases two folds during the last 10
years. As a statistical statement, the figures are not updated and according to the
estimation in year 1999-2000, 80 percentage of the total power generation are still in
progress with many projects of government.
However, electrical power cannot be distributed to many rural areas in
Myanmar. In rural areas, various forms of energy are used. These areas do not have
access to electricity; people use wood, charcoal, bamboo, and rice hull for cooking
and candles, kerosene lamps for lighting at night. They also use engines and
2
generators to produce electricity for lighting. Therefore, a rice husk gasifier was
constructing operated and studied in 2007.
Figure 1.1 Hydropower Potentials of Myanmar (State and Division Wise)

3
Biomass gasification is basically a conversion of solid biomass into a
combustible gas mixture normally called “Producer Gas” (or low Btu gas). The
process involves partial combustion of biomass. Partial combustion produces carbon
monoxide (CO) as well as hydrogen (H
2
) which are both combustible gas. Solid
biomass fuels, which are usually inconvenient and have low efficiency of utilization
can thus, be converted in to a high quality gaseous fuel.
From cooperation project in energy related projects between Thailand and
Myanmar under Ayeyarwaddy - Chaophaya - Mekong Economic Cooperation
Strategy (ACMECS), the Government of Thailand has approved financial assistance
on study and demonstration of biomass gasification for electricity project. The project
aims to provide electricity to a local community in Myanmar in order to improve their
living standards. A community in Twantay Township, Dagoon Daing Village, was
selected. The community consists of two villages, which are Dagoon Diang Village
and Alehsu Village. A rice hull gasification unit is constructed and operated. The
gasifier is coupled with a diesel engine to drive an electric generator. An electricity
grid and street lighting were installed in the community. The system is able to
distribute electricity to 304 houses with the population of 1,496 people.
1.2 Literature Reviews
1.2.1 Small distributed generation
Distributed generation (DG) has been defined in many ways, creating some
confusion in terms of regulatory rule applicability. It is most commonly defined as the
generation of electricity near the intended place of use. Some parties define it with
size limitations, other exclude back up generation, and yet others make no distinction
between generation connected to the transmission system or the distribution system.
The Energy Commission assumes the following definition: DG is electric generation
connected to the distribution level of the transmission and distribution grid usually
located at or near the intended place of use. (M. Marks, 2002)
For this report, staff defines DG as electricity production that is on-site or
close to a load center and is interconnected to the utility distribution system. In
practical terms, this limits the definition of DG to less than 20 megawatts (MW) since
4
systems larger than this would typically be interconnected at sub-transmission, or
transmission system voltages. (M. Rawson and J. Sugar, 2007)
The performance and impact of a decentralized biomass gasifier-based power
generation system in an unelectrified village are presented. The system consists of a
20 kW gasifier-engine generator system with all the accessories for fuel processing
and electricity distribution. Technical, social, economic and management-related
lessons learnt are presented. (N. H. Ravindranath, H. I. Somashekar, S. Dasappa and
C. N. Jayasheela Reddy, 2004)
1.2.2 Biomass gasification
Figure 1.2 Gasification Processes and products
Handbook of biomass downdraft gasifier engine system explains how biomass
can be converted to a gas in a downdraft gasifier and gives details for designing,
testing, operating, and manufacturing gasifiers and gasifier systems. Criteria include
gasifier application, the availability of suitable equipment, biomass fuel availability
5
and fuel-source reliability, regulations, operator availability, and of course cost and
financing.
The spark ignition engine operating on gasoline achieves a thermal efficiency
of 25%-30%. The same engine operating on producer gas may achieves 15%-25%
thermal efficiency, depending on how well the engine is converted to producer gas. A
diesel engine using diesel typically achieves 30%-35% thermal efficiency. Operating
on 90% producer gas, it can be expected to give 25%-30% thermal efficiency. The
overall efficiency of the system must be computed from engine efficiency and gasifier
efficiency. (T. B. Reed and Agua Das, 1988)
The efficiency of the engine-generator set was generally lower and the total
energy input to the engine was always higher on the dual fuel operation. The
maximum engine-generator set efficiency with dual fuel operation achieved was
14.71%, while pure diesel operation gave 22.41% efficiency for the same load. (S.C.
Bhattacharya, S.S. Hla, H.L. Pham, 2001)
Biomass gasification for obtaining gas and further the liquid fuels, of course,
will be a very good alternative because of the introduction of renewable energy
concept. There are several kinds of gasification processes in according with the
different gasification agent. (L. Wei-ji, Z. Da-lei, R.Yong-zhi, 2002)
Coal, wood and charcoal gasifiers have been used for operation of internal
combustion engines in various applications since the beginning of this century. A
major problem could result from the slow carbon build-up in the engine's cylinders as
a consequence of traces of tar or dust in the gas. Whether this is due to too low engine
loads or to a defective glass fibre cloth filter remains to be tested. (B. Kjellstrom,
1986)
Studies on the effect of size, structure, environment, temperature, heating rate,
composition of biomass and ash are reviewed. From the foregoing review, the
following observations could be arrived at: Biomass is a compound consisting of C,
H, and O in major quantity. The composition of C, H and O is more or less same in all
biomasses. The calorific values are also nearly same. Environment results in pyrolysis
or complete gasification of biomass. Heating rate influence the quality of gasification
and quantity of products. Porous biomasses are gasifier completely into ash at
6
temperatures less than 600° C. (V. Kirubakaran, V. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Nalini, T.
Sekar, M. Premalatha, and P. Subramanian, 2007)
Surveys of rural household energy use activities incorporating the production
and utilisation of woody biomass, and of the forest products industries incorporating
forest harvesting, wood processing and residues generation, were undertaken to assess
the availability of wood biomass that could be utilised in biomass-electricity systems
in Kenya. Biomass gasifier demonstration programmes should give preferences to
sites where adequate technical skills, sufficient fuel resources, and skilled operator
availability coincide with direct economic interests. Specific sites meeting these
criteria for small scale biomass-electricity systems were identified in this study. (K.
Senelwa, Ralph E.H. Sims, 1999)
The principals of gasification, and old and new types of gasifiers, are
discussed for both power and heat applications. The downdraft gasifier may be
summarized as follows;
- High amounts of ash and dust particles remain in the gas because the gas has to
pass the oxidation zone, where it collects small ash particles.
- The moisture content of the biomass must be less than 25 percent (on a wet
basis).
- The relatively high temperature of the exit flue gas results in lower gasification
efficiency.
The main difficulties are in the gas cleaning systems (preferably at high
temperatures) and meeting all requirements set by gas turbine manufactures in
adapting gas turbine to low calorific gases. (P. Quaak, H. Knoef, H. Stassen, 1998)
The slow pyrolysis of rice husk has been investigated at temperature of 350°C
to 450°C. The primary results are the following:
(a) An average yield of 10% dry tar, 27% water, 18% gas and 45% char.
(b) The charred rice husk has a slightly higher heating value of 16 MJ kg
-1
compared
to 15.3 MJ kg
-1
for rice husk.
(c) The energy fraction lost due to charring amounts to 45-55% on a dry basis.
(d) The rice husk char consists of approximately 45% ash, 45% carbon and 10%
remaining volatiles.
7
Rice husk ash does have a very high softening temperature (>1400°C), but
nevertheless tends to slag if the fuel bed structure is disturbed by high superficial gas
velocities. (A. Kaupp, 1984)
The rice husk gasification use of a water jet scrubber gives a satisfactory tar
removal from the producer gas. This gasification unit is very simple to be operated by
a low skill operator. The main tack in order to maintain the satisfactory gasification
process is the regular cleaning of the gas cleaning and cooling as well as piping line.
The use of rice husk as an energy substitution by means of the gasification process
can reduce the diesel oil consumption by 70%. A particular economic analysis shows
a big opportunity to supply electricity profitably by using this system. (R. Manurung,
H. Susanto and Sudarno H., 1986)
1.2.3 Impacts on people
Electricity for lighting in all houses has helped school-going children in their
studies and women in their household chores. The unique feature of the project in
Hosahalli is equitable sharing of benefits by all the households and reliable provision
of services on most days in a year, contributing to improved quality of life for all. (N.
H. Ravindranath, H. I. Somashekar, S. Dasappa and C. N. Jayasheela Reddy, 2004)
In the present study, potential assessments of all the available energy sources
is carried out and found that the conventional diesel power plant can be replaced by
renewable energy sources in self-sustainable manner to achieve energy independent in
a remote island. It is suggested to replace existing 400kW diesel generating plant and
50 kW solar power plant by 100 kW biogas power plant, 150 kW biomass gasification
plant and 200 kW solar PV system. Such development will also ensure that there is no
adverse impact on environment and socio-economic life of the habitants. (S.K. Singal,
Varun, R.P. Singh, 2007)

1.3 Objectives
The required necessary information for self-electricity and to develop model of
rice husk gasification in rural region of Myanmar are vital intentions for this project
and specified ranges are as follows;
- To survey energy related data of rural villages for power plant installation
8
- To test the gasifier power plant
- To evaluate economic and social impact on villager’s livelihood
1.4 Scope of the thesis
The study focuses on three types of biomass only.
The study site is in Yangon, Myanmar.
The power plant is community sized of 50 kW.
Compare technology and cost between systems with diesel and diesel/producer
gas as fuel.
Analyze technical and social-economic of the system.
Chapter 2
Background Theory
2.1 Distributed generation
Distributed generation (DG) generally refers to small scale (1-50 kW) electric
power generators that produce electricity at a site close to customers or that are tied to
an electric distribution system. Distributed generators include, but are not limited to
synchronous generators, induction generators, reciprocating engines, microturbines,
combustion gas turbines, fuel cells, solar photovoltaic’s, and wind turbines. DG can
be used to generate a customer’s entire electricity supply; for peak shaving
(generating a portion of a customer’s electricity onsite to reduce the amount of
electricity purchased during peak price periods); for standby or emergency generation
(as a backup to Wires Owner's power supply); as a green power source (using
renewable technology); or for increased reliability. In some remote locations, DG can
be less costly as it eliminates the need for expensive construction of distribution
and/or transmission lines.
Figure 2.1 Small Distributed Generation for villagers
10
Benefits of DG include:
•A lower capital cost because of the small size of the DG (although the investment
cost per kVA of a DG can be much higher than that of a large power plant).
•Reduction of the need for large infrastructure construction or upgrades because the
DG can be constructed at the load location.
•If the DG provides power for local use, it may reduce pressure on distribution and
transmission lines.
•With some technologies, produces zero or near-zero pollutant emissions over its
useful life (not taking into consideration pollutant emissions over the entire product
lifecycle i.e. pollution produced during the manufacturing or after decommissioning
of the DG system).
•With some technologies such as solar or wind, it is a form of renewable energy.
•Can increase power reliability as back-up or stand-by power to customers.
•Offers customers a choice in meeting their energy needs.
•There are no uniform national interconnection standards addressing safety, power
quality and reliability for small distributed generation systems.
•The current process for interconnection is not standardized among provinces.
•Interconnection may involve communication with several different organizations
•The environmental regulations and permit process that have been developed for
larger distributed generation projects make some DG projects uneconomical.
•Contractual barriers exist such as liability insurance requirements, fees and charges,
and extensive paperwork.
2.2 Gasification
Gasification refers to a thermochemical conversation of carbonaceous solid
fuel into a gaseous energy medium by adding an oxidizing agent (air, oxygen, water
vapour). If air or oxygen is used, the oxidization reactions can supply the heat
necessary for converting the endothermic stages: so external energy supply is not
necessary. The product is a mixture of combustible and non-combustible gases,
liquids and solids. The principal combustible gas components are CO and H
2
. Other
11
include CH
4
, but in small proportions. The final product composition will depend on
operating conditions, the gasifier and the fuel type.
The process in the gasifier can be broken down into different stages:
- Drying Zone
- Pyrolysis Zone
- Combustion Zone
- Reduction Zone
2.2.1 Drying Zone
Solid fuel is introduced into the gasifier at the top. As a result of heat transfer
from the lower parts of the gasifier, drying of wood or biomass fuel occurs in the
bunker section.
The water vapour will flow downwards and add to the water vapour formed in
the oxidization zone. Part of it may be reduced to hydrogen and the rest will end up as
moisture in the gas.
2.2.2 Pyrolysis Zone
At temperature above 250°C, the biomass fuel starts pyrolysing. The pyrolysis
reactions are not well known, but one can summarise that large molecules (such as
cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) break down into medium size molecules and
carbon (char) during the heating of feedstock. The pyrolysis products flow
downwards into the hotter zones of the gasifier. Some will be burned in the
oxidization zone, and the rest will break down to even smaller molecules of hydrogen,
methane, carbon monoxide, ethane, etc: if they are remaining in the hot zone long
enough.
If the residence time, in the hot zone is too short or temperature too low, then
medium size molecules can escape and will condense as tar oil.
12
2.2.3 Combustion Zone
A combustion (oxidization) zone is formed at the level where oxygen (air) is
introduced. Reactions with oxygen are highly exothermic and result in a sharp rise of
the temperature up to 1200-1500°C.
As mentioned above, an important of the oxidization zone, apart from heat
generation, is to convert or oxidize virtually all condensable product from the
pyrolysis zone. In order to avoid cold spots in the oxidization zone, air inlet velocities
and the reactor geomentry must be well chosen.
Generally two methods are employed to obtain an even temperature
distribution:
- reducing the cross sectional area at a certain height of the reactor (“throat concept”)
- spreading the air inlet nozzles over the circumference of the reduced cross area.
Oxidation or combustion is described by the following chemical reactions:
C + O
2
CO
2
(- 393 MJ/kg mole) (2.1)
2 H
2
+ O
2
2 H
2
O (- 242 MJ/kg mole) (2.2)
2.2.4 Reduction Zone
The reaction products of the oxidization zone move downward the reduction
zone. In this zone the sensible heat of the gases and charcoal is converted as much as
possible into chemical energy of the producer gas.
The end product of the chemical reaction that takes place in the reduction zone
is a combustible gas which can be used as fuel gas in burners. After dust, condensed
tars and moisture removal and cooling the gas is suitable for use in engines.
The following reactions take place in the reduction zone.
C + CO
2
2 CO (+173 MJ / kmol) (2.3)
C + H
2
O CO + H
2
(+131 MJ / kmol) (2.4)
CO
2
+ H
2
CO + H
2
O (- 41 MJ / kmol) (2.5)
C + 2 H
2
CH
4
(- 75 MJ / kmol) (2.6)
CO + 3 H
2
CH
4
+ H
2
O (- 205 MJ / kmol) (2.7)
13
Equation (2.3) and (2.4), which are the main reaction of reduction show that
reaction requires heat. Therefore the gas temperature will decrease during reduction.
Reaction (2.5) describes the so-call water-gas equilibrium.
Gasifiers are classified as follows:
- Updraft gasifier
- Downdraft gasifier
- Crossdraft gasifier
- Fluidized bed gasifier
- Other types of gasifiers

Updraft gasifier
The common type of a counter current gasifier is a vertical reactor where the
feed stock is entered from the top.

Figure 2.2 Updraft gasifier
The directions of fuel flow and gas flow being opposed, separate reaction
zones formed in the reactor. The gas rises inside the reactor and leaves at the top
14
section, which is why this type is also designated as updraft gasifier. Counter-current
gasifiers have the advantage that they do not require any special fuel preparation thus
allowing the gasification of a wide range of biomass types with different particle size
and moisture contents. Through forced convection, the gas heated by oxidation in a
bottom zone rises and transfers heat to fuel and the gas leaves the gasifier with a
relatively low temperature, which indicates a high gasification efficiency of this
process. The drawback of it results from volatile matter produced in the pyrolysis
zone, which is carried in the rising gas steam. In consequence, the gas produced by
the updraft gasifiers contains a considerable amount of tar compounds. Hence it is
more suitable for direct heating than engine operation. Figure 2.2 shows a schematic
diagram of updraft gasifier.
Downdraft gasifier
In a co-current gasifier, fuel and gas move in the same direction. The
palletized biofuel, at first dried and pyrolyzed nearly in the absence of air in the upper
zones reaches further down the very hot oxidization zone, from where, changed into
char and ash, it falls into reduction zone. The gases mainly produced in the pyrolysis
zone are heated to fairly more than 1000°C in the oxidation zone. In this process,
high-tar gaseous compounds in the gas are to a great extent converted into low tar
components, which then react with the char in the subsequent reduction zone
producing additional gas. The gas issues from the bottom reactor section, hence the
other designation of downdraft gasification. In contract to counter-current
gasification, the heat transfer between biofuel and gas in co-current gasification is
low, so the exit gas has a relatively high temperature.
There is also a higher tendency of slag formation in co-current than in counter
current gasifiers because of the high temperature in the oxidization zone. A uniform
temperature distribution within the individual reactor zones and a well-formed
preciousness to gas of the char layer are decisive factors for the gas quality. Co-
current gasifiers therefore make greater demand on the fuel preparation with regard to
size and moisture content. The major advantage of downdraft gasifiers is that the gas
produced contains far less tar products and other high-boiling compounds than the gas
from updraft gasifiers. Figure 2.3 shows a schematics diagram of downdraft gasifier.
15
Figure 2.3 Downdraft gasifier
The advantages of downdraft gasification are:
• Up to 99.9% of the tar formed is consumed, requiring minimal or no tar cleanup
• Minerals remain with the char/ash, reducing the need for a cyclone
• Proven, simple and low cost process
The disadvantages of downdraft gasification are:
• Requires feed drying to a low moisture content (<20%)
• Syngas exiting the reactor is at high temperature, requiring a secondary heat
recovery system
• 4-7% of the carbon remains unconverted
For a relatively small size gasifier, it is normally of downdraft gasifier type.
Crossdraft gasifier
Crossdraft gasifiers, schematically illustrated in Figure 2.4 are an adaptation
for the use of charcoal. Charcoal gasification results in very high temperatures
(1500°C and higher) in the oxidation zone which can lead to material problems. In
16
crossdraft gasifiers insulation against these high temperatures is provided by the fuel
(charcoal) it self.
Figure 2.4 Crossdraft gasifier
Advantages of the system lie in the smaller scale which it can be operated.
Installation below 10KW (shaft power) can under certain conditions be economically
feasible. The reason is the very simple gas cleaning train (only a cyclone and a hot
filter) which can be employed when using this type of gasifier in conjunction with
small engines.
A disadvantage of crossdraft gasifiers is their minimal tar converting
capabilities and the consequent need for high quality (low volatile content) charcoal.
It is because of the uncertainly of charcoal quality that a number of charcoal
gasifiers employ the downdraft principal, in order to maintain at least a minimal tar
cracking capability.
Fluidized bed gasifier
The operation of both updraft and downdraft gasifiers is influenced by the
morphological, physical and chemical properties of the fuel. Problems commonly
encountered are; bunker flow, slagging a extreme pressure drop over the gasifier.
17
Figure 2.5 Fluidized bed gasifier
A design approach aiming at the removal of the above difficulties is the
fluidized bed gasifier, illustrated schematically in Figure 2.5.
Air is blown through a bed of sand particles at a sufficient velocity to keep
these in a state of suspension. Air velocity is as larges as 7-10 m ⁄s. The bed is
originally externally heated and the feedstock is introduced as soon as a sufficiently
high temperature is reached. The fuel particles are introduced at the room of the
reactor, very quickly mixed with the bed materials and almost instantaneously heated
up to the bed temperature. As a result of this treatment the fuel is pyrolysed very fast,
resulting in a component mix with a relatively large amount of gaseous materials.
Further gasification and tar conversion reactions occur in the gas phase. Most system
are equipped with and internal cyclone in order to minimize char below out as much
as possible. Ash particles are also carried over the top of the reactor and have to be
removed from the gas stream if the gas is used in engine application.
18
Other types of gasifiers
A number of other biomass gasifier systems (double fired, entrained bed,
molten bath), which are partly spin-offs from coal gasification technology, are
currently under development. In some cases these systems incorporate unnecessary
refinements and complications, in others both the size and sophistication of the
equipment make near term application in developing countries unlikely. For these
reasons they are omitted from this account.
2.3 Biomass resources
2.3.1 Rice husk
Rice is by far the staple food of Myanmar and the major agriculture resource
in terms of area, volume and income. In 2007-2008, Myanmar produced 30 million
Mt of paddy. Rice hulls accounted for 20% of paddy production on a weight basis,
meaning that nearly 6 million Mt of rice hulls were produce in 2007-2008. Annual
production of paddy in Myanmar is given Table 2.1.
Rice husk is composed of water, vaporizing materials by heat and inorganic
materials. The water content in the rice husk is about 10 wt% and it depends on the
drying condition. After drying perfectly, rice husk is composed of about 63 wt% of
vaporizing material, 20 wt% of carbon and 17 wt% of ash. Main component in ash is
SiO
2
. Then, carbonized rice husk includes about 55 wt% of carbon and 40 wt% of
SiO
2
. A carbonized rice husk has so large specific surface area as 330 m
2
/g. A rice
husk looks as show in Figure 2.6.
Figure 2.6 Rice Husk
19
Table 2.1 Annual production of paddy.
(Ref: http://www.moai.gov.mm/statistics.htm#LAND%20POTENTIAL)
Year
Production
(000' Mt)
1992-93 14,837
1993-94 16,760
1994-95 18,195
1995-96 17,953
1996-97 17,676
1997-98 16,654
1998-99 17,078
1999-00 20,126
2000-01 21,324
2001-02 21,916
2002-03 21,805
2003-04 23,136
2004-05 24,718
2005-06 27,638
2006-07 30,924
2007-08 30,262
2.3.2 Wood
Wood is the most important carrier of solar energy. It can be processed into
wood logs, wood chip and pellets as shown in Figure 2.7. The most convenient means
of wood processing is the preparation of short logs and split logs for small volume,
hand charged stoves. Fuelwood is widely available in Myanmar. Over 23 million
metric tons of fuelwood were reported used for 1999 domestic consumption (A.
Koopmans, 2005). The majority of fuelwood originated from forests. Any different
between fuelwood demand and the amount forests could supply on a sustainable basis
would lead to deforestation.
20
Myanmar is rich in forest resources. Forest area of the country has been
estimated by forest types as shown in Table 2.2.

Table 2.2 Forest area by types of forests
(Ref: http://www.fao.org/docrep/x2613e/x2613e2p.htm)
No Types of Forests Area (Hectares) %
1. Tidal, beach and dune, and swamp forests 1,376,900 4
2. Tropical evergreen forests 5,507,800 16
3. Mixed deciduous forests 13,425,300 39
4. Dry Forests 3,442,400 10
5. Deciduous dipterocarp forest 1,721,200 5
6. Hill and temperate evergreen forest 8,950,100 26
Total 34,423,700 100
Figure 2.7 Wood
2.3.3 Bamboo
Bamboo is the common term applied to a broad group of woody grasses
ranging from 10 cm to 40 m in height as shown in Figure 2.8. There are over 200
kinds of Myanmar Bamboo. Bamboo is distributed mostly in the tropics, comprising
natural stands of native species. Myanmar is one of the nations with significant
bamboo production and utilization.
21
Villagers rely on bamboo for house pole, cross beam, partition and floor.
Some houses in villages are made of bamboo as a whole. It is also used to construct
fences to protect property and hold livestock. Bamboo utensils such as flat wooden
ladle, blow piper basket, hat, and tray are also common in Myanmar households.
Some lacquer ware has bamboo for a base. It is the raw material for making paper,
and bamboo plants decorate gardens. Bamboo has long been neglected, but it may
have potential as a bioenergy crop. Bamboo productive forest area is 963,000 ha in
Myanmar.
Figure 2.8 Bamboo
2.4 Economic Analysis
2.4.1 Net present value
Net present value (NPV) is defined as the total present value of a time series
of cash flows. NPV is an indicator of how much value an investment or project adds
to the value of the firm. It is a standard method for using the time value of money to
appraise long-term projects. Used for capital budgeting, and widely throughout
economics, it measures the excess or shortfall of cash flows, in present value terms,
once financing charges are met.
Each cash inflow/outflow is discounted back to its present value. Then they
are summed. Therefore NPV is the sum of all terms
(1 )
t
t
C
r +
,
22
(1 )
(1 )
t t
t t
C
C C r
r

= + =
+
(2.8)

=

+
=
N
t
t
t
C
r
C
NPV
0
0
) 1 (
(2.9)
where t - the time of the cash flow
r - the discount rate (the rate of return that could be earned on an investment
in the financial markets with similar risk.)
C
t
- the net cash flow (the amount of cash, inflow minus outflow) at time t (for
educational purposes,
C
0
is commonly placed to the left of the sum to emphasize its role as the initial
investment.
2.4.2 Internal rate of return
The internal rate of return (IRR) is a capital budgeting metric used by firms to
decide whether they should make investments. It is an indicator of the efficiency of an
investment, as opposed to net present value (NPV), which indicates value or
magnitude. The IRR is the annualized effective compounded return rate which can be
earned on the invested capital, i.e., the yield on the investment.
Given a collection of pairs (time, cash flow) involved in a project, the internal
rate of return follows from the net present value as a function of the rate of return. A
rate of return for which this function is zero is an internal rate of return.
Thus, in the case of cash flows at whole numbers of years, to find the internal
rate of return, find the value(s) of r that satisfies the following equation:
0
0
(1 )
N
t
t
t
C
NPV
r
=
= =
+

(2.10)
2.4.3 Payback period
The payback is another method to evaluate an investment project. The
payback method focuses on the payback period. The payback period is the length of
23
time that it takes for a project to recoup its initial cost out of the cash receipts that it
generates. This period is some times referred to as" the time that it takes for an
investment to pay for itself." The basic premise of the payback method is that the
more quickly the cost of an investment can be recovered, the more desirable is the
investment. The payback period is expressed in years. When the net annual cash
inflow is the same every year, the following formula can be used to calculate the
payback period.
Payback period = Investment required / Net annual cash inflow* (2.11)
*If new equipment is replacing old equipment, this becomes incremental net annual
cash inflow.
Chapter 3
Methodology
3.1 Energy efficiency
Energy efficiency means using energy wisely and not wasting it. By using
energy efficiently at home and at school, you can help save our planet’s resources and
reduce pollution. It’s easy to do, it saves money, and it helps the earth. Energy
efficiency is a dimensionless number, with a value between 0 and 1 or, when
multiplied by 100, is given as a percentage. The energy efficiency of a process,
denoted by η
energy
, is defined as
in
out
energy
P
P
= η (3.1)
where η
energy
energy efficiency (%)
P
out
output energy (kWh)
P
in
input energy (kWh)
3.1.1 System efficiency
For the biomass system, the sensible heat is not utilized and when the gas is
used as fuel in an internal combustion engine. System efficiency, η
Total
of the system
is duel fuel operation is calculated as follow:
100
600 , 3
×








×
×
=
LHV Q
P
EI
Total
η (3.2)
where η
Total
system efficiency (%)
P
EI
electrical power (kW)
Q fuel consumption (m
3
/hr)
LHV heating value (kJ/m
3
)
25
Electrical power was measured by using the multifunctional power meter. Fuels
consumption was measured by used measuring device. Heating value was calculated
by using equation (4.3) and (4.5).
3.1.2 Engine efficiency (η
Eng
)
Engine generator efficiency, η
Eng
of the system is duel fuel operation is
calculated as follow:
100 100 ×


= × =
efficiency Mortor
efficiency Overall
Motor
Total
Eng
η
η
η (3.3)
where η
Eng
engine efficiency (%)
η
Motor
motor efficiency (%)
3.2 Social and economic impacts from field survey
A door to door survey was carried out, as shown in Figure 3.1 and
questionnaires as shown in Appendix D, covering almost all house hold in the study
area, in order to understand the energy sense.

Figure 3.1 Field survey in the study area
The following data were collected number of family members, house area,
average monthly income, energy consumption, electricity requirement, etc. It was
found that peak electricity demand occur between 18:00 and 23:00, when villagers are
at home after work. The majority of the demand consists of lighting. They occupation
26
are Rice, Fishery, Bamboo, Beetle Nut, Agriculture and General Employee. This
village’s household total income is about 130,000 Kyat per house per month.
Villagers are electrified using either small, stand-alone diesel generators or
rechargeable lead acid batteries. They are used simple electric appliances such as light
bulbs, TV (mostly Black & White) and VCD/DVD players. Table 3.1 is show details
of electricity used. These are the peak requirement. It was revealed from survey that
300 light bulbs constitute nearly 50% of total load. Demand of the local community
was estimated to be about 100 kWh/day.

Table 3.1 Details of electricity loads use pattern
Devices Number Load (kW)
Light Bulb 300 9.000
Color Television 5 0.430
Black & White Television 86 3.140
VCD/DVD Player 63 1.535
Radio/music System 4 3.625
Other 4 0.525
Total 462 18.255
Average/household 1.32 0.052
Per capita - 0.012
3.3 Measuring equipment for gasification project
3.3.1 Multifunctional power meter
The multifunctional power meter is used to volt, ampere, power factor and
kW. This meter is shown in Figure 3.2.
27
Figure 3.2 Multifunctional power meter
3.3.2 AC power clamp meter
AC power clamp meter is measuring DC/AC current, DC/AC voltage,
resistance, continuity check and temperature. The AC power clamp meter used in this
study is shown in figure 3.3.
Figure 3.3 AC power clamp meter
3.3.3 Digital tachometer
The digital tachometer measures the revolutions per minute (RPM) is as
shown in Figure 3.4.
28
Figure 3.4Digital tachometer

3.3.4 Measured fuel consumption
The system was tested in dual-fuel operation, to analyze diesel consumption is
one of the important parameters. Diesel fuel consumption was measured by means of
the measuring device (diesel tank with scale) and a stopwatch for different loads. In
the same way, rice husk consumption was measured by means of platform scale is as
shown in Figure 3.5.
Figure 3.5Platform scale

Chapter 4
Distributed Generation System
4.1 Site Selection and Survey
The Energy Research and Development Institute (ERDI), Chiang Mai
University is contracted by Department of Alternative Energy Development and
Efficiency (DEDE), Ministry of Energy, Thailand to oversee the study, development
and installation of an electricity generation system from biomass gasification in Union
of Myanmar. The Myanmar Engineering Society (MES) is the official representative
assigned by the Energy Planning Department (EPD).
A kick-off meeting between the DEDE, ERDI, and MES was held on the 20
th
August 2007 in Yangon. Brief information on background and objectives of the
project was delivered. During the meeting, the parties agreed on building
collaboration for this project and forthcoming energy related projects.
The MES has issued a letter suggesting 4 potential sites in the Twantay
Township area for evaluation as shown in Appendix A. The 4 sites are (i) Nyaung Da
Gar, (ii) Sann Ywar, (iii) Kha-Lok, and (iv) Dagoon Daing. They were chosen from a
number of suitable villages that have potential for development and demonstration of
the unit. The ERDI team surveyed and selected a suitable site for the project. The site
selection process consists of site visit, data collection, data interpretation, and
conclusion.
4.1.1 Twantay Township
Twantay township is located 25 km away in the west of Yangon at latitude 16˚
42′ 25″ and longitude 95˚ 56′ 18″, as shown in Figure 4.1. Normal form of transport is
by road with a distance of about 50 km. Most part of the town is green area.
Agriculture, especially rice farming and fishing are main occupations.
The town has plenty of biomass. Among the most suitable biomass resources
include rice husk, rice straw, bamboo and wood.

30

Figure 4.1 Twantay Township and road transport to Yangon

4.1.2 Site visit
Sites visit to Twantay Township was undertaken after the kick-off meeting.
Location of the 4 sites can be shown in Figure 4.2. A meeting with local coordinators
was arranged for site investigation.

Figure 4.2 Location of the four purposed sites

N
31

4.1.3 Data collection
Basic data collection was carried out for every site. The data collected is
summarized and shown in Table 4.1. Samples of agricultural residues suitable to use
as fuels were also collected and sent for analysis in Thailand.
4.1.4 Data interpretation
Each item of the data collected was then ranked, based on its influence to the
success of the project. Scale 1 means low influence while Scale 4 is interpreted as
strong influence. Results from the interpretation can be shown in Table 4.2.
4.1.5 Site selection
Dagoon Daing village was selected as shown in Appendix B; the most
favorable of choice based on the total marks earned 52. A large amount of rice husk
available with no cost (3 rice mills in village). They use stove. Fuel types are
firewood, bamboo and rice husk. They occupation are Rice, Fishery, Bamboo, Beetle
Nut, Agriculture and General Employee.
Dagoon Daing village is the most favourable choice based on the total mark
earned. The first important point is that Dagoon Daing village has surplus supply of
the rice husk for their current electricity need. In addition, the surplus is enough for
the next few year of predicted electricity consumption. Dagoon Daing community had
shown that they are ready and willing to support the project in every possible ways
through their leaders to make the project a successful and sustainable one.
The project is an exemplary and model for contribution of technical scope to
extend other areas in development stage. The selection of designated location is based
on considerations with accessible to travel and populated, locally well-collaborate and
able to set a centre of technical cooperation, efficient to share information related with
project to others extend area and resourceful raw materials.

32

33

34

Table 4.2 Weighting and decision making table
Community name
Nyaung Da
Gar
Dagoon
Daing
Kha-Lok
Sann
Ywar
1. Road distance from Yangon 3 1 2 4
2. Other facilities or industries in
the community
4 3 2 1
3. Biomass available
3.1 Rice husk 3 4 1 2
3.2 Bamboo 4 1 2 3
3.3 Rice straw 2 4 1 3
3.4 Wood 2 4 3 1
4. Road condition surrounding
the area for biomass
transportation
1 4 2 3
5. Estimated electricity
consumption

5.1 Current 3 4 2 1
5.2 Future 1 4 2 3
5.3 No. of household 3 4 2 1
6. Energy data of each site

6.1 Price of diesel 4 2 1 3
6.2 Availability of diesel 3 2 1 4
6.3 Experience with electricity
3 4 2 1
7. Attitude and eagerness of the
community to support the
project

7.1 Leader 3 4 1 2
7.2 Villagers 2 4 3 1
7.3 Basic knowledge in
management and technical
support
4 3 1 2
Total Mark Earn 45 52 28 35
35

4.2 Biomass Analysis
4.2.1 Potential biomass as fuels in Myanmar
From the survey, potential biomass resources available in Dagoon Daing are
wood, bamboo, rice straw and rice husk, as shown in Figure 4.3. Samples of these
biomass fuels were collected and later sent for proximate and ultimate analyses,
heating value, density, ash composition and ash fusion temperature.
Figure 4.3 Potential biomass resources
4.2.2 Fuel Analysis Methods
Two types of analyses are proximate and ultimate analysis. These are useful
for defining the physical, chemical and fuel properties of a particular biomass
feedstock. These analyses were initially developed for coal and widely available from
commercial laboratories. They are described in detail in the publications of the
American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM).
The proximate analysis is relatively simple and can be performed with a
drying oven, a laboratory furnace and a balance. The ultimate analysis involves more
advance chemical techniques.
The proximate analysis determines the moisture, volatile matter, ash and fixed
carbon contact of a fuel, using standard ASTM tests. Moisture is analyzed by the
weight loss observed at 110˚C. The volatile matter is driven off in a closed crucible by
slow heating to 950˚C and the sample is weighed again. The proximate analysis
generally includes moisture content measured on a wet basis, MC
wet
, where
MC
wet
= (wet weight – dry weight) / wet weight (4.1)
36

Sometimes, moisture content is reported on a dry weight basis, MC
dry
, where
MC
dry
= (wet weight – dry weight) / dry weight (4.2)
The ultimate analysis gives the chemical composition and the higher heating
values of the fuels. The chemical analysis usually lists the carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
nitrogen, sulfur and ash content of the dry fuel on a weight percentage basis. A
standard ASTM method is available for measuring the slagging temperature for ash.
The heat of combustion is determined by the composition of the biomass and
in fact can be calculated with considerable accuracy from

HHV = [34.1 C + 132.2 H + 6.8 S – 1.53 A – 12.0 (O + N)] kJ/g (4.3)
HHV = [146.6 C + 568.8 H + 29.4 S – 6.6 A – 51.5 (O + N)] x 10² Btu/lb (4.4)
LHV = HHV – 0.00114 (HHV) (MC) (4.5)
Where C, H, S, A, O and N are the wt% of carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, ash,
oxygen and nitrogen in the fuel. The calculate value agree with the measured value
with an absolute error of 2.1% for a large number of biomass materials.
One of the most important physical characteristic of biomass fuel is the bulk
density. The bulk density is the weight of biomass packed loosely in a container
divided by the volume occupied. Clearly, it is not an exact number, depending on the
exact packing of the particles.
The basis fuel parameters important in gasifier design are
- Char durability and fixed carbon content
- Ash fusion temperature
- Ash content
- Moisture content
- Heating value
The choice of a fuel for gasification will in part be decided by its heating
value. The method of measurement of the fuel energy content will influence the
37

estimate of efficiency of a given gasification system. Reporting of fuel heating values
is often confusing since at least three different bases are used:
- fuel higher heating values as obtained in an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. These
values include the heat of condensation of the water that is produced during
combustion. Because it is very difficult to recover the heat of condensation in actual
gasification operations these values present a too optimistic view of the fuel energy
content;
- fuel higher heating values on a moisture-free basis, which disregard the actual
moisture content of the fuel and so provide even more optimistic estimates of energy
content;
- fuel higher heating values on a moisture and ash free basis, which disregard the
incombustible components and consequently provide estimates of energy content
too high for a given weight of fuel, especially in the case of some agricultural
residues (rice husks).
The only realistic way therefore of presenting fuel heating values for
gasification purposes is to give lower heating values (excluding the heat of
condensation of the water produced) on an ash inclusive basis and with specific
reference to the actual moisture content of the fuel.
The heating value of the gas produced by any type of gasifier depends at least
in part on the moisture content of the feedstock. Moisture content can be determined
on a dry basis as well as on a wet basis. High moisture contents reduce the thermal
efficiency since heat is used to drive off the water and consequently this energy is not
available for the reduction reactions and for converting thermal energy into chemical
bound energy in the gas. Therefore high moisture contents result in low gas heating
values. In downdraft gasifiers high moisture contents give rise not only to low gas
heating values, but also to low temperatures in the oxidation zone, and this can lead to
insufficient tar converting capability if the gas is used for engine applications. The gas
heating value (engines need gas of at least 4200 kJ/m³ in order to maintain a
reasonable efficiency) and of the tar entrainment problem, downdraft gasifiers need
reasonably dry fuels (less than 25 percent moisture dry basis).
The amount of volatiles in the feedstock determines the necessity of special
measures (either in design of the gasifier or in the layout of the gas cleanup train) in
38

order to remove tars from the product gas in engine applications. A general rule if the
fuel contains more than 10 percent volatile matter it should be used in downdraught
gas producers.
Ashes can cause a variety of problems particularly in up or downdraft
gasifiers. Slagging or clinker formation in the reactor, caused by melting and
agglomeration of ashes, at the best will greatly add to the amount of labour required to
operate the gasifier If no special measures are taken, slagging can lead to excessive tar
formation and complete blocking of the reactor. A worst case is the possibility of air-
channeling which can lead to a risk of explosion, especially in updraft gasifiers.
Bulk density is defined as the weight per unit volume of loosely tipped fuel.
Fuels with high bulk density are advantageous because they represent a high energy-
for-volume value. Consequently these fuels need less bunker space for a given
refueling time. Low bulk density fuels sometimes give rise to insufficient flow under
gravity, resulting in low gas heating values and ultimately in burning of the char in the
reduction zone. Inadequate bulk densities can be improved by briquetting or
pelletizing.
4.3 Biomass Gasification System
The biomass gasification system is to produce electricity from rice husk. The
system consists of Downdraft gasifier reactor, cyclone separator, water scrubber, gas
cooler, Carbon fiber filter, fine filter units and gas damper as shown in Figure 4.4.
Figure 4.4 Rice Husk Gasification System’
39

4.3.1 Downdraft gasifier system
In a downdraft reactor, biomass is fed at the top, and the air intake is at the top
as shown in Figure 4.5. The reactor wall was made of firebrick. Air is supplied by
means of a downstream suction blower or from an engine. The gasifier core was not
provided with any throat or constriction to avoid fuel flow problem. Ash formed was
removed from the gasifier continuously by an automatic, motor-driven ash removal
system.’
Figure 4.5 Downdraft Grasifier’
4.3.2 Cyclone separator
The purpose of using cyclone is to remove tar and dust from the gas, the
design is shown in Figure 4.6. It is the most extensively used type of collector for
relatively coarse dusts because of high operational efficiency, simple construction and
low maintenance cost. The separated dust leaves the cyclone at its base and the gas
escapes at the top through a central exit. In cyclone the gas first flows along the wall
in the direction of the apex, and then is reversed in direction and escape axially, whilst
the dust moves with the outer current towards the apex.
40

Figure 4.6 Cyclone
4.3.3 Venturi scrubber
The velocity of the contacting liquid both pumps and scrubs the entrained gas
in an ejector venturi scrubber, as shown in Figure 4.7. Spiral spray nozzles impact
axial and tangential velocities to the liquid jet. The contacting liquid must be removed
after the scrubber by a suitable entrainment separator. Producer gas was passed
through venturi scrubber to remove ashes and to condense tars.
Figure 4.7 Venturi scrubber
41

4.3.4 Gas cooler
Figure 4.8 Gas cooler
Gases from the venturi scrubber were fed into the gas cooler. The cooler was
filled with marbles (1″ or 0.254m diameter). On the top of this unit, there was a
shower of cooling water. Water condensation helps to remove tar particles but yields a
contaminated water condensate in the process. The detail drawing of the gas cooler is
shown in Figure 4.8.
4.3.5 Carbon fiber filter
Figure 4.9 Carbon fiber filter
42

In the packed column some amount of water got entrained in the form of mist
or droplets and was carried away by the gas. Also, some fine particulates still
managed to get carried away with this gas. Pebbles of 1″ diameter size were used in
the filter, as shown in Figure 4.9.
4.3.6 Fine filter unit
Gases from the carbon fiber filter were fed into this filter. This is the final
mechanical filter which was filled with sawdust. The detail drawing of the gas cooler
is shown in Figure 4.10. The packed bed materials were used to absorb additional tar,
dust and vapors to get dry and clean gas. There are needs for periodic changing of the
packing materials.
Figure 4.10 Fine filter unit
4.3.7 Gas damper
After passing the sawdust filter, the cleaned and cooled gas entered the gas
damper, as shown in Figure 4.11.
43

Figure 4.11 Gas damper
4.3.8 Water pump
A water pump was used for spraying the water in the cleaning and cooling
system. The water pump (1 HP) is shown in Figure 4.12.
Figure 4.12 Water pump
44

4.4 Electrification System
The electrification system installed consists of three main parts, which are
engine, generator and electric control panel.
4.4.1 Engine
The engine used in the system is 4-cylinder, 2800 CC Mitsubishi 4M40, as
shown in Figure 4.13. The engine was modified so that it can use both diesel and
producer gases produced by the gasifier. An automatics governor is used to determine
the amount of diesel used to keep the engine speed at 1500 RPM at all load, as shown
in Figure 4.14.
Figure 4.13 Engine
Figure 4.14 Automatic governor
45

4.4.2 Generator
The generator installed is the Jewelway, Model JWX-50-4, 50 kW generator
as shown in Figure 4.15. The produced electricity is 3 phase, 50 Hz. Maximum
current is 90.2 Amp as indicated on the nameplate as shown in Figure 4.16.
Figure 4.15 Generator
Figure 4.16 Generator nameplate
46

4.4.3 Electric control panel
The electric control panel serves 2 purposes. The first task of the panel is to
prevent any failure that may occur during operation. Four circuit breakers were
installed. The second task of the panel is to monitor the electricity produced. There
are four meters installed, which are Volt meter, Frequency meter, Current meter and
kWh meter. The panel is as shown in Figure 4.17.
Figure 4.17 Electric control panel

4.5 Building
Figure 4.18 Picture of the building
47

A building was constructed on site to house the electrification system, control
room and store biomass with floor area of 56 m², as shown in Figure 4.18.
4.6 System installation, Wiring and Testing
This is described installation of the system inside the building, as well as
erection of electricity poles and wiring from the electrification system to villagers’
households.
4.6.1 System installation

Figure 4.19 Installation of the gasification system inside the building
The gasifier system is installed in side the building, as shown in Figure 4.19.
There are three main areas, gasifier-engine-generator system, control room and
biomass storage room.

4.6.2 Electricity wiring and network
The power plant is located near the centre of the village. Lamp posts and
power poles were erected with assistance from the villagers and electricity
distribution lines were connected from the power plant to households in the village
48

under supervision of qualified engineers and electricians. Each house was provided
with a 20 W lambs as well as a switch. The network covered about 350 houses. About
40 lambs were also installed on concrete poles for road lighting. Details are shown in
Figure 4.20, 4.21, 4.22 and 4.23.
Figure 4.20 Electricity distribution lines and power plant location in the village
49

Figure 4.21 Three-phase electricity lines from the system building
Figure 4.22 Electricity poles along the main road
Figure 4.23 Lamp posts along the main road
50

4.6.3 System operation
The system operation consists of three parts, which are preparation, system
operating procedures and maintenance.
4.6.3.1 Preparation
Rice husk should be stored in the storage room to keep it away from moisture,
as shown in Figure 4.24. There should be enough rice husks for one week operation.
Figure 4.24 Rice husk storage
Make sure that rice husk level is not lower than the level in Figure 4.25 at all
time.
Figure 4.25 Rice husk level
51

Make sure the water level in the pond and the dust collector are as indicated in
Figure 4.26. The water must be replaced once a month.

Figure 4.26 Water level in the circulating pond and the dust cooler
Always check the lubricant oil level, diesel level and cooling water everyday
before starting the engine as shown in Figure 4.27. The lubricant oil must be replaced
once a month. Make sure that the radiator is filled with water to prevent the engine
from overheating.
Figure 4.27 Radiator, diesel and lubricant oil tanks
4.6.3.2 System operating procedures
Before starting the engine, the control panel must be turn off. The air control
valve must be open as shown in Figure 4.28.
52

Figure 4.28 Air control valve
Starting the engine, turn the key to ON position. The green indicator must be
brightening up, as shown in Figure 4.29. Turn the key to START position. The engine
should be started. Wait 3-5 minutes, and then turn on the generator.
Figure 4.29 The key of starting engine
After the engine started for 3-5 minutes, the reactor can be ignited. As soon as
the reactor is ignited, starting closing the air control valve to reduce fresh air from
outside to the engine. Downing the air from the top of the reactor will accelerate the
reaction. Turn on water pump.
53

After 15-20 minutes, the producer gases are ready they can be fed into the
engine to replace diesel consumption. Care must be taken while replacing diesel with
the producer gases. Make sure that the transition is smooth. One good indicator is that
the noise of the engine must be stable and the frequency of the electricity is between
48-52 Hz. Turn on the automatic ash removal system as shown in Figure 4.30.
Figure 4.30 Ash removal system
Finally turn off the reactor, turn off the ash removal system and the water
pump. Open the air control valve to let the fresh air into the engine and turn off the
engine. Fill the reactor with rice husk to the 1/3 of the reactor height. This will keep
the heat inside the reactor for next operation.
4.6.3.3 Maintenance
Daily maintenances are;
- Check the water levels in the pond and the dust collector
- Check diesel level, lubricant oil and water level inside the radiator
- Remove the ash floating at the pond and the tray, Figure 4.31
- Listen to the sound of the motors
- Check the electricity cable before starting the system
- Record the amount of diesel and rice husk used.
54

Figure 4.31 Ash at the pond and the tray
Monthly maintenances are;
- Remove all rice husk inside the reactor and clean the inside the reactor
- Clean all the inner of the pipe by removing any dust and tar
- Replace water in the pond
- Replace the rice husk and pebbles inside the filters, Figure 4.32.
Figure 4.32 Filters
4.6.3.4 The treatments and recycling program to the waste products
• Ashes, the products of down load gasifier, are utilized in Agriculture as raw for
fertilizers.
• The tars which output from cyclone separator are using as a paints in boats for
external cover to protect weathering.
55

• The Marbles are using in gas cooler coated with tars will be cleaned and
recycling.
• The pebbles which are exhausted after running hours 200 in the carbon fiber
filters will be collected and applying in road construction.
• There have to manage the saw dusts coated with tars from the yield of fine filter
unit. There are applicable as filling agents and applying as putty in industries.
4.7 Test runs
The system has been tested to generate electricity to the villagers since 20
November 2007. It is scheduled to operate in the evening from 18:00 to about 24:00
everyday.
Chapter 5
Results and Discussions
5.1 Technical results
Site selection and survey, biomass analysis, the construction of biomass
gasification system and test run operation had been performed in 2007-08.
5.1.1 Biomass fuel analysis
The potential biomass samples were analyzed. Results are shown in Tables
5.1-5.3 and Appendix C, for ultimate, proximate and ash analyses, respectively. From
the results obtained, it was found that the most suitable biomass fuel is rice husk. It
has heating value of 13.8 MJ/kg, with high fixed carbon content. Its ash content is
mainly SiO
2
with highest ash melting temperature among the fuels considered.
Table 5.1 Ultimate Analysis
Rice husk Bamboo Wood Rice straw
C 35.145 % 45.66 % 44.925 % 39.875 %
H 3.706 % 4.32 % 4.935 % 5.1165 %
N 0.211 % 0.243 % 0.188 % 0.594 %
S 0.1215 % 0.064 % 0.074 % 0.216 %
O 60.438 % 48.329 % 49.616 % 53.829 %
Table 5.2 Proximate analysis, heating value and density
Sample
Heating
Value
(MJ/kg)
Proximate analysis (as received,
% wt/wt)
bulk
density
(kg/m
3
)
moisture
volatile
matter
ash
fixed
carbon
1 Bamboo 17.8 5.73
74.68 5.55 14.04 1,720
2 Rice straw 15.3 7.76
65.58 12.44 14.22 nd
3 Rice husk 13.8 5.60
56.41 13.45 24.54 nd
4 Wood 16.4 7.49 74.82 6.36 11.33 1,910
nd = not determined
57

Table 5.3 Ash analysis
Sample Bamboo
Rice
Straw
Rice
husk
Wood
1. Ash Composition (%)
Fe
2
O
3
3.68 0.76 1.20 3.24
Al
2
O
3
4.79 2.42 0.14 5.57
MgO 5.92 1.87 0.64 5.85
SiO
2
44.08 72.73 88.72 43.24
CaO 23.09 5.40 3.92 23.43
K
2
O 12.69 12.87 2.58 12.21
Na
2
O 0.44 0.24 0.25 1.73
TiO
2
0.28 0.01 0.07 0.29
Mn
3
O
4
0.10 0.78 0.09 0.37
SO
3
1.61 0.28 0.00 2.39
2. Ash Fusion Temperature (ºC)
2.1 Initial Deformation Temperature 1,142 1,000 1,440 1,138
2.2 Softening Temperature 1,152 1,194 1,500 1,138
2.3 Hemispherical Temperature 1,163 1,220 >1,500 1,189
2.4 Fluid Temperature 1,178 1,268 >1,500 1,205
5.1.2 System testing
During the test run at varying load, it was found that producer gas from rice
husk can replace diesel of up to 70%. Results are shown in Figure 5.1-5.5.
I=Electrical Current (Amp)
Figure 5.1 Electrical current and power
58

V=Electrical Voltage (Volt)
Figure 5.2 Electrical voltage and power

PF=Power Factor
Figure 5.3 Power factor and power

59

Figure 5.4 Relationship between power generated and rice husk consumption

Figure 5.5 Relationship between power generated and diesel consumption
Figure 5.4 and 5.5 shows that at 31.28 kW electricity generate, rice husk and
diesel consumption rate was 32.64 kg/hr and 2.17 L/hr, respectively as shown in
Table 5.4. With only diesel operation, diesel consumption rate was 7.39 L/hr. More
than 70% saving in diesel was achieved with the rice husk gasification system.
Electricity consumption in the villages at different loads result is shown in Table 5.5.
60

Table 5.4 Properties of rice husk at different loads
Power (kW) Rice husk consumption (kg/hr) Diesel consumption (L/hr)
10 13.00 1.72
15 17.50 1.80
21 21.50 2.00
25 28.00 2.08
31 36.50 2.17
Note: measurements made at a diesel substitution rate by producer gas of 65 %
Table 5.5 Electricity consumption in the villages at different loads
Electricity phase 1
I
1
23.5 33.5 45.1 50.3 59.1 Amp
V
23
205 210 211 212 214 Volt
Power Factor 0.65 0.76 0.78 0.81 0.83
Power 1 3.131 5.347 7.423 8.638 10.5 kW
Electricity phase 2
I
2
25.2 35.2 46.4 52.2 61.5 Amp
V
13
206 208 211 214 218 Volt
Power Factor 0.68 0.71 0.7 0.72 0.76
Power 2 3.53 5.198 6.853 8.043 10.19 kW
Electricity phase 3
I
3
26.3 31.5 40.3 48.6 56.4 Amp
V
12
207 215 215 220 221 Volt
Power Factor 0.69 0.71 0.79 0.81 0.85
Power 3 3.756 4.808 6.845 8.661 10.59 kW
Total power (P1 + P2 + P3) 10.42 15.35 21.12 25.34 31.28 kW
The engine testing was performed by fixed the engine speed at 1500 rpm. The
electricity load was applied respectively at different power (kW).
61

Fuel consumption rate (f
c
)
600 , 3
1 1
× × × =
Ricehusk
Match
Engine
c
LHV
P f
η
(5.1)
where f
c
fuel consumption rate (kg/hr)
η
Eng
engine efficiency (~0.25)
P
Match
power (kW)
LHV
Rice husk
rice husk heating value = 13,800 kJ/kg

From (5.1), 600 , 3
800 , 13
1
28 . 31
25 . 0
1
× × × =
c
f
hr kg f
c
64 . 32 =

Diesel substitution rate by producer gas
100 }
) ( ) (
) (
1 { % ×
+
− =
Ricehusk Diesel
Diesel
QLHV QLHV
QLHV
ρ ρ
ρ
(5.2)
where % percentage substitute
ρ density (kg/m
3
)
Q flow rate (m
3
/hr)
LHV heating value (MJ/kg)
Operating at 1,500 rpm found that,
Q
Diesel
= 7.39 L/hr Q
Ricehusk
= 53.76 L/hr
LHV
Diesel
= 43.0 MJ/kg LHV
Ricehusk
= 13.8 MJ/kg
ρ
Diesel
= 850 kg/m
3
ρ
Ricehusk
= 679 kg/m
3
From (5.2), 100 }
) 8 . 13 76 . 53 679 ( ) 43 39 . 7 850 (
) 43 39 . 7 850 (
1 { % ×
× × + × ×
× ×
− =
62

10 . 65 % =
The percentage of diesel substitution rate by producer gas from rice husk
gasification was 65.1% on an energy basis for all power output levels considered.

System efficiency (η
Total
)
100
600 , 3
×








×
×
=
LHV Q
P
EI
Total
η (3.2)
where η
Total
system efficiency (%)
P
EI
electrical power (kW)
Q fuel consumption (m
3
/hr)
LHV heating value (kJ/m
3
)
At 1,500 rpm and P
EI
= 31.28 kW
Q
Diesel
= 2.17 L/hr Q
Ricehusk
= 53.76 L/hr
LHV
Diesel
= 43,000 kJ/kg LHV
Ricehusk
= 13,800 kJ/kg
ρ
Diesel
= 850 kg/m
3
ρ
Ricehusk
= 679 kg/m
3
From (3.2), 100
) ( ) (
600 , 3
×








× + ×
×
=
Ricehusk Diesel
EI
Total
LHV Q LHV Q
P
η
100
) 800 , 13 76 . 53 ( ) 000 , 43 17 . 2 (
600 , 3 28 . 31
×








× + ×
×
=
Total
η
% 48 . 13 =
Total
η
Engine efficiency (η
Eng
)
100 100 ×


= × =
efficiency Mortor
efficiency Overall
Motor
Total
Eng
η
η
η (3.3)
63

where η
Eng
engine efficiency (%)
η
Motor
motor efficiency (%)
At 1,500 rpm system efficiency is 13.49 % and generator efficiency is 90 %
From (3.3), 100
90
49 . 13
100 × = × =
Motor
Total
Eng
η
η
η
% 98 . 14 =
Eng
η
The engine efficiency with dual fuel operation achieved was 14.98%, while
pure diesel operation gave 39.32% efficiency for the same load.
Electricity generation cost (EGC)
After installation of the system, fuel consumption rate, operating hour, power
demand from the local community were evaluated. This information was used to
calculate unit base cost of electricity. The electricity generation cost can be
determined from:

Pt
c c c m
EGC
M L f f
+ + ∑
= (5.3)
where EGC electricity generation cost (kyat/kWh)
m
f
fuel mass consumption for both diesel and rice husk (L, kg)
c
f
fuel cost for both diesel and rice husk (kyat/L, kyat/kg)
c
L
total labor costs (kyat)
c
M
total maintenance costs (kyat)
P power (kW)
t the specified operation time (hr)
64

At 4 hr/day between 1800 – 2200 rpm,
m
f
(Rice husk) is 32.64 kg/hr (Rice husk is obtained at no cost since it is
available free within the local community.)
m
f
(Diesel) = 2.17 L/hr
c
f
(Diesel) = 1100 kyat/L
c
L
= 200,000 kyat/month x month/30day x day/ 4hr
= 1,666.67 kyat/hr
c
M
= 50,000 kyat/month x month/30day x day/ 4hr
= 416.67 kyat/hr
P = 31.28 kW
t = 4 hr
From (5.3),
1 28 . 31
67 . 416 67 . 666 , 1 ) 1100 17 . 2 (
×
+ + ×
= EGC
kWh kyat EGC / 91 . 142 =
Expenses in comparison between electricity generation from diesel and duel
fuel as shown in Table 5.6. It was found that with diesel operation, cost was about
326.83 Kyat/kWh but if dual fuel operation was used, this would be 142.91
Kyat/kWh. A saving of about 55% can be obtained. It is most likely that villagers in
Dagoon Daing are able to sustainably run the system with minimum electricity cost.
Electricity cost is calculated as follows:
A household with a 20 W lamb switching on 4 hours a day, it will need
electrical power = 20 x 4 x 30 / 1,000 = 2.40 kWh/month
electricity payment = 142.91 x 2.40 = 342.99 Kyat/month
65

Table 5.6 Comparison of electricity cost between diesel and dual fuel operation
No Electricity cost Diesel Dual fuel Unit
1
Diesel price in Myanmar 1,100.00 1,100.00 kyat/L
Diesel fuel consumption
rate
7.40 2.17 L/hr
Cost 976,800.00 286,440.00 kyat/month
2 Labor cost 200,000.00 200,000.00 kyat/month
3 Maintenance cost 50,000.00 50,000.00 kyat/month
Total cost (30 days) 1,226,800.00 536,440.00 kyat/month
Electricity generation cost 326.83 142.91 kyat/kWh
For running 4 hour per day of the unit (output power electricity is 31.28 kW
per day), the consumption rate of rice husk is 53290 kg/yr and diesel 3168.2 liter/yr.
Waste water analysis
Waste water from the system, water was collected and sent for analysis.
Results are shown in Table 5.7.
Table 5.7 Waste water analysis
Parameter Value Standard
Temperature 24.40
Maximum 3ºC
above ambient
Acidity 7.78 5.5-9
Total COD 6,089.00 400
COD after filteration 787.00 …
BOD … 60
Total solid 3,842.00 3,000
Volatile solid 1,627.00 …
Suspended solid 1,699.00 200
Suspended volatile
solid
814.00 …
Nitrogen 131.00 200
Phosphorus 23.00 …

From the results obtained, the water appeared to have high solid content and
COD value above standard. The water should therefore be treated before discharge.
66

1. Primary treatment
This is a physical process to separate impurity from the water which may be
done by conditioning and sedimentation.
2. Secondary treatment
This is to remove organic and suspended matter from the water by biological
or chemical processes such as aeration.
3. Tertiary treatment
Further treatment such as Ultra filtration reverses osmosis, activated carbon,
ion exchange, etc.
The system has a water pond for suspended solid to settle and sediment on the
bed. Primary solid separation was done. The water from the pond was pumped to a
second pond for further treatment before release to surrounding bamboo bushes.
5.2 Socio-economic impacts
The 4 members of the village who have some technical skills have been
trained about the operation, and maintenance of the system as shown in Figure 5.6.
They had a hand-on experience with a similar system in other site. With the system
installed at the village, the 4 members have operated the system on their own under
close supervision by skilled engineers and technicians. They have been able to operate
the system with no trouble. Skilled engineers and technicians can be called on for
future consultation.
After installation of lamb posts and household lighting, Children and adults
can read after sunset. Previously, candles or oil lambs were used but the brightness
was not high enough. With a fluorescent lighting, it is easier and more convenient to
read as shown in Figure 5.7.
Lighting installed on the main road enabled a safer for dangerous like snake
bites when they come back from their farms at night and travel in village.
Villagers enjoy evening activities such as karaoke singing, movie, snooker and
TV as shown in Figure 5.8-5.9. Previously, each household had their own battery or
diesel engine generators which were expensive.
67

From a field survey, questionnaires and interviewing, it was found that most
are farmers with number of members of 6-8 and monthly income of about 130,000
kyat/family. Now, their incomes are raised because new activities, new jobs and new
business are created for villagers.

Figure 5.6 Operators in action
Figure 5.7 Lighting for extra reading at night
68

Figure 5.8 Snooker game at night

Figure 5.9 Evening entertainment
5.3 Other impacts
When they increase their individual income after project, it can affect
indirectly to other impacts as higher knowledge, higher education, and they can create
higher living standard and finally they can manage their healthy lives.

Chapter 6
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Works
6.1 Conclusions
Myanmar has enormous potential of biomass sources that can be utilized to
increase the growing demand of energy. Biomass gasification technology could be
suitable for the rural grid electrification. Therefore, a literature survey of small scale
distributed power generation unit with biomass gasification technology has been
carried out. Suitable technology has been recognizing for a remote village area in
Myanmar.
The Myanmar Engineering Society has issued a letter suggesting 4 potential
sites and site survey has been undertaken. The 4 sites are (i) Nyaung Da Gar, (ii) Sann
Ywar, (iii) Kha-Lok, and (iv) Dagoon Daing in the Twantay Township about 50km
from Yangon. The most suitable village is Dagoon Daing to be used as a site for the
project. The village has over 300 households.
Biomass samples available around Dagoon Daing area were collected. They
were wood, rice straw, rice husk and bamboo. The sampled were sent for proximate,
ultimate analyses, heating value, density, ash composition and fusion behavior
determination. Rice husk was later identified as an appropriate biomass to be used as
fuel in the gasifier-engine-generator system.
A 50 kW biomass gasifier-engine-generator system to produce electricity was
constructed and commissioned. The system consists of Downdraft gasifier reactor,
cyclone separator, water scrubber, gas cooler, Carbon fiber filter, fine filter units and
gas damper. The system is housed under a 56 m
2
building that is partitioned into
operation area, control room and fuel storage room.
Electrical poles were erected along the village‘s main road. Wiring and
network were connected from the power plant to about 350 households. A 20 W light
bulb and switch were given for free to each house. 40 lambs were also installed on top
of the poles for road lighting.
70

The system has been operated since 20 November 2007. It was scheduled to
run from 1800–2400 pm, everyday. Preliminary results showed that the system can be
operating without any trouble. Start-up and shut-down can be done with ease. Rice
husk consumption was measured to be about 32.64 kg/hr at 31.28 kW load. A diesel
substitution rate of 65.11 % was obtained with overall system efficiency of 13.49 %.
The system can be run without major problem.
There is a great opportunity to generate electricity for households and other
productive activities. The rural grid electrification project was found to contribute to
upgrading the living standards of villagers in term of quality of life, longer study hour,
safer environment and improved productive and income-generating activities.
6.2 Recommendations
If village committee can construct the private rice mill, they will get enough
rice husks from this mill because they will need to buy more rice husk from other rice
mills in the future.
Since the installed capacity of 50 kW can be distributed by this project, this
can extend to the neighbor villages for lighting because the present electricity
consumption in the village is 31.28 kW.
Before starting the project, they cost about 15,000 kyat/month for lighting.
But, the can reduce their cost about 2,000 kyat/month after project. So, the economic
benefit becomes 86.67% per month safer than before project in term of lighting.
By using electricity after project, it can reduce air pollution in these
environments because they don’t need to use candles and oil lamps. On the other
hand, they can posses more healthy lives because of lighting.

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Assessing the Resources Base, Biomass and Bioenergy 28: 133-150, 2005.
V. Kirubakaran, V. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Nalini, T. Sekar, M. Premalatha, and P.
Subramanian, A review on gasification of biomass, Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews, Vol. 13, Issue 1, page 179-186.

72
B. Kjellstrom, Wood Gas as Engine Fuel, FAO Foresty Paper 72, (1986), ISBN 92-5-
102436-7.
Lin, Grier C. I.; Nagalingam, Sev V. (2000), CIM justification and optimisation,
London: Taylor & Francis, 36. ISBN 0-7484-0858-4
Lin Wei-ji Zhang Da-lei Ren Yong-zhi, Biomass Gasification Principles and
Applications, Liaoning Institute of Energy Resources, 2002
R. Manurung, H. Susanto and Sudarno H., Institute of Technology Bandung,
INDONESIA, Experiences in the operation of rice husk gasification for rural
electricity, ASEAN Conference on Energy from Biomass, ASEAN Working
Group on Non-Conventional Energy Research, (13-15 October 1986),
PENANG, MALAYSIA
P. Quaak, H. Knoef, H. Stassen, Energy from Biomass: A Review of Combustion and
Gasification Technologies, World Bank Technical Paper; 422. (1998), Energy
Series, ISBN 0-8213-4335-1
N. H. Ravindranath, H. I. Somashekar, S. Dasappa and C. N. Jayasheela Reddy,
Sustainable biomass power for rural India: Case study of biomass gasifier for
village electrification, Current Science, VOL. 87, NO. 7, page 932-941.
T. B. Reed and Agua Das, Handbook of Biomass Downdraft Gasifier Engine Systems,
(1988), SERI/SP-271-3022
K. Senelwa, Ralph E.H. Sims, Opportunities for small scale biomass-electricity
systems in Kenya, Biomass and Bioenergy 17 (1999) 239-255
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Renewable Energy 32 (2007) 2491-2501
H. E. Stassen, Small-Scale Biomass Gasifiers for Heat and Power, A Global Review,
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73
Tin, Franco-ASEAN Seminar on “Powering ASEAN: Technology and Policy
Options” Bangkok (6-7 September 2007) Country Report of MYANMAR
http://www.jgsee.kmutt.ac.th/seminar_programme/DAY 2/Country Report 2/Tin -
Myanmar-Presentation.pdf

Appendix A
Nomination of Potential Sites
75
76
Appendix B
Selection of Dagoon Daing Village
77
78
Appendix C
Biomass Fuel Analysis Results
79
80
1.1 Heating value and % sulfur
Analysis
No.
bamboo rice straw rice husk wood
Hg(cal/g) %S Hg(cal/g) %S Hg(cal/g) %S Hg(cal/g) %S
1 4557.00 0.47 3632.46 0.68 3339.87 0.05 3997.30 0.07
2 3987.01 0.41 3684.06 0.75 3212.75 0.04 3895.04 0.05
3 4641.03 0.43 3809.77 0.81 3189.70 0.05 3869.32 0.08
4 3887.21 0.38 3638.26 0.71 3729.67 0.05 3846.64 0.04
5 4565.25 0.49 3859.56 0.77 3349.89 0.05 4017.01 0.09
6 3786.30 0.38 3304.98 0.72 3349.64 0.03 3845.39 0.05
7 3894.12 0.39 3629.56 0.80 3217.01 0.05 4191.30 0.07
8 3968.30 0.43 3726.69 0.71 3219.52 0.03 3788.14 0.05
9 4778.10 0.49 3929.56 0.79 3410.60 0.05 3859.10 0.0 5
10 4657.79 0.39 3342.99 0.73 3129.45 0.03 3904.18 0.0 7
AV 4272.21 0.43 3655.79 0.75 3314.81 0.04 3921.34 0.06
81
1.2 Moisture
Sample
Crucible
No.
Crucible
Weight
(g)
Total
Crucible
+
Sample
(g)
Sample
weight
before
oven (g)
Total
weight
Crucible
+ Sample
after oven
(g)
Sample
weight
after
oven (g)
%
moisture
AV
%
moisture
Wood
1 32.80 33.80 1.00 33.72 0.08 7.73
7.49
2 35.80 36.80 1.00 36.73 0.07 7.35
3 37.34 38.34 1.00 38.27 0.07 7.39
4 27.78 28.78 1.00 28.70 0.09 7.29
5 29.79 30.79 1.00 30.71 0.08 8.61
6 34.80 35.80 1.00 35.72 0.10 8.53
7 32.80 33.80 1.00 33.73 0.04 7.65
8 38.87 39.88 1.00 39.80 0.07 6.83
9 39.41 40.41 1.00 40.34 0.08 6.67
10 36.80 37.80 1.00 37.73 0.08 6.85
82
Sample
Crucible
No.
Crucible
Weight
(g)
Total
Crucible
+
Sample
(g)
Sample
weight
before
oven (g)
Total
weight
Crucible +
Sample
after oven
(g)
Sample
weight
after
oven (g)
%
moisture
AV
%
moisture
Bamboo
1 42.31 43.31 1.00 43.25 0.06 5.94
5.73
2 32.31 33.32 1.00 33.26 0.06 5.77
3 37.14 38.14 1.00 38.08 0.06 5.71
4 58.02 59.04 1.01 58.99 0.05 5.85
5 46.78 47.78 1.01 47.73 0.05 5.59
6 51.60 52.61 1.01 52.55 0.05 5.59
7 33.31 34.32 1.00 34.26 0.07 5.97
8 41.96 42.96 1.01 42.91 0.06 5.75
9 46.78 47.78 1.01 47.73 0.05 5.69
10 36.14 37.14 1.00 37.08 0.05 5.41
83
Sample
Crucible
No.
Crucible
Weight
(g)
Total
Crucible
+
Sample
(g)
Sample
weight
before
oven (g)
Total
weight
Crucible +
Sample
after oven
(g)
Sample
weight
after
oven (g)
%
moisture
AV
%
moisture
Rice
husk
1 33.41 34.41 1.00 34.36 0.06 5.72
5.60
2 42.49 43.49 1.00 43.43 0.06 5.51
3 41.52 42.53 1.01 42.47 0.06 5.58
4 44.58 45.57 0.99 45.52 0.05 5.46
5 44.10 45.09 0.99 45.04 0.05 5.69
6 43.62 44.61 1.00 44.56 0.05 5.58
7 43.13 44.13 1.00 44.08 0.05 5.56
8 42.49 43.49 1.00 43.43 0.06 5.51
9 43.49 44.49 1.00 44.43 0.07 5.61
10 42.52 43.53 1.01 43.47 0.07 5.78
84
Sample
Crucible
No.
Crucible
Weight
(g)
Total
Crucible
+
Sample
(g)
Sample
weight
before
oven (g)
Total
weight
Crucible +
Sample
after oven
(g)
Sample
weight
after
oven (g)
%
moistur
e
AV
%
moisture
Rice
straw
1 41.72 42.72 1.00 42.65 0.07 7.60
7.76
2 40.30 41.29 1.00 41.22 0.08 7.85
3 45.14 46.15 1.00 46.07 0.08 7.83
4 42.34 43.34 1.00 43.26 0.08 8.05
5 43.25 44.25 1.00 44.17 0.08 7.97
6 44.17 45.17 1.00 45.09 0.08 7.89
7 45.08 46.08 1.00 46.00 0.08 7.81
8 45.85 46.86 1.00 46.78 0.08 7.61
9 46.97 47.97 1.00 47.90 0.08 7.50
10 48.08 49.09 1.00 49.01 0.08 7.52
85
1.3 Volatile Matter
Sample
Crucible
No.
Crucible
Weight
(g)
Total
Crucible
+
Sample
(g)
Sample
weight
before
oven (g)
Total
weight
Crucible +
Sample
after oven
(g)
Sample
weight
after
oven (g)
% VM
AV
%VM
Wood
1 40.29 41.31 1.01 40.47 0.84 74.90
74.82
2 41.52 42.53 1.01 41.69 0.84 75.50
3 45.15 46.15 1.00 45.33 0.82 75.85
4 32.61 33.64 1.03 32.78 0.86 73.52
5 35.04 36.07 1.02 35.21 0.86 73.99
6 37.47 38.49 1.02 37.64 0.85 74.47
7 40.29 41.31 1.01 40.47 0.84 74.90
8 43.12 44.13 1.01 43.31 0.83 75.33
9 45.95 46.95 1.01 46.14 0.81 74.57
10 48.77 49.78 1.00 48.97 0.80 75.20
86
Sample
Crucible
No.
Crucible
Weight
(g)
Total
Crucible
+
Sample
(g)
Sample
weight
before
oven (g)
Total
weight
Crucible +
Sample
after oven
(g)
Sample
weight
after
oven (g)
% VM
AV
%VM
Bamboo
1 35.80 36.81 1.00 36.00 0.81 74.52
74.68
2 42.50 43.50 1.00 42.69 0.81 75.24
3 37.34 38.34 1.00 37.54 0.80 74.27
4 40.08 41.08 1.00 40.28 0.80 73.43
5 40.85 41.85 1.00 41.05 0.80 74.70
6 43.60 44.60 1.01 43.78 0.82 74.87
7 42.39 43.39 1.00 42.58 0.82 75.46
8 41.18 42.18 1.00 41.37 0.81 75.05
9 39.97 40.97 1.00 40.17 0.81 74.65
10 40.08 41.08 1.00 40.28 0.80 74.63
87
Sample
Crucible
No.
Crucible
Weight
(g)
Total
Crucible
+
Sample
(g)
Sample
weight
before
oven (g)
Total
weight
Crucible +
Sample
after oven
(g)
Sample
weight
after
oven (g)
% VM
AV
%VM
Rice
husk
1 42.30 43.31 1.01 42.68 0.63 56.54
56.41
2 37.13 38.15 1.01 37.53 0.62 55.31
3 42.30 43.31 1.01 42.68 0.63 56.24
4 53.29 54.30 1.01 53.60 0.60 53.04
5 52.63 53.64 1.01 52.99 0.65 58.00
6 31.97 32.98 1.02 32.38 0.61 54.08
7 37.13 38.15 1.01 37.53 0.62 55.31
8 47.47 48.48 1.01 47.84 0.64 57.07
9 54.35 55.37 1.01 54.71 0.66 59.28
10 52.10 53.11 1.01 52.44 0.58 59.26
88
Sample
Crucible
No.
Crucible
Weight
(g)
Total
Crucible
+
Sample
(g)
Sample
weight
before
oven (g)
Total
weight
Crucible +
Sample
after oven
(g)
Sample
weight
after
oven (g)
% VM
AV
%VM
Rice
straw
1 41.69 42.40 0.71 41.88 0.51 64.48
65.58
2 33.41 33.83 0.42 33.52 0.31 66.69
3 25.14 25.26 0.12 25.15 0.10 68.90
4 74.79 76.69 1.90 75.35 1.33 58.64
5 22.04 21.73 0.01 21.36 0.00 68.97
6 30.32 30.30 0.31 29.73 0.21 68.76
7 35.41 35.83 0.45 35.52 0.35 68.70
8 57.24 57.54 1.27 55.62 0.82 58.94
9 49.96 50.97 1.01 50.25 0.72 65.27
10 42.69 44.40 0.74 44.88 0.61 66.48
89
1.4 Ash
Sample
Crucible
No.
Crucible
Weight
(g)
Total
Crucible
+
Sample
(g)
Sample
weight
before
oven (g)
Total
weight
Crucible +
Sample
after oven
(g)
Sample
weight
after
oven (g)
% ash
AV
%ash
Wood
1.00 32.79 33.80 1.00 32.86 0.94 6.13
6.36
2.00 35.80 36.80 1.00 35.87 0.94 6.20
3.00 37.33 38.33 1.00 37.40 0.93 6.75
4.00 45.37 46.37 1.00 45.44 0.93 7.28
5.00 30.77 31.77 1.00 30.83 0.94 5.74
6.00 28.50 29.51 1.00 28.56 0.95 5.43
7.00 26.24 27.24 1.00 26.29 0.95 5.12
8.00 23.97 24.97 1.00 24.02 0.95 4.81
9.00 50.24 51.24 1.00 50.32 0.92 7.79
10.00 58.67 59.67 1.00 58.76 0.91 8.72
90
Sample
Crucible
No.
Crucible
Weight
(g)
Total
Crucible
+
Sample
(g)
Sample
weight
before
oven (g)
Total
weight
Crucible +
Sample
after oven
(g)
Sample
weight
after
oven (g)
% ash
AV
%ash
Bamboo
1.00 42.31 43.31 1.00 42.36 0.96 4.62
5.55
2.00 32.31 33.31 1.00 32.37 0.94 6.08
3.00 37.13 38.13 1.00 37.19 0.94 5.94
4.00 41.95 42.95 1.00 42.01 0.94 5.80
5.00 45.25 46.53 1.00 47.30 0.96 4.09
6.00 23.05 24.81 1.00 25.30 0.80 6.42
7.00 35.15 36.53 1.00 36.30 0.88 6.14
8.00 47.25 48.26 1.00 47.30 0.96 4.09
9.00 27.01 28.01 1.00 27.08 0.92 6.59
10.00 28.33 29.07 1.00 27.68 0.96 5.76
91
Sample
Crucible
No.
Crucible
Weight
(g)
Total
Crucible
+
Sample
(g)
Sample
weight
before
oven (g)
Total
weight
Crucible +
Sample
weight
after oven
(g)
Sample
weight
after
oven (g)
% ash
AV
%ash
Rice
husk
1.00 33.41 34.41 1.00 33.55 0.87 13.66
13.45
2.00 42.49 43.49 1.00 42.61 0.88 12.39
3.00 41.51 42.52 1.00 41.66 0.86 14.29
4.00 40.54 41.55 1.01 40.70 0.84 15.19
5.00 42.16 43.17 1.00 42.29 0.87 13.02
6.00 54.70 55.70 1.00 54.80 0.90 11.49
7.00 30.28 31.28 1.00 30.42 0.86 14.29
8.00 53.40 54.40 1.00 53.53 0.87 13.32
9.00 42.16 43.17 1.00 42.29 0.87 13.42
10.00 30.92 31.93 1.00 31.05 0.87 13.43
92
Sample
Crucible
No.
Crucible
Weight
(g)
Total
Crucible
+
Sample
(g)
Sample
weight
before
oven (g)
Total
weight
Crucible
+ Sample
weight
after oven
(g)
Sample
weight
after
oven (g)
% ash
AV
%ash
Rice
straw
1.00 41.72 42.72 1.00 41.84 0.88 11.92
12.44
2.00 40.29 41.29 1.00 40.41 0.88 12.45
3.00 45.15 46.15 1.00 45.28 0.87 12.96
4.00 48.00 49.01 1.01 48.14 0.87 12.47
5.00 30.86 31.85 1.19 30.96 0.89 12.41
6.00 35.57 36.57 1.10 35.69 0.88 12.43
7.00 40.29 41.29 1.00 40.41 0.88 12.25
8.00 45.15 46.15 1.00 45.28 0.87 12.96
9.00 49.91 50.91 0.94 50.05 0.87 12.16
10.00 44.67 45.68 1.00 49.82 0.86 12.36
93
94
1.6 Bulk density
Sample No. D(g)
D + 1.67
(g)
S (g)
S + 0.04
(g)
V cm
3
B(g/cm
3
)
Wood
1 0.45 2.12 0.78 0.82 1.30 1.63
2 0.62 2.29 0.90 0.94 1.35 1.70
3 0.60 2.27 1.15 1.19 1.08 2.10
4 0.93 2.60 1.31 1.35 1.25 2.08
5 0.95 2.62 1.29 1.43 1.29 2.03
6 0.45 2.12 0.78 0.85 1.10 1.83
7 0.62 2.29 1.60 0.94 1.30 1.85
8 0.79 2.46 1.02 1.18 1.35 1.87
9 0.96 2.51 1.14 1.18 1.42 2.10
10 0.70 2.50 0.93 1.38 1.10 1.90
AV 0.71 2.38 1.09 1.13 1.25 1.91
95
Sample No. D(g)
D + 1.67
(g)
S (g)
S + 0.04
(g)
V cm
3
B(g/cm
3
)
Bamboo
1 0.58 2.25 0.97 1.01 1.24 1.81
2 0.67 2.34 0.94 0.98 1.36 1.72
3 0.57 2.24 0.90 0.94 1.30 1.72
4 0.56 2.23 0.85 0.89 1.34 1.66
5 0.60 2.27 0.88 0.92 1.35 1.68
6 0.64 2.31 0.91 0.95 1.36 1.70
7 0.68 2.35 0.94 0.98 1.37 1.74
8 0.56 2.20 0.87 0.95 1.25 1.64
9 0.52 2.46 0.92 0.94 1.28 1.72
10 0.59 2.02 0.89 0.90 1.30 1.76
AV 0.60 2.27 0.91 0.95 1.32 1.72
Note: initial wire weight = 1.67 g
Wire weight in water = 0.04 g
V = sample volume (cm
3
)
D = Initial mass (g)
S = Mass in water (g)
B = bulk density (g/cm
3
)
96
97
98
99
2.1 Rice husk
No. C H N S O
1 34.43 4.01 0.24 0.11 61.21
2 33.42 3.00 0.23 0.12 63.23
3 36.12 3.49 0.18 0.12 60.00
4 35.21 3.39 0.21 0.15 61.02
5 36.22 4.00 0.19 0.13 59.24
6 34.51 3.82 0.18 0.13 61.33
7 34.45 4.13 0.24 0.12 61.00
8 35.27 3.82 0.23 0.13 60.55
9 36.81 3.69 0.22 0.12 59.13
10 35.02 3.71 0.20 0.10 60.89
AV 35.15% 3.71% 0.21% 0.12% 60.44%
100
2.2 Bamboo
No. C H N S O
1 45.65 4.53 0.26 0.06 48.01
2 42.10 4.21 0.23 0.05 47.23
3 46.95 3.49 0.24 0.04 49.12
4 44.92 4.56 0.21 0.06 50.12
5 45.74 4.00 0.23 0.04 49.24
6 44.88 4.67 0.28 0.07 49.87
7 44.25 4.13 0.24 0.09 47.21
8 46.53 4.20 0.23 0.07 48.21
9 47.42 4.62 0.24 0.06 47.13
10 48.20 4.75 0.20 0.10 47.26
AV 45.66% 4.32% 0.24% 0.06% 48.33%
101
2.3 Wood
No. C H N S O
1 45.65 5.53 0.17 0.06 48.01
2 43.10 5.44 0.18 0.05 51.23
3 46.95 3.46 0.21 0.04 49.82
4 44.92 6.21 0.19 0.06 48.56
5 45.21 5.12 0.17 0.04 49.44
6 44.88 4.63 0.18 0.07 49.87
7 45.28 5.24 0.18 0.09 48.21
8 44.22 4.23 0.21 0.07 50.83
9 42.26 5.26 0.19 0.08 51.93
10 46.52 4.32 0.20 0.10 48.32
AV 44.93% 4.94% 0.19% 0.07% 49.62%
102
2.4 Rice straw
No. C H N S O
1 41.50 5.29 0.61 0.23 52.16
2 38.14 5.44 0.57 0.20 55.15
3 40.25 4.86 0.63 0.25 53.21
4 39.12 5.67 0.62 0.23 54.22
5 40.03 5.42 0.59 0.22 53.42
6 41.32 4.86 0.58 0.20 52.81
7 41.23 5.24 0.57 0.24 52.43
8 37.05 4.84 0.59 0.26 56.83
9 38.84 5.26 0.61 0.21 54.60
10 41.23 4.32 0.57 0.20 53.46
AV 39.88% 5.12% 0.59% 0.22% 53.83%
103
3. Ash analysis
LAB NO.
Sample Name
Sample Condition
Sample Date
Receive Date
Analysed Date
50 x 0384
Bamboo
normal
-
6/8/2007
10/8/04-
3/9/07
50 x 0385
Rice straw
normal
-
6/8/2007
10/8/04-
3/9/07
50 x 0386
Rice husk
normal
-
6/8/2007
10/8/04-
3/9/07
50 x 0387
Wood
normal
-
6/8/2007
10/8/04-
3/9/07
1. ASH COMPOSITION (%) RESULT
Fe
2
O
3
Al
2
O
3
MgO
SiO
2
CaO
K
2
O
Na
2
O
TiO
2
Mn
3
O
4
SO
3
3.68
4.79
5.92
44.08
23.09
12.69
0.44
0.28
0.10
1.61
0.76
2.42
1.87
72.73
5.40
12.87
0.24
0.01
0.78
0.28
1.20
0.14
0.64
88.72
3.92
2.58
0.25
0.07
0.09
0.00
3.24
5.57
5.85
43.24
23.43
12.21
1.73
0.29
0.37
2.39
2. ASH FUSION TEMPERATURE (
o
C)
2.1 Initial Deformation Temperature
2.2 Softening Temperature
2.3 Hemispherical Temperature
2.4 Fluid Temperature
1,142
1,152
1,163
1,178
1,000
1,194
1,220
1,268
1,440
1,500
>1,500
>1,500
1,138
1,183
1,189
1,205
104
105
106
107
3.1 ASH COMPOSITION (%)
3.1.1 Ash Composition–Bamboo
No. Fe
2
O
3
Al
2
O
3
MgO SiO
2
CaO K
2
O Na
2
O TiO
2
Mn
3
O
4
SO
3
1 3.76 4.89 6.08 43.55 23.31 12.75 0.42 0.24 0.08 1.60
2 3.78 4.75 5.76 47.62 20.33 11.98 0.43 0.25 0.09 1.69
3 3.65 4.96 6.24 43.15 23.07 13.12 0.42 0.29 0.09 1.69
4 3.55 4.75 5.48 42.96 25.19 12.34 0.45 0.29 0.10 1.57
5 3.68 4.61 6.24 46.90 21.01 11.87 0.41 0.27 0.12 1.57
6 3.69 4.68 5.67 44.75 22.46 13.01 0.42 0.26 0.11 1.63
7 3.78 4.78 5.74 44.25 22.81 12.84 0.46 0.28 0.09 1.65
8 3.72 4.96 5.47 43.57 23.27 13.25 0.45 0.28 0.08 1.63
9 3.49 4.73 5.81 42.15 25.34 12.73 0.46 0.31 0.09 1.57
10 3.71 4.81 6.74 41.85 24.15 12.98 0.47 0.29 0.14 1.54
AV 3.68 4.79 5.92 44.08 23.09 12.69 0.44 0.28 0.10 1.61
108
3.1.2 Ash Composition–Rice straw
No. Fe
2
O
3
Al
2
O
3
MgO SiO
2
CaO K
2
O Na
2
O TiO
2
Mn
3
O
4
SO
3
1 0.76 2.63 1.98 72.26 5.61 12.75 0.22 0.01 0.82 0.32
2 0.78 2.61 1.76 72.31 5.33 13.26 0.23 0.02 0.79 0.27
3 0.77 2.06 1.86 73.15 5.07 13.12 0.22 0.01 0.78 0.32
4 0.76 2.65 1.88 73.28 5.19 12.34 0.25 0.02 0.78 0.21
5 0.68 2.34 1.98 73.54 5.89 11.67 0.21 0.01 0.79 0.25
6 0.69 2.52 1.87 73.72 5.24 12.01 0.22 0.01 0.77 0.31
7 0.78 2.14 1.76 72.11 5.88 13.44 0.25 0.02 0.74 0.24
8 0.78 2.25 1.89 72.50 5.27 13.25 0.25 0.01 0.81 0.35
9 0.79 2.63 1.90 72.48 5.34 12.84 0.26 0.01 0.81 0.30
10 0.81 2.41 1.78 71.95 5.15 13.98 0.27 0.01 0.74 0.26
AV 0.76 2.42 1.87 72.73 5.40 12.87 0.24 0.01 0.78 0.28
109
3.1.3 Ash Composition – Rice husk
No. Fe
2
O
3
Al
2
O
3
MgO SiO
2
CaO K
2
O Na
2
O TiO
2
Mn
3
O
4
SO
3
1 1.20 0.14 0.62 89.16 3.67 2.45 0.22 0.07 0.09 0.00
2 1.18 0.13 0.61 89.00 3.87 2.46 0.21 0.07 0.08 0.00
3 1.19 0.11 0.63 88.65 3.98 2.69 0.22 0.06 0.09 0.00
4 1.18 0.15 0.58 88.85 3.90 2.52 0.26 0.08 0.09 0.00
5 1.20 0.15 0.67 88.91 3.87 2.41 0.24 0.07 0.08 0.00
6 1.19 0.17 0.62 88.82 3.94 2.44 0.26 0.08 0.09 0.00
7 1.15 0.13 0.58 89.11 3.78 2.51 0.21 0.07 0.09 0.00
8 1.21 0.16 0.68 88.60 3.97 2.58 0.25 0.07 0.10 0.00
9 1.28 0.18 0.68 88.17 4.01 2.84 0.29 0.08 0.09 0.00
10 1.26 0.12 0.70 87.95 4.21 2.88 0.30 0.09 0.09 0.00
AV 1.20 0.14 0.64 88.72 3.92 2.58 0.25 0.07 0.09 0.00
110
3.1.4 Ash Composition - Wood
No. Fe
2
O
3
Al
2
O
3
MgO SiO
2
CaO K
2
O Na
2
O TiO
2
Mn
3
O
4
SO
3
1 3.26 5.74 6.08 42.55 23.60 12.05 1.72 0.29 0.38 2.65
2 3.28 6.45 6.46 43.12 22.43 11.50 1.93 0.30 0.39 2.46
3 3.25 5.26 5.94 42.15 23.97 13.12 1.72 0.29 0.39 2.23
4 3.25 5.75 5.48 43.46 23.19 12.28 1.75 0.30 0.35 2.51
5 3.08 5.52 5.20 44.11 24.01 11.87 1.81 0.29 0.32 2.11
6 3.19 5.12 5.67 44.25 22.56 13.01 1.82 0.26 0.36 2.08
7 3.18 5.30 5.94 42.90 24.57 11.87 1.46 0.28 0.39 2.43
8 3.12 5.58 5.47 43.21 23.57 12.21 1.79 0.30 0.38 2.69
9 3.24 5.25 5.49 44.12 23.84 12.03 1.70 0.30 0.40 1.95
10 3.54 5.75 6.74 42.50 22.53 12.20 1.60 0.29 0.34 2.83
AV 3.24 5.57 5.85 43.24 23.43 12.21 1.73 0.29 0.37 2.39
111
3.2 ASH FUSION TEMPERATURE (
o
C)
3.2.1 Bamboo
No.
Initial Deformation
Temperature
Softening
Temperature
Hemispherical
Temperature
Fluid
Temperature
1 1,150 1,162 1,170 1,165
2 1,121 1,143 1,181 1,187
3 1,132 1,138 1,163 1,192
4 1,138 1,141 1,148 1,168
5 1,153 1,156 1,183 1,183
6 1,126 1,141 1,156 1,176
7 1,141 1,181 1,172 1,165
8 1,120 1,140 1,136 1,160
9 1,159 1,158 1,141 1,189
10 1,180 1,160 1,180 1,195
AV 1,142 1,152 1,163 1,178
112
3.2.2 Rice straw
No.
Initial Deformation
Temperature
Softening
Temperature
Hemispherical
Temperature
Fluid
Temperature
1 950 1,185 1,270 1,260
2 990 1,180 1,250 1,285
3 1,050 1,195 1,230 1,290
4 950 1,200 1,180 1,240
5 995 1,200 1,200 1,285
6 1,000 1,195 1,180 1,275
7 1,025 1,200 1,220 1,260
8 1,120 1,180 1,260 1,260
9 968 1,190 1,160 1,275
10 950 1,210 1,250 1,250
AV 1,000 1,194 1,220 1,268
113
3.2.3 Rice husk
No.
Initial Deformation
Temperature
Softening
Temperature
Hemispherical
Temperature
Fluid
Temperature
1 1,550 1,550 >1,500 >1,500
2 1,450 1,500 >1,500 >1,500
3 1,400 1,500 >1,500 >1,500
4 1,410 1,400 >1,500 >1,500
5 1,400 1,475 >1,500 >1,500
6 1,420 1,500 >1,500 >1,500
7 1,400 1,600 >1,500 >1,500
8 1,500 1,450 >1,500 >1,500
9 1,450 1,475 >1,500 >1,500
10 1,420 1,550 >1,500 >1,500
AV 1,440 1,500 >1,500 >1,500
114
3.2.4 Wood
No.
Initial Deformation
Temperature
Softening
Temperature
Hemispherical
Temperature
Fluid
Temperature
1 1,140 1,160 1,170 1,200
2 1,125 1,200 1,150 1,250
3 1,120 1,180 1,150 1,200
4 1,130 1,250 1,250 1,150
5 1,150 1,175 1,250 1,200
6 1,145 1,190 1,200 1,350
7 1,140 1,180 1,250 1,200
8 1,140 1,140 1,160 1,230
9 1,150 1,200 1,160 1,150
10 1,140 1,155 1,150 1,120
AV 1,138 1,183 1,189 1,205
115
Appendix D
Questionnaires
116
Village Information
1. General information
1. Name of village...................................................................................................................
2. Number of populations………………….. Households (number).....................................
3. Tribal Type (if) …………..Males (number) …………Females (number)………………
An estimation of the population growth rate over the past decade (%)……………….
4 Number of population who can read / writing / speaking (%)
English………/…………/………/
5. Provide an estimate of the population growth rate over the past decade…………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
6. Public Services in the village
1. Kindergartens /Childcare ı Yes ı No
2. Primary school ı Yes ı No
3. Public Phone ı Yes ı No
4. Spots Center/Village Recreation ı Yes ı No
5. Places of Worship ı Yes ı No
6. Other (please specify)………………………… ı Yes ı No
7. Public Utilities or Infrastructure in community
1. Hospital/health care center ı Yes patients (numbers)……………….......... ı No
2. School ıYes: level of Education………… students (numbers).................... ı No
8. Transportation
1. Road from village to Town ı Yes (please specify).............................. ı No
2. How long does it take to town (one way)? .......................................... hour or minute.
3. Does it able to use the road for whole year? ıYes ıNo between……to...... (Month)
9. Enterprises/Store
1. Store ı Yes ı No (script 2.)
2. Appliances ı Yes ı No
3. If not (from 1) how far from the village to the closest store? .................km or how long
does it take to the store…………..…… hour or minute. By using……………………
10. No. of appliance’s repair store............... (Store/person)
11 .How many empty or public area for destroying used appliances proposes)...................Aere
12. Respective persons in the village
1. Village representative ı Yes ı No
117
2. NGOs ı Yes ı No
3. Religion Leader ı Yes ı No
4. Others (please specify)...................................................................................
13. Top 3 of Respective persons in the community (Most – Least)
1. Please specify/ position..........................................
2. Please specify/ position..........................................
3. Please specify/ position..........................................
14. Communication with the government ı Yes (radio/telephone).......................... ı No
15. Does your village have economic household activities in your household?
ı Yes, specify………………….…….. ı No
16. Population career
1. Agriculture ................household (numbers) annual income……….………....... kyat
2. Merchant..................household (numbers) annual income…………...........kyat
3. Employee…............... household (numbers) daily wage.................................. kyat
4. Household industry household (numbers) annual income....................................kyat
5. Others (specify) ................... household (numbers)
5.1.............................
5.2.............................
5.3..............................
2. Main Income of the community
2.1 Source of Financial Aids
project
Type (Lending, funding,
payment in kinds............)
Frequencies and Amount of
money
Frequencies Amount of money
Government
organization
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
Private 1.
2.
118
3.
4.
5.
International
organization
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
2.2 Any possibility for the village to share the cost of grid electricity installation?
ı No
ı Yes amount............................................. kyat
From any sources? ......................................
3. Financial Plan for Borrowing of villager
Sources, Maximum loans and Pay-back period
Lending Source Maximum loans Per month payment Household debt
(kyat) (kyat)
Official lenders
commercial banks





others (specify)



Unofficial lenders
Siblings

Neighbor

Other (specify)……………




119
Household Information
(One for each house)
1. Household General Details
1. Name of villager..........................................................................................................
2. Number of members in your household......................................................................
3. Number of Workers in your household.......................................................................
4. Interviewer’s gender ı Male ı Female
5. Occupation
ı 5.1 Farmer
ı 5.2 Fisherman
ı 5.3 Other (please specify)…………………………………………………...
6. Workdays/week……………………………………………………………….……
7. Typical time of day worker: From …………………..….….To………………..….
8. Household income…………………..Kyat (per week / month/year)
9. Average Amount of Household Savings……………..Kyat (per week / month/year)
10. Household Expenditure……………………………..Kyat (per week / month /year)
ı Food
ı Water
ı Household
ı Schooling
ı Medicine
ı Other (Provide details)
11. Enterprises
11.1 Economic activity……………………………………………………..…
11.2 Revenue ………………………….…………….………… (Kyat/month)
11.3 Operation Cost…………………………………………… (Kyat/month)
11.4 Location of Markets……………………………….…………………….
11.5 Is there potential for expansion? ı Yes ı No
Details: ……………………………………………….…………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………
120
11.6 What kinds of facility that you need for business expansion (please specify and
describe your reason)
a) ……………………………………………………………….…………………
b) ………………………………………………………………………………...
c)………………………………………………………………………………….
2. Present Energy Sources and Use
2.1 Diesel
1. Access to a diesel generator (Yes/ No) (If No go to next section: Gas)
2. Do you own the diesel generator (Yes/ No) (If No go to 4)
Diesel motor size ……………………………generator size……………………..
Make………………………………………………………………….…………….
3 .Cost……………………………………………….……. Purchased new / second-hand
Generator age……….……………. Expected Life…………….…………………
4. Amount of fuel used? (L/day)………………………………..………………..……….
Fuel Cost (kyat/L)………………………………………...………………………..
Number of breakdowns / year………………………..….………………………..
Average cost to repair (kyat/repair)…………………….………….………………
5. List of the details from every appliance in your home (or business) that are
powered by diesel generation (except appliances run from batteries)
Appliances Number Power
Consumption
(W)
Days/
week
used
Time of day used
From To From To
Total
(hours/
day)





121
2.2 Gas
1. Do you used gas in the household Access to a diesel generator (Yes/ No) (If No go to next
section: Kerosene)
Gas Bottle Size
(kg)
No. of Gas Bottles Cost to Refill
(kyat)
How often refilled
(weeks)




2. Gas appliances used (included only those for household use)
Appliances Number Power
Consumption
(W)
Days/
week
used
Time of day used
From To From To
Total
(hours/
day)





2.3 Kerosene
1. Do you kerosene in your household? (Yes/ No) (If no go to next section: Candles)
Amount of Kerosene used……………………… (L/month) Cost………………….. (Kyat/L)
Appliances Number Description



2.4 Candles
1. Do you candle your household? (Yes/ No) (If no go to next section: Biomass)
Amount used………………………… (Candles/month) Cost………….………….. (Kyat/L)
122
2.5 Biomass (e.g. wood/drift wood, rice husks, dung, coconut, charcoal, etc)
1. Do you burn biomass in your household? (Yes / No) (If no go to next section: Batteries)
Amount used…………………………… (Candles/month) Cost………………….. (Kyat/L)
Type Purpose Amount used
(kg/day)
Source Cost (kyat/kg)



2.6 Batteries
1. Do you use car batteries? (Yes / No) (If no go to next question: disposable batteries)
Battery size (Ah)…………………………..Number of batteries….…………….………
Cost…………………………... (Kyat/L) Life (Years)…………………………………….
Means of Charging………………………………………………………………………….
Cost of Charging (kyat/charge)…………….………………………………………………
How often charged (Days)………………………….………………………………………
2. Appliances used (included only those for household use)
Appliances Number Power
Consumption
(W)
Days/
week
used
Time of day used
From To From To
Total
(hours/
day)




2.7 Do you used disposable batteries (If, no go to next section)
Size Number/month Cost (Baht/Battery) Purpose



123
3. Future Energy Use
Do you intend to purchase any appliances in the future if there is grid electricity?
Appliance Number Expected Cost
(kyat/Appliance)
Source of Funds



124
Appendix E
Publication
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137

CURRICULUM VITAE
Name Mr. Min Lwin Swe
Date of birth 31 March 1977
Education Background A.G.T.I. (Machine Tool & Design), 1998,
Government Technical Institute (Maubin), Myanmar.
B.E (Chemical), 2002, Mandalay Technology University,
Myanmar.
Working experiences 1998 to 1999
Generator Checker,
Loyal Tax Company, Shwe Pyi Thar,
Yangon, Myanmar.
1999 to 2003
Demonstrator,
Department of Chemical Engineering,
Government Technological College, Thanlin,
Yangon, Myanmar.
2003-Present
Assistant Lecturer, Biogas Project,
Department of Chemical Engineering,
Government Technological University, Kyauk Se,
Mandalay, Myanmar.
Email Address minlwinswe@gmail.com

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