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Engineering Drawing Principles.

PSSD 1.

A Brief Introduction to the Production of


Engineering Drawings to BS8888.

Mike Felstead
SECaM
October 2005
Introduction

• What is an engineering drawing?


– A concise ‘set’ of instructions to manufacture a component without
need to refer to an external source for further information.
• 1 sheet of paper.
• 1 component drawn using orthographic layout techniques.
• Fully describe all geometry via a series of standard ‘views’.
• Dimension to fully define the size and form of all features.
• Detail material, finish and tolerances required, and quantities.
• What you need to do…
– Learn to ‘read’ and understand engineering drawings.
• Ref: Manual of Engineering Drawing, Simmons & Maguire.
– Work to BS8888 (Engineering drawing practice for schools and colleges).
• Copies available in 207, Student Workshop and Library.
Engineering Drawing - Key Features
• Title Block contains:
– Drawing Name.
– Date drawn (version number).
– Projection system.
– Scale.
– Material, tolerances, surface finish, etc…

Title Block
Engineering Drawing - Key Features

Partial
View
Drawing
Views Section
View
Types of Engineering Drawing
• Part Drawing
– A single component.
– Contains all
manufacturing data.
– Views are dependent
upon complexity.
Types of Engineering Drawing

• Assembly Drawing
– Shows components in their physical relationship.
– Small assemblies may feature a ‘Parts List’.
– Assemblies can be sub-assemblies.
SolidWorks Drawings
SolidWorks is an advanced 3D CAD modelling system.
These systems will produce your drawings automatically.

But beware! They’re not perfect, you will have to tidy them up manually.
Projection Systems – First Angle
First Angle – the model view is drawn opposite to the face being viewed.

BS8888 First Angle


Projection Symbol.

Remember: COe is FIRST THROUGH the tape.


Projection Systems – Third Angle
Third Angle – the model view is drawn adjacent to the face being viewed.

BS8888 Third Angle


Projection Symbol.
Drawing Layout – Setting Out The Views

Keep it neat!
Balance the layout on the page.
Don’t forget to leave room for
the dimensions!
Drawing Views
How many views to describe this
component?

Six views would cover all sides!


Two views will describe it… and some ‘hidden detail’
Not in this case! But it’s not
impossible will uncover all the features.
Line Types
Different types of line are used to indicate different aspects of the drawing.
Most 3D CAD software will automatically use the correct line type.
With 2D CAD software you generally select the line type required.

Leader 0.35mm – dimensions, leaders…

Dashed 0.35mm – hidden detail...

Chain 0.35mm – centrelines, section views...

Outlines 0.7mm – show boundary of component view.


Dimensioning
A drawing means little without full dimensioning.
Each dimension should appear only once.
No calculation of dimensions should be necessary.
Dimensioning

Chain Dimensioning.
Auxiliary dimensions (in brackets)
avoid need to calculate from
primary dimensions.

Parallel Dimensioning.
Can require lots of room to layout!

Remember – Clear, well laid out, complete!


Dimensioning
Carefully compare the layout of the dimensions on the two sides of
this component drawing.
Sections and Sectional Views
Used to expose features clearly for dimensioning, important when
hidden detail must be shown.
Partial Views

Used to clarify a specific area or


feature. In this example the
double wall of this end of the
bracket is made obvious and
additional dimensions can
thus be added.

Magnifies small features. In this


example the fine detail of the
grooves are magnified 5X,
dimensions would be added to
fully define them.
Engineering Drawings – Key Points
What is an Engineering Drawing?
Key Features – Title Block, Views, etc...
Drawing Types – Part and Assembly.
Drawing production with 3D CAD.
Projection Systems – 1st and 3rd Angle.
Drawing Layouts and Views.
Line Types.
Dimensioning.
Sectioning and Partial Views.
Software has made the production of engineering drawings much
simpler and quicker – but it still falls to you to ensure the drawing is
correct and to standard.
Sketching
As a professional
engineer you will
often be required to
produce quick initial
sketches of design
concepts.
It may be a freehand
sketch, but
engineering drawing
principles still apply!
And finally
Isometric Projection...
Isometric Projection
A classical method of showing all 3 axes of space in one 2D representation.
Most easily understood through 3D CAD which shades the model to help
the eye ‘see’ a 3D image…

The Cube The Swivel Bracket

Imagine you’re in a helicopter hovering just off the corner of a building –


if your position was precise enough you’d have an isometric view.
Summary

• A brief overview of what’s in an Engineering Drawing


– Title Block, Layout, Projection, Views, Dimensions, etc…

• 2D and 3D CAD
– Drawings can be ‘automatic’ – but will always need tidying up!

• BS8888 Manual – in 207, Student Workshop and Library


– Every drawing or sketch you produce should meet this standard!

• And finally…
– Don’t fret, the rules are basic! Just keep it neat, tidy and clear!