A.

Title “Improving the Vocabulary Mastery of the Second Year Students of SMP Negeri 1 Parepare by Using Vocabulary Network” B. Background Language is a crucial means for human communication. It is used to make an interaction with other people in society and also it is used to express emotion, feeling, and opinion within the language. Vocabulary has an important role in all aspects of language skills. It is the flesh of the language. Someone cannot express his idea without has enough vocabulary. There are four language skills should be achieved in the study of English as a foreign language. These four language skills are developed from four language components: structure, vocabulary, pronunciations and spelling. In this research the writer’s attention focused on the vocabulary as one of the English component. The vocabulary as one of the elements of language is important to study, because without enough vocabulary mastery, the ability to communicate and convey cannot be established. Therefore, English teachers must have responsibility to use the material in teaching a foreign language. According to Harmer (1991) at the same time, we must have something to say; we must have meanings that we wish to express, and we need to have a store of words that we can select from when we wish to express the meaning. Allan (1997) argues that vocabulary is an important factor in all language teaching. Besides the sound system and structure the other essential area of language learning is the lexicon, or vocabulary command of the language in order to master the English language, the students have to know the importance of English vocabulary. Many students cannot read and understand the text because they do not have a good vocabulary command. This problem appears at the second year students of SMP Negeri 1 Parepare in academic year 2007/2008 where the vocabulary mastery of the students is still low (5.20). Eventhough, some techniques and approaches have been employed in teaching vocabulary, but the students’ vocabulary mastery is still low. Therefore, the writer will use vocabulary network as one of techniques in teaching vocabulary. The writer suspects that teaching vocabulary by using vocabulary network is good to improve vocabulary mastery of the students. It can make the students interested in learning English vocabulary. Based on the explanation above, the writer is interested in conducting an experimental study examining the use of vocabulary network in an attempt to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. The title of the study is “Improving the Vocabulary Mastery of the Second Year Students of SMP Negeri 1 Parepare by Using Vocabulary Network”. C. Problem Statement By looking over the background above, the problem statement formulated as follows: 1. Does the use of vocabulary network improve the English vocabulary significantly better than the use of translation method? 2. What is the students’ attitude toward learning vocabulary by using vocabulary network? D. Objective of the Research In relation the problem statements mention previously, the objective of the research are

formulated as follows: 1. To describe whether or not the use of vocabulary network improve students’ English vocabulary significantly better than the use of translation. 2. To describe the students’ attitude toward the using of network vocabulary in improving the vocabulary mastery. E. Significance of the Research The result of this research is expected to provide useful information to increase the teaching of English focusing the vocabulary mastery, which can give contribution to language teaching and contribution to learners especially at SMP Negeri 1 Parepare. F. The Scope of the Research By discipline, this research is under applied linguistics, which is focused on the teaching subject in terms of vocabulary by using vocabulary network to the second year students of SMP Negeri 1 Parepare. By contents, this research covers some words related to the themes flora and fauna under the topics: animals, domestic animals, part of a tree and coconut. By activity, the researcher will use two different methods in teaching vocabulary, they are: 1. For the experimental group, the researcher will teach vocabulary by using vocabulary network. The researcher will give a theme or word the class has recently learnt and then asks the students to suggest all the words they associate with the word; 2. For the control group, the researcher will teach vocabulary by using translation method. The researcher will prepare the list of words and then asks the students to put into sentences the list of words. G. Review of Related Literature 1. The Previous related research findings Some researchers have observed and found related results referred to particularly in improving vocabulary by using a lot of kinds of techniques. St. Husna. (2003) in her research on teaching vocabulary by using spider web extension to the second year students of SLTP Negeri 9 Parepare. She found that there was a significant difference between the students’ vocabulary achievement by using spider web extension and without spider web extension which the experimental group was greater than control group. Hafid (2004) conducted a research on teaching vocabulary by using who wants to be a millionaire quiz to the second year students of SMP Negeri 6 Parepare. He reported that there was a significant difference between the student’s vocabulary achievement by using who wants to be a millionaire quiz of experimental class and by using translation method of control group. Rusmiati (2005) studied improving vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP Negeri 4 Parepare through short story. She found that there was significant difference between the student’s vocabulary achievement by using short stories and without short stories which experimental group was greater than control group. Arafah (2001) conducted a research on the use of cartoon film as a teaching devise to enrich students’ vocabulary. She found that the use of this technique is effective and the students are highly motivated toward the use of this technique. From the cited research findings above, the writer concludes that in learning and teaching

vocabulary process, teachers have to make the students interested in the material and involved in learning process by creating a good atmosphere or varieties of techniques in teaching English, particularly in teaching vocabulary. 2. Some pertinent ideas a. The concept of vocabulary 1) Definition of vocabulary Vocabulary can be defined as the words we teach in the foreign language. Some definitions of vocabulary given by different writers is presented as follows. According to Diamond (2007) vocabulary is the knowledge of words and word meanings. As Steven Stahl (2005) puts it, Vocabulary knowledge is knowledge; the knowledge of a word not only implies a definition, but also implies how that word fits into the world. Vocabulary knowledge is not something that can ever be fully mastered; it is something that expands and deepens over the course of a lifetime. Instruction in vocabulary involves far more than looking up words in a dictionary and using the words in a sentence. Vocabulary is acquired incidentally through indirect exposure to words and intentionally through explicit instruction in specific words and word-learning strategies. Richards and Renandya (2002) state that vocabulary is a core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write. Richards (2000) states that vocabulary is one of the most obvious components of language and one of the first things applied linguistics turned their attention to. According to Carter (in Tahir, 1997) vocabulary is the content and function words of language which are learned so thoroughly that they become a part of a child’s understanding, speaking, reading, and writing. Vocabulary is the words having meaning when heard or understood, even though not proceed by the individual himself to communicate with other. Webster’s (1983) states that vocabulary is (1) a list of words and sometimes phrases, usually arranged alphabetical order and defined a dictionary, glossary or lexicon, (2) all the words of language, (3) all the words used by a particular person, class, profession, etc. Sometimes all the words recognized and understood by a particular person, although not necessary used by him (in full, passive vocabulary). Hornby (2000) in Advance Learners Dictionary of Current English says that vocabulary is: (1) all the words that a person knows or uses, (2) all the words in a particular language, (3) the words that people use when they are talking, and (4) a list of words with their meanings, especially in a book for learning a foreign language. Famir (2005) states that vocabulary is the contents and functions in a language which are learned in complete sense. words that have meanings when heard or shown although the words are produced individually when communicate with others. Furthermore, Richards et al. (1985) state that vocabulary is a set of lexemes including single words, compound words, and idioms. Good (in Nurmiati, 2002) point out that vocabulary is the concept and function words of a language which are learned, as thoroughly that they become a part of child’s understanding, spending and later reading, writing vocabulary. From the definitions above, it is concluded that vocabulary is acquired incidentally

through indirect exposure to words and intentionally through explicit instruction in specific words and word-learning strategies 2) Types of vocabulary Basically, there are two types of vocabulary, namely active and passive vocabulary. The active vocabulary consists of the words used in conversation and writing, while, passive vocabulary consists of the words that are not usually pointed of one’s speaking vocabulary but which are recognized and understood. In other words, active vocabulary refers to vocabulary that students have learnt and which they are expected to be able to use. On the other hand, passive vocabulary refers to words which students will recognize when they meet them but they will probably not able to produce. Nuttal (1983) states that active vocabulary consists of words we know well enough to use by ourselves, and the passive one is word we understand approximately then meet them, but cannot use them. There are categorization occur consistently, two kinds of its utilization. Active vocabulary is claimed for the degree of accuracy and fluency, while passive vocabulary is for unproductive ones. Page and Thomas (1973), divide vocabulary into four kinds, they are as follows: 1. oral vocabulary, consists of words actively used in speech; they are the words that come nearly to the conversation. The more often the person has uttered a word the more readily it will come to his/her tongue; 2. writing vocabulary, is words that come readily to one’s finger vocabulary, it may even happen that a student who is more editorially than visual disposed has a speaking vocabulary; stocks of words to which one responds with meaning and understanding in the other writing; 3. listening vocabulary, is the stock of words to which one responds with the meaning and understood in the speaking of others; and 4. reading vocabulary, is the words one responds in writing of others. According to them vocabulary is: (1) all the words in a language, (2) all the words used by a group or an individual, and (3) alphabetical list of the words used in a book often includes their translation or definition. Shall (in Medarwi, 1997) stated that every person has three types of vocabulary, they are: 1. active vocabulary; the words we customarily use in speaking and probably runs from 500 to 1000 words; 2. Research vocabulary; the words we know but we rarely use them in writing a letter, we have more time to consider or when we are as searching for a synonym; and 3. Passive vocabulary; the words we recognize vaguely, but are not sure of the meaning. From the resources above all of them have different sound but they have same point that vocabulary influence people to make a language. So that the writer can conclude that vocabulary is the element of language which is very important in communication. 3) What the students need to know about vocabulary According to Harmer (1991) there are four aspects of vocabulary that the students need to know about it, namely: a) Word meaning. According to Harmer that the first thing to realize about vocabulary items are that they frequently has more than one meaning. When we came across a word, and try to decipher its meaning, we will have to look at the context in which it is needed. One word may have more than one meaning and the meaning of the word depends on the context. Thus, in teaching vocabulary students should be taught with a variety of context

word to show various meaning. b) Word use. Harmer say that “What a word means can be changed, stretched or limited by how it is used and this something students need to know about”. There are three cases which students need to recognize in the word use: 1. Idiomatic use. Word meaning is frequently stretched the use of idiom for example “cats and dogs”. Can be put into such a fixed phrase as it’s raining cats and dogs, it means very heavy. 2. Metaphorical use. Metaphorical is the use of a word to indicate something, which is different from its literal meaning. Such as the word “hiss” which describes the way people talk as in “Don’t move or you are dead”. He hissed. 3. Word collocation. Word meaning is also governed by collocation that is which words go with each other. In other word collocations are words that are commonly associated. For example “wrist” can collocate with “sprain wrist”, but it cannot collocate with the word “head”. Thus, we cannot have such a collocation as “sprain head”. On the contrary, the word “ache” can collocate with head as in “headache”, but it cannot collocate with the word “wrist”. Thus, we cannot have such a collocation as “wrist ache” Nattingger (1988) exercise to develop and strengthen these associations can be greatly facilitating learning. c) Word formation. Word formation refers to word forms and how they are formed. Some words are nouns, adjective, verbs, etc. the students need to know how to form adjective from nouns, how to form adjective, etc. Such as, cloud (noun) changed to cloudy (adjective). As stated that word can change their shape and their grammatical value, too. Students need to know facts about word formation and how to twist words to fit different grammatical context. d) Word Grammar. Word grammar refers to such things the way words are used grammatically. Some verbs are used with “to” (want to, walk to) but some others verbs are used without “to” (can, must) etc. Harmer proposes that just as words can change according to their grammatical meaning, so the use of certain words can trigger the use of certain grammatical pattern. 4) The General Principles in Selecting Vocabulary One of the problems of vocabulary learning is how to select what words to teach. Harmer (1991) presented criteria, which are rather more scientific have been used in the selection of vocabulary, they are: 1. Frequency. In teaching and learning vocabulary, words which are most commonly used are the ones we should teach first. 2. Coverage. In teaching and learning vocabulary, word is more useful if it has one very specific meaning – so the argument goes. While Richards (2000:8) presents which used in determining word lists or selecting vocabulary, they are: 1. Teachability. Concrete vocabulary is taught early on because it can easily be illustrated through pictures or by demonstration. 2. Similarity. Some items may be selected because they are similar to words in the native language. 3. Availability. Some words may not be frequent but are readily “available” in the sense that they come quickly to mind when certain topics are thought of. 4. Coverage. Words that cover or include the meaning of other words may also useful. 5. Defining Power. Some words could be selected because they are useful in defining

other words. 5) The importance of vocabulary Graims and Ridman (1986) conclude that by learning vocabulary the learners can recognize and comprehend the context of reading and listening materials, and later as productively as the learners can recall and use them appropriately in speech and writing. In this case, the vocabulary the learners can recognize is all the words in written and oral context and finally they can use them daily in speaking and writing. Harmer (1991) states that the teaching of English vocabulary as a second materials in the process of learning, and he says that teaching old vocabulary continuously is more important than teaching new vocabulary each day. Paul Nation (2005), argues that the main problem with vocabulary teaching is that only a few words and a small part of what is required to know a word can be dealt with at any one time. This limitation also applies to incidental learning from listening or reading, but it is much easier to arrange for large amounts of independent listening and reading than it is to arrange for large amounts of teaching. Teaching can effectively deal with only a small amount of information about a word at a time. The more complex the information is, the more likely the learners are to misinterpret it. 6) The role of teaching vocabulary In the past, vocabulary teaching and learning were often given priority in second language programs, but recently there has been a renewed interest in the nature of vocabulary and its role in learning and teaching. Traditionally, vocabulary learning was often left to look after and received only incidental attention in many textbooks and language programs. Thus, although the course curriculum was often quite specific about aspects to teaching such as grammar, reading, or speaking, little specification was given to the role of vocabulary. The status of vocabulary now seems to be changing. For one thing, the nation of a word has been “broadened” to include lexical phrases and routines, and it has been suggested that in the initial stages of learning these play a primary role in communication and acquisition. We need to see learning any particular word as being a cumulative process where knowledge is built up over a series of varied meetings with the word. At best, teaching can provide only one or two of these meetings. The others involve deliberate study, meeting through meaning-focused input and output, and fluency development activities. The positive effects of vocabulary teaching are that it can provide help when learners feel it is most needed. This is particularly true for vocabulary teaching that occurs in the context of message-focused activities involving listening, speaking, reading and writing, and where the teaching deals with items that learners see as being very relevant for the activity. The small amount of research on such teaching indicates that it has a strong effect on vocabulary learning. The first decision to make when teaching a word is to decide whether the word is worth spending time on or not. If the word is a low frequency word and is not a useful technical word and not one that is particularly useful for the learners, it should be dealt with as quickly as possible. Usually when words come up in the context of a reading or listening text, or of learners need a word or phrase when speaking or writing, they need quick help which does not interrupt the activity too much. Sometimes however a teacher may want to spend time on a word. In general, time should be spent on high frequency words or words that fill a language need that the learners

have. When deciding how to spend time on a word, it is useful to consider the learning burden of the word. Hunt and Beglar in Richards and Renandya (2002:256) discuss three approaches to vocabulary teaching and learning, they are: 1. Incidental learning, learning vocabulary as a by product of doing other things such as reading and listening; 2. Explicit instruction depends on identifying specific vocabulary acquisition target for learners; 3. Independent strategy development, learners need to be taught strategies for inferring words from context as well as those which can help learners retain the meanings words they have encountered. A combination of all three approaches is recommended as the basis of for a vocabulary program. 7) Some techniques in teaching vocabulary Teaching and leaning vocabulary is not a simple way. The teachers should be able to recognize the students’ competence and the characteristic is needed. Teaching vocabulary to the students is not the same for all level, so the material is taught to them should be suitable to their level or ages. Harmer (1991) classified levels of students as children adolescent beginners, adult intermediate and adult advance students. Otherwise, Allen (1983) classified the technique of learning vocabulary as follows : 1. In the beginner class, the teacher use all three ways to show meaning of vocabulary ; pictures, explanation, and definition in simple English that the students already know. Besides, we can also use the real object. 2. Vocabulary intermediate class In the phase, simple English is used to show meaning of words; for common area a living, pictures can also be used at intermediate level in several helpful ways. Based on the statement above the writer presents some techniques in teaching vocabulary as follows: a) Teaching vocabulary by using grammar translation method. In teaching a foreign language by using grammar translation method the teacher explains the materials by using the first language (mother tongue). According Harmer (1991) translation method is a quick and easy way to present the meaning of words but it is not without problems. In the first place it is not always easy to translate words, and the second place, even where translation is possible, it may make it a bit too easy for students by discouraging them from interacting with the words. In presenting materials by using translation method can follow basic as follows: 1. Reading then translating into the students’ native language; 2. Learning (often, copying into their note books), the rules (again, in the students native language); 3. Memorizing list of vocabulary items and their meaning in the target language; 4. Writing sentence in the target language using the memorized rule and vocabulary. b). Teaching vocabulary by using picture dictionary. Teaching vocabulary by using picture dictionary can be helpful to the teacher of a foreign language in a number of different ways; (1) it can brighten up the class and bring more variety into the language lesson especially in teaching vocabulary, and (2) it can also arouse the students attention to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words.

Allen (1983) describes the advantages of pictures in teaching vocabulary as follows: 1. They cost little or nothing; 2. They are available even in places where no other pictures can be found; 3. They do not require space for storing and filling as pictures from other sources; 4. Sometimes pupils who are poor in language can draw well. Such pupils are given chance to win prize, and the prize may help them to learn; 5. When someone has drawn a picture of scene, he knows the meaning of English words that the teacher will use by talking about parts of scene. The way of using pictures in the classroom instructions are: 1. The teacher arranges the pictures in the blackboard or in the large paper; 2. The teacher put some pictures in the right column, the teacher asks the students to match them correctly; 3. The teacher puts some pictures of things with their description underneath. Then the teacher asks the students to guess the name of each picture and its name in the book about the description. c) Teaching English Vocabulary by using Total Physical Response (TPR). Total Physical Response (TPR) is based on theory that the memory is enchanted though association with physical movement. It is also closely associated with theories of mother tongue language acquisition in very young children, where they respond physically to parental commands, such as “hold your neck” and “open your book”, TPR as an approach to teaching a second language is based on the foremost listening and linked to physical actions which are designed to reinforce comprehension of particular basic items. In procedure of teaching English vocabulary by using total physical response Asher (2005) given by stated. The accounts of how to use TPR for English or other languages as follows: 1. Teacher says command and performs the action; 2. Teacher says command both teacher and students perform the action; 3. Teacher says command students perform action; 4. Teacher tells one student to perform action; 5. Reserve the roles or the students give each of the series command. d) Teaching vocabulary by using vocabulary network. There are some advantages of the vocabulary network, they are: 1. Unusual solutions may be identified; 2. Can be done spontaneously; 3. Seems to be a part of the creative process; 4. Open and direct students’ thinking towards the ideas that they will encounter in text; 5. Help the students to record, recall, remember and summaries what their read or write.

b. The concept of the vocabulary network

1) Definition of the Vocabulary Network Vocabulary network is an effective technique or way for teacher to develop the acquisition of student’s vocabulary. Hammer (1991) states that vocabulary network or mind map is a technique that used to help student to put a list of words into different groups. He added using mind maps to create vocabulary fields is something that teachers can incorporate into their regular vocabulary teaching. Kagan (1995) states that word-webbing, semantic maps, clustering, chain, and concept maps are a powerful set of tools in concept development and exchange. Ur (1996:69) States that brainstorming is a framework for the introduction of some of the new vocabulary. While Walker and Reece (1997:155) state that brainstorming is problem solving technique used to generate a number of ideas in a short time e.g. 5 to 15 minutes. Based on the description above, the writer summed up that all of them have a same purpose in increasing of the students’ vocabulary mastery. 2) Procedure of teaching vocabulary by using the vocabulary network Words occur in families, groups, and sets, and it is always easier to learn them this way than one at a time. Making a vocabulary network helps the students to improve their vocabulary. Davies and Whitney ( 1984) state that this activity can also help the student to record, recall, remember and summaries what their read or write. While Nusakasuma and Suyanto ( 1996) point out that the same activity can used an introduction to literature. Take a central theme or concept of a story or poem you are planning to read with class, and brainstorm associations in order to open and direct students’ thinking towards the ideas that they will encounter in the text. According to Tanju (2004) a brainstorming activity can be to let students revise collocations containing a particular word. This activity is mainly for revising words the class already knows, but new ones may be introduced, by the teacher or by the students. Although there are no sentences or paragraphs, the circle of associated items is in itself a meaningful context for the learning of new vocabulary. The focus is on the meaning of isolated items. Nusakasuma and Suyanto (1996) write the procedures to make a vocabulary network , are: 1. Take a word the class has recently learnt; 2. Ask the students to suggest all the words they associate with the word; 3. Write each suggestion on the board with a line joining it to the original word, in circle. In this research, the writer will use the procedure to make the vocabulary network based on the examples are given by Hammer (1991:165) and Mukarto (2004:3). Here are some examples of vocabulary network: Fill the blanks and suit the word in a vocabulary network based on the available words in the box! 1. Example 1

Hammer ( 1991 : 165) 2. Example 2

(Mukarto (2004) Figure 1. 2 examples of vocabulary network c. Definition of Grammar Translation Method In applied linguistics, the Grammar-Translation method is a foreign language teaching method derived from the classical or sometimes called traditional method of teaching Greek and Latin. The method requires students to translate whole texts word for word and memorize numerous grammatical rules and exceptions as well as enormous vocabulary lists. The goal of this method is to be able to read and translate literary masterpieces and classics. In grammar translation method, classes are conducted in the native language. A chapter in a typical textbook of this method will begin with a massive bilingual vocabulary list. Grammar points will come directly from the texts and be presented deductively in the textbook, to be explained elaborately by the instructor. Grammar thus provides the rules for assembling words. Translation and grammar drills will be used to exercise and strengthen the knowledge without much attention to content. Sentences will be deconstructed and translated, for example. Eventually, entire texts will be translated from the target language into the native language and tests will often ask students to replicate classical texts in the target language. Very little attention is placed on pronunciation or any communicative aspects of the language. The skill exercised is reading, and then only in the context of translation. According to Richards and Theodore (2007) Grammar-Translation Method (G.M.) attempts to acquire a reading knowledge of foreign languages by studying a grammar & applying this knowledge to the interpretation of texts with the use of a dictionary to the requirements and circumstances of schools. It preserves the basic framework of grammar and translation because they are already familiar to teachers and pupils from their classical studies. Dodson( 2007:157) stated that rules of grammar, not the language itself, are all important. Verb declensions are set out tables, vocabulary lists to be learned, leading to translation from mother tongue into target language and vice-versa. Little or no attention to pronunciation Assumption is that language consists of written words and of words which exist in isolation, as though they were individual bricks which could be translated one by one into their foreign equivalents and then assessed according to grammatical rules into sentences in the foreign language.

There are certain types of learner who respond very positively to a grammatical syllabus as it can give them both a set of clear objectives and a clear sense of achievement. Other learners need the security of the mother tongue and the opportunity to relate grammatical structures to mother tongue equivalents. Above all, this type of approach can give learners a basic foundation upon which they can then build their communicative skills. d. The concept of attitude 1. Definition of attitude Morgan (in Sunubi, 2004) argues that attitude is a tendency to respond positively (favorably) or negatively (unfavorably) to certain objects, person, or situations. The definition above indicates that attitude is directed to certain objects. It can emerge in positive or negative form. The definition also gives indication that attitudes refer to the process of action, the readiness to respond to a certain whether people like or dislike. The process can influence individuals' behaviors and determined by how individual evaluates the present objects. According to Gardner (in Sunubi, 2004) attitudes are directly related to motivation which in turn is directly related to second language learning. In other words, attitudes should be viewed as motivational supports and not as factors, which have a direct effect on second language learning. He also argues that attitudes toward the teacher and materials, for example, are related to both integrative and instrumental motivation. Attitudes are determined by one's behavior. Furthermore, attitudes will reflect one's personality. Someone who has good attitudes towards something will directly show his or her good behavior towards the things. Likewise, if some one has bad attitudes towards something tend to show his or her negative behavior or response towards the things. Historically, attitudes relates to the individual's internal state in learning to a certain group social identity (Gagne in Sunubi, 2004). Attitude is a mental and neutral state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive of dynamic influence upon the individual's response to all objects and situations with which it is related. Klausmeier (in Sunubi, 2004) uses the word 'attitude' to designate both emotionally toned dispositions of individual and also identifiable public entities that are used to communicate meaning among individuals who speaks the same language. The meaning that the group shares has the same toned disposition within the people of the same language group which eventually come to the public identity of the same language group. The definition above refers to the internal condition of individual, in this case the mental aspects that stimulate the response of the individual choice of interest and keep it consistent. Human conditions are constantly change as well as their perceptions. The attitude of the individual may become permanent according to the influence upon the individual response to a certain object. 2. The component of attitudes According to Gagne (in Sunubi, 2004) attitudes as response tendencies or as state characterized which have three components: a. cognitive components refers to one's belief about the object, the way one perceives the object, that is whether positively or negatively;

b. affective components refers to the amount of positive or negative feeling one has towards the object; c. behavioral components refers to one's behavioral intentions, or to one's actual behavior to the object. It seems to be the manifestation of the two other components. Good or bad feelings or emotion toward an emotion will result in positive (favorable) or negative (unfavorable) reaction. 3. The importance of attitudes in learning Students' attitudes affect the development of motivation to learn a second language has been conceptualized as the combination of the positive attitude (desire) to learn the language or effort expanded in the direction. This description gives us a picture of the importance of attitude toward the English language learning as attitude will generally determine the success and failure of the students. According to Savigon (in Sunubi, 2004) ultimate success in learning second language would most likely be seem to depend on the attitude of learners. If we pay attention to the statement, it can not be denied that attitudes really play very important role for the students' success in learning English. 4. How to measure attitude Morgan, et. al. (1979) argues that to describe attitudes and to study them we need ways of measuring them. The most common way of measuring attitudes is the self-report method and behavioral measures. a. Self-report method. Self-report method includes elaborate attitude questionnaires or attitude scale, in which a person answer many question as well as public opinion polls, in which many attitudes are sampled by only a few questions on each issue; b. Attitude scale. Attitude scale attempts to obtain a precise index of a person's attitude that is used to relate to one issue, so that the score on the scale is a measure of a single attitude. Some scales ask people to respond by indicating whether they agree or disagree with the given statement. Gay (1981) states that the attitude scale attempt to determine what an individual believes, perceives, or feels. Attitudes can be measured towards self, others and a variety of other activities, institution and situation. The wording of attitude scales consisted of both positive and negative items. They are meant to ask the students to respond to a series of statement by indicating their mode of attitudes whether they strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree or strongly disagree; c. Public opinion (attitudes) polls, in public opinion polling many people are asked only a few questions each in order to obtain a rough indication of attitudes in a large sample of the population. The questions are chosen so that a person's attitudes can be quickly classified whether favorable, unfavorable or undecided; d. Behavioral measures. Researchers sometimes use behavioral measures of attitudes, especially when there is reason to believe that people may be either unwilling or unable to report their own attitudes. In this research, the researcher used attitude scales to indicate the student's agreement or disagreement towards the using of cartoon movies in taming vocabulary. It is chosen because by using the numbers obtained from a rating scale, the attitude or perception toward something can be measured directly by calculating averages, or more generally any arithmetic aerations (Wikipedia: 2007). Scales are based on a number of items, usually in the form of statements ,that express on opinion or view regarding e variable

being measured. 5. Some factors affecting students' attitudes There are many factors affecting students' attitude, however, in this research, the researcher focuses only on those which are closely related to students' attitude toward the use of talking cards in speaking activity, as follows: a. Interest. Sukarti (1988) defines interest as a positive attitude or feeling towards activities people, experiences, or other things. Moreover, interest is a set of mentally conditions, which consist of the combination of prejudice, curiosity, concern or other tendency that can lead someone to particular preference. Similar definition of interest is given by Good (1959) that interest is a subject-object attitude, concerned with condition involving a perception or idea in attention and a combination of intellectual and feeling curiosity condition by experience. By paying close attention to the two definitions above, interest has a positive attitude or other feeling towards activities, people, experiences, or other things. It also means that interest towards something will directly support our motivation to know the things consequently, our attention is focused on the object concerned. Interest can form the students' personal discipline in attending the English lesson. In this point of view, it can be said that the students' attitudes may be formed because they have interest toward a certain lesson; b. Motivation. Motivation is commonly thought of an inner drive, impulse, emotion or desire that moves one particular action (Brown, 1987). Motivation is also an aspect that is no less important in learning a language. Lack of motivation is perhaps the biggest obstacle faced by teachers, counselors, school administration and parents. Behavioral problems in the classrooms often, or always, seem to be linked to the lack of motivation. Bantjes (1994) states that academic achievement is more a product of appropriate placement of priorities and responsible behavior than it is of intelligence. Intelligent students are often out performed by less bright students with high motivation. If a child is motivated enough, he/she can accomplish learning of any scale; c. Teacher. One of the most important elements in the learning situation is the teacher themselves. Their skill and their personality are instrumental in creating the conditions for learning (Wilkins : 1976) says that the teachers' skill depend on two factors, namely (1) their own proficiency in the language and their knowledge of, and (2) their expertise in methods and technique of language teaching. The language proficiency of the teachers is the ability of the teachers to use language with fluency and accuracy for real communication. Their expertise in methods and technique of language teachers in presenting materials. The educational experts for along time have discussed the important role of the teachers in any situational activity. Hamsiah (2000: 10) quoted Finocehiaro's opinion as follows: "The personality of the teacher coupled, his supervisor and his work will determine the extent to which any program, no matter how well formulated, will be carried out. Naturally the general teaching skill of instructors his special training in the field of language teaching, and linguistic ability will also affect the teaching learning situations". As a teacher, one has to help out the students to teaming any situational activities. We cannot deny that teachers have dominant factors to the success of the students in learning. The roles of the teachers are needed to create a good atmosphere in classroom;

d. Material. If we pay dose attention to the rotes of the teachers and materials, we can find the relationship both of them. The teachers are the actor of the presentation of the materials to the students, while the materials themselves are something that the teachers will present to the students before the teachers teach it necessary for them to make a good preparation. In the following section Syarifuddin (1986) gives considerations related to the materials that should be presented to the students: 1) what material will be presented to the students, 2) what methods are accurate to be applied for certain materials, and 3) what media that is suitable to be used. These enable them to get the ease and encouragement to learn it. From these points, it seems that the materials should be designed and created by the teachers well. Otherwise, the teacher will likely face the inattentive students who haven't well. Consequently, the students have positive attitudes or negative responses. So, the materials themselves can directly affect the students' attitudes towards the objects concerned. c. Resume The points of previous review literature can be summarized as follows: 1. Vocabulary network is enjoyable and fun activity, especially for children. It can focus on helping students to improve their vocabulary. 2. Teachers should use various techniques and material in stimulating the students to improve their English vocabulary. 3. Teachers are suggested to use various techniques in teaching English vocabulary in particular and to create teaching learning d. Theoretical framework Some main ideas that have been correlating in the research process, they are vocabulary materials, Teaching vocabulary by using vocabulary network and the students are able to develop their ability in vocabulary. Teaching vocabulary by using vocabulary network aims to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery which presenting the related new words. The vocabulary materials that applied by the researcher related to the themes “Flora and Fauna”. The writer conducts an experimental research to know the student’s achievement and the use of vocabulary network in vocabulary mastery. The theoretical framework underlying in this research is given in the following diagram:

Figure 2. Theoretical framework Based on the theoretical framework design above, there are three elements to be explained, they are : 1. INPUT refers to the medium applied in the classroom. The is vocabulary network that

are limited only in four topics. 2. PROCESS refers to the implementation or presentation of the input in the classroom; in this case, the students are taught using vocabulary network that are shown in the diagram. 3. OUTPUT refers to the result of the process. The result was the students vocabulary achievement and the students attitude toward the use of vocabulary network in teaching English vocabulary. e. Hypothesis Based on the previous related literature and the problem statement above, the writer puts forward hypothesis as follow: Null Hypothesis : There is no significant difference between the teaching of vocabulary by using vocabulary network and the teaching of vocabulary by using translation method in term of improving the vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP Negeri I Parepare Alternative Hypothesis : 1. There is significant difference between the teaching of vocabulary by using vocabulary network and the teaching of vocabulary by using translation method in term of improving the vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP Negeri I Parepare. 2. The students who taught by using vocabulary network improve their vocabulary significantly better than they taught by using translation method. H. Research Method 1. The research design This research is designed for an experimental research with pretest-post-test equivalentgroups design (Gay, 2006). The design is represented as follows: C O1 X1 O2 E O1 X2 O2 Notation: C = control group E = experimental group O1 = pre-test O2 = post-test X = treatment The design involved two groups, the experimental group will be taught by using the vocabulary network and control group will be taught by using translation method.

2. Research variables and their operational definitions a. Variable There are two variables involved in this research namely dependent variable and independent variable. 1. The dependent variable : the students’ vocabulary mastery, and the students’ attitude toward the use of vocabulary network in teaching English vocabulary.

2. The independent variable : the use of vocabulary network in teaching vocabulary b. Operational definitions of the variables 1. Vocabulary mastery means the students acquire the new word becoming familiar on by applying them whether in spoken language or in written language. This means, the students are able to improve their vocabulary mastery in treatment. ability to recognize the vocabulary that is taught by using vocabulary network, and attitude means the students’ response to face the learning of English vocabulary by using vocabulary network. 2. Teaching vocabulary means the teacher needs to be proper mix of explicit teaching and activities from which incidental learning can occur. It is necessary to explicitly teach all word until students have enough vocabulary to start making use of the unknown word they need. 3. The vocabulary network means the technique used for teaching English vocabulary to the students in improving their vocabulary mastery. 3. Population and sample a. Population The population of this research is the second year students of SMP Negeri I Parepare in academic year 2007/2008. There are five classes, namely class VIII1 consists of 39 students, class VIII2 consists of 39 students, class VIII3 consists of 39, class VII4 consists of 39 students, and class VIII5 consists of 40. The total number of the population is 196 students. b. Sample The technique that will be used is cluster random sampling technique of 196 students. The writer will select two classes as a sample, Class VIII1 as experimental group and class VIII3 as a control group. Each group consists of 39 students. 4. Instrument of the research The instrument of the research will be a vocabulary test and questionnaires. The vocabulary test aims to gain data of the improvement of the students’ vocabulary before and after the treatment. There are two test of vocabulary given to the students. The tests will be pretest and posttest. It consists of 30 items, which include 15 items in the form of multiple choice, 10 items of matching and 5 items of completion. The total number of test items is 30 items. The questionnaires aim to gain data of the students’ attitude in learning English vocabulary by using networking vocabulary. The questionnaires will be distributed to the students after the treatment. The research will have 10 positive and 10 negative statements 5. Procedure of collecting data In collecting data on the students’ vocabulary mastery, the writer will take it twice that is before and after treatment. The order of procedure collection data as follows: a. Pre-test Before giving the treatment, on the first meeting, the writer will give a pre-test to the students of both experimental group and control group to find out the students’ prior knowledge of vocabulary. b. Post-test

In the last meeting, the writer will give a post-test to both of group to measure the students’ improvement in vocabulary mastery based on the material that will be learned. 6. Treatment After giving a pre-test, the writer will treat each group. The writer will give the treatment four times, each meeting ran for 90 minutes. The experimental group will be treated by using vocabulary network and control group by using translation method. And both of groups will be treated with the materials that related to themes “Flora and Fauna” with some topics, namely animals, domestic animals, parts of a tree and coconut. The steps in teaching vocabulary by using vocabulary network in every meeting are: 1. Giving greeting for the students 2. Giving a motivation to the students before teaching the material. 3. Introducing the vocabulary network to the students. 4. Taking a theme or word the class has recently learnt, 5. Asking the students to suggest all the words they associate with the word. 6. Writing each suggestion on the board or on the paper with a line joining it to the original word, in a circle. 7. Giving example about the material 8. Giving change to the students to ask about unclear material. 9. Giving assignment to the students. The researcher will give the vocabulary every meeting or each material with time allocation per meeting is 2 x 45 minutes. The following is the procedure of giving exercises in every meeting: On the second meeting 1. Giving the material to the students with topic “Animals”. 2. Giving a reading text “Animals” to the students and asked to them to read it then asked to them to find out some new words. 3. Giving the student a central word “Animals” then the researcher will ask to the students to find out and fill the blank with related words in a vocabulary network based on the explaining in the text. On the third meeting 1. Giving the material to students with topic “Domestic animals”. 2. Giving a reading text “Domestic Animals” to the students and asked to them to answer the questions based on text. 3. Taking a central invites verbs and nouns that can apply to the question central with topic “what can animals do?” For example, the writer will take a central word “what can animals do?” then the students can associate with some related words as they can, like: crawl, jump, run, etc. On the fourth meeting 1. Giving the material to the students with topic “part of a tree”. 2. Giving a reading text “Part of A Tree”, then the researcher asked to the students to read the text and find out the new words, then translate into Indonesia. 3. Asking to student to complete the description about a flowering plant. The students can use the vocabulary in the box to help them. 4. Taking a central invites verbs and nouns that can apply to the central word “a flowering plant” and ask to the students to make a vocabulary network with a central word “a flowering plant”, and then found out some new related words. For example, the

writer will take a central word “a flowering plant” then the students can associate with some related words as they can, like: stalk, root, leaves, etc. On fifth meeting 1. Giving the material to the students with topic “coconut”. 2. Giving a reading text “Coconut” to the students then asked to them to answer the questions from the text. 3. Taking a central word “tree”. Then the students can associate with the kinds of tree. For example, the writer will take a central word “tree” then the students can associate with some relate words as they can, like: soft tree, hard tree, etc. The students fill the blanks of a vocabulary network based on the available words in the box. 7. Technique of data analysis The data collected through the test analyzed quantitatively. This quantitative analysis employed statically calculation to test the hypothesis. The steps under take quantitative analysis are as follows: 1. Scoring the students answer by using the formula. Student’s correct answer Score = ------------------------------------ x 100 Total number of items Tabulating the score of the students test both experimental group and control group. 2. Tabulating the students score into five levels, the classifications was based on Depdiknas (2005 : 2) as follows: a. 86 – 100 classified as very good b. 71 – 85 classified as good c. 56 – 70 classified as fair d. 41 – 55 classified as poor e. ≤ 40 classified as very poor The standard of score in teaching English in SMP is ≤ 65. 3. Collecting the mean score of the each group using the following formula, based on Gay (2006 : 320). Where : = means score = the total number of the students score N = the number of students 4. Finding out the standard deviation by using the following formula, Gay (2006:321): in which where: SD = standard deviation SS = the sum of square n = the number of subjects in a particular group ∑X2 = the sum of all square (∑X)2 = the sum square of the sum of score 5. Calculating the rate percentages of the students’ score

Where: P = percentages F = frequency N = number of subject 6. To calculating the value of t- test to indicate the significance between two means scores, the writer used the following formula: Where: t = test of significant = mean score of experimental class = mean score of control class SS1 = the sum of squares of experimental class SS2 = the sum of square pf control class ∑X1 = the sum of all the squares of experimental class ∑X2 = the sum of all the squares of control class (∑X1)1 = the sum of the scores of experimental class (∑X2)2 = the sum of scores of control class n1 = total number of subject of experimental class n2 = total number of subject of control class (Gay, 2006 : 349) 7. To calculate data through questionnaires will use Likert Scale, and then will be analyzed in average by using the following criteria;. a. For the positive statements, the scores are: strongly agree 5; agree 4; undecided 3; disagree 2; strongly disagree 1. b. For the negative statements, the scores are: strongly agree 1; agree 2; undecided 3; disagree 4; strongly disagree 5. c. The research will have 10 positive and 10 negative statements. Therefore, if a student answers the ten positive statements with strongly agree and with all ten negative ones with strongly disagree, he will get 100; and if a student answers the ten positive statements with strongly disagree and with all ten negative ones with strongly agree, he will get 20. So, the rating score ranges from 20 to 100 (interval 80). Since the questionnaires get five categories, the interval that will be used to determine the category is 80:5= 16. The following is the rating score of the category: Table 1. The rating score of attitude category. 85 – 100 Strongly positive 69 – 84 Positive 53 – 68 Fairly positive

37 – 52 negative 20 – 36 Strongly negative (Adapted from Muhayyang, 2003) 8. Criteria of testing hypothesis The statistical hypothesis in this research, as follows: 1µ H0 : > 2µ 1µ H1 : > 2µ 2 was control group.µ 1 was experimental group and µ Where To test the hypothesis, the researcher used one-tailed test with 0.05 level of significant for independent sample. The formula degrees of freedom (df) in (N1+N2 - 2). So, 39 + 39 - 2 = 76. For .α = 0.05 and df = 76, the table is 2.000. 9. If t-table > t-test, H0 was accepted and H1 was rejected. It means that the use of vocabulary network is not better than the use of translation method to improve the vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP Negeri 1 Parepare. 10. If t-table. H0 was rejected and H1 was accepted. It means that≥ t-test the use of vocabulary network is better than the use of translation method to improve the vocabulary mastery of the second year students of SMP Negeri 1 Parepare. I. Time Schedule No Research Activities Months Note March April May June July Aug 1 Preparation 2 Data collection 3 Data analysis 4 Research report arrangement 5 Final seminar 6 Research report revision 7 Report presentation

J. Research Financing 1. Preparation Rp 3.000.000,2. Collecting data Rp 2.000.000,3. Analyzing data Rp 1.300.000,4. Arranging report Rp 600.000,5. Seminar Rp 700.000,6. Revision and reduplication Rp 450.000,Total Rp 7.750.000,K. Bibliography Allen, ED. & Violetta. P.M. 1997. Classroom Teaching Foreign Language and English. Forestman and Company Press.

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2. A kangaroo can .... a. crawl c. fly b. climb d. jump 3. ... has a pocket to keep its young. a. a bear c. a kangaroo b. an owl d. a bird 4. ... is a fierce animal that has long fur. a. lion c. tiger b. crocodile d. dog 5. ... can give us ivory. a. monkey c. elephant b. camel d. cow 6. Camel is found in the ..... a. forest c. sea b. dessert d. mountain 7. Monkey loves to .... the tree. a. climb c. drive b. ride b. bring. 8. There are three main parts of tree. They are ... a. crown, trunk, and root c. crown, root and leaves b. crown, trunk, and leaves d. trunk, leaves, and root 9. The top of the tree is ... a. crown c. root b. leaf d. trunk 10. The stem of a tree gives the tree its shape and strength. The synonym of the italic word type is ... a. the root c. the branch b. the trunk d. the crown. B. Match these words/Phases on the left-hand side with their meaning on the right-hand side! 1. Wolf a. a large strong, animal called “ The King of Beasts”. 2. Lion b. a large, fury animal may be black, brown or white. 3. goat c. a wild animal looks like a dog. 4. zebra d. the biggest animal in the world 5. elephant f. it looks like a small horse with dark stripes on a white or yellowish body. 6. leaves g. the top of the tree 7. root h. grass-eating animal with thick fleecy hair 8. tiger i. a small lively horned animal with long hair 9. sheep j. it has a pocket to keeps its young. 10. bear k. the main parts of the tree l. a large, strong animal and a good hunter. m. the food factories of a tree C. Translate the words below into Indonesian! 1. mammal =

2. crawl = 3. whale = 4. white pelican = 5. dragon fly = 6 caterpillar = 7. coconut palm = 8. animal = 9. plant = 10. grew = APPENDIX B POSTTEST SOAL-SOAL UNTUK KELAS II SMP NEGERI 1 PAREPARE A. Pilihlah jawaban yang benar sesuai kata yang dicetak miring! 1. A butterfly lays an egg in plant. The egg ... into a caterpillar. a. sucks c. changes b. hatches d. grows 2. A dear can .... a. crawl c. fly b. climb d. jump 3. The animal has a pocket to keep its young. The animal is .... a. a bear c. a kangaroo b. an owl d. a bird 4. ... is a large strong, animal called “ The King of Beasts”. a. tiger c. lion b. wolf d. dog 5. The biggest animal in the world is ... a. camel c. bulldog b. elephant d. cow 6. In the ..... we can find the camel. a. dessert c. forest b. jungle d. sea 7. Koala Bear.... the tree. And also sleep in the tree. a. bring c. drive b. ride d. climb 8. The tree has three main parts. They are ... a. crown, trunk, and root c. crown, root and branches b. crown, trunk, and branches d. crown, leaves, and root 9. The stem of a tree support the.... a. trunk c. crown b. root d. leaves

10. .... of a tree gives the tree its shape and strength. a. the root c. the branches b. t he trunk d. the crown. B. Match these words/Phases on the left-hand side with their meaning on the right-hand side! 1. mammals a. a fierce animal that has long fur. 2. Lion b. it has a very beautiful yellow skin with large black spots. 3. dragonfly c. the animals give milk to their babies. 4. zebra d. it can give us ivory. 5. elephant f. it can found in the Nil River. 6. whale g. the animal can swim and like a duck. 7. root h. they live in the jungles, mountains, rivers, lakes and seas around the world. 8. tiger i. live in the sea. It is one of big fish 9. animals j. a insect animal that can fly. 10. white pelican k. it has a lot of branches. l. it carry water and minerals up from roots to leaves. m. one of the crown parts. They contain chlorophyll. C. Translate the words into Indonesian! 1. goat = 2. crawl = 3. leaf = 4. trunk = 5. brunches = 6 pine = 7. slither = 8. sheep = 9. crown = 10. hatches = APPENDIX C ANSWER KEY OF PRETEST A. 1.a 6.b 2. d 7. a 3. c 8. a 4. a 9. a 5. c 10. b B. 1. wolf = c. a wild animal looks like a dog 2. lion = a. a large strong, animal called “The King Beats” 3. goat = i. a small lively horned animal with long hair 4. zebra = f. it looks like a small horse with dark stripes on a white or yellowish body.

5. elephant = d. the biggest animal in the world 6. leaves = m. the food factories of a tree 7. root = k. the main parts of a tree 8. tiger = l. a large, strong animal and a good hunter 9. sheep = h. grass-eating animal with thick fleecy hair 10. bear = a large, fury animal may be black, brown or white. C. 1. mammals = hewan menyusui 2. crawl = merayap (serangga) 3. whale = ikan paus 4. white pelican = burung undang putih 5. dragonfly = capung 6. caterpillar = ulat 7. coconut palm = pohon kelapa 8. animal = hewan/binatang 9. plant = tumbuhan 10. grew = tumbuh APPENDIX D ANSWER KEY OF POSTTEST A. 1. b 6. a 2. d 7. a 3. c 8. a 4. c 9. c 5. b 10. b B. 1. mammals = c. the animals give milk to their babies. 2. lion = a. a large strong, animal called “The King Beats” 3. dragonfly = i. a small lively horned animal with long hair 4. zebra = f. it can found in the Nil River. 5. elephant = d. it can give us ivory 6. whale = i. live in the sea. It one of big fish 7. root = k. it has a lot of branches 8. tiger = l. it has a very beautiful yellow skin with large black spots. 9. animals = m. they live in the jungles, mountains, rivers, lakes, and seas around in the world. 10. white pelican = g. the animal can swim and like a duck. C. 1. goat = kambing 2. crawl = merayap (serangga) 3. leaf = daun 4. trunk = batang pohon 5. brunches = cabang-cabang pohon 6. pine = pohon cemara 7. slither = merayap/melata (ular) 8. sheep = domba 9. crown = puncak pohon 10. hatches = meneteskan

  APPENDIX E. QUESTIONNAIRES ANGKET PENELITIAN THE INTEREST OF THE 2ND YEAR STUDENTS OF SMP NEGERI 1 PAREPARE IN LEARNING VOCABULARY BY USING PICTURE STORY PETUNJUK I. Angket ini tidak dimaksudkan untuk menguji atau menilai Anda, melainkan untuk mendapatkan gambaran yang jelas tentang sikap Anda mempelajari bahasa Inggris khususnya kosakata bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan “vocabulary network”. II. Berilah jawaban sesuai dengan pendapat Anda dengan sejujur-jujurnya tanpa dipengaruhi pihak lain. Lingkarilah atau berilah tanda silang (X) pada jawaban yang Anda Pilih. III. Apabila ada yang kurang jelas, tanyakan pada peneliti (guru). 1. Saya sangat senang mempelajari kosakata bahasa Inggris melalui ”vocabulary network” a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 2. Saya lebih mudah dapat menghafal dan memahami kosakata bahasa Inggris apabila guru saya mengajarkan kosakata bahasa Inggris melalui ”vocabulary network” a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 3. Pembelajaran bahasa Inggris melalui penggunaan ”vocabulary network” sangat perlu untuk terus diimplementasikan di sekolah-sekolah pendidikan formal. a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 4. Saya dapat mempergunakan kosakata bahasa Inggris secara aktif, fasih dan benar setelah mengikuti pelajaran bahasa Inggris di sekolah melalui ”vocabulary network” a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 5. Penggunaan ”vocabulary network” dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris sangat menarik perhatian saya. a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju

c. Ragu-ragu 6. Belajar bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan ”vocabulary network” sangat mengasyikkan. a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 7. Saya sangat termotivasi untuk belajar bahasa Inggris melalui penggunaan ”vocabulary network” a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 8. Saya sangat terdorong untuk menguasai kosakata bahasa Inggris lebih banyak melalui ”vocabulary network” a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 9. Saya dapat memahami bacaan dengan mudah setelah diajarkan dengan dengan menggunakan ”vocabulary network” a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 10. Saya dapat dengan mudah membuat (menuliskan atau mengucapkan) kalimat-kalimat bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan kata-kata berdasarkan ” ”vocabulary network”” yang diperlihatkan dalam proses pembelajaran. a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 11. Saya kurang senang mempelajari kosakata bahasa Inggris melalui ”vocabulary network” a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 12. Penggunaan ”vocabulary network” tidak mempengaruhi kemampuan saya dalam menghafal dan memahami kosakata bahasa Inggris. a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 13. Pembelajaran bahasa Inggris melalui penggunaan ”vocabulary network” tidak perlu diimplementasikan di sekolah-sekolah pendidikan formal. a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju

c. Ragu-ragu 14. Saya tidak dapat menggunakan kosakata bahasa Inggris secara aktif, fasih dan benar walaupun saya telah mengikuti pelajaran bahasa Inggris di sekolah melalui penggunaan ”vocabulary network” a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 15. Penggunaan ”vocabulary network” dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris tidak menarik perhatian saya. a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 16. Belajar bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan ”vocabulary network” sangat membosankan. a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 17. Saya tidak termotivasi untuk belajar bahasa Inggris melalui penggunaan ”vocabulary network” a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 18. Saya tidak terdorong untuk menguasai kosakata bahasa Inggris lebih banyak melalui penggunaan ”vocabulary network” a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 19. Saya sangat sulit memahami bacaan bahasa Inggris setelah diajar dengan menggunakan”vocabulary network” a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu 20. Saya sulit membuat (menuliskan atau mengucapkan) kalimat-kalimat bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan kata-kata berdasarkan ”vocabulary network” yang diperlihatkan dalam proses pembelajaran. a. Sangat setuju d. Tidak setuju b. Setuju e. Sangat tidak setuju c. Ragu-ragu   APPENDIX E RENCANA PENGAJARAN I Experimental Group Sekolah : SMP NEGERI I PAREPARE Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris

Kelas / Semester : VIII / 1 Periode Waktu : 2 x 45 menit I. Standar Kompetensi : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. II. Kompetensi Dasar : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana secara akurat, lancer dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. III. Thema : Flora and Fauna IV. Materi Pokok/Topik : Animals V. Indikator : Merespon perintah guru dengan menemukan dan menghubungkan katakata yang berkaitan dengan topik. No. Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi Siswa 4.1 Kognitif : o Membaca teks yang diberikan. o Menemukan kata-kata baru yang dianggap berhubungan dengan topik bagi siswa o Mengartikan kata ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia o Mengisi kata dalam kalimat rumpang Psikomotor : o Berkomunikasi secara lisan dan tertulis o Bekerjasama dengan siswa lain Afektif : o Mematuhi aturan-aturan yang disampaikan oleh guru VI. Kegiatan Pembelajaran : No. Rincian Kegiatan Siswa Alokasi 5.1 Awal : - Tegur sapa/mengecek kehadiran - Diberikan persepsi kepada siswa - Memberi motivasi untuk memulai pelajaran 15 menit 5.2 Inti : - Memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk membaca teks yang diberikan - Memperkenalkan tehnik pengajaran yang akan digunakan. - Menemukan kata-kata baru dalam wacana - Mengisi kata dalam kalimat rumpang - Mencari arti kata dalam Bahasa Indonesia. 60 menit 5.3 Penutup : - Mengoreksi hasil siswa - Menyimpulkan 15 menit VII. Sumber dan alat Buku paket

VIII. Penilaian Jenis tagihan : 1. Tugas Individu 2. Tugas Kelompok 3. Unjuk kerja Bentuk Instrumen : 1. Uraian singkat 2. Jawaban singkat Parepare, 2008 Mengetahui, Peneliti, Kepala Sekolah SMP Negeri I Parepare

DRS. MUHAMMAD YAMIN, M.Pd. AMZAH NIP. 131 265 205 NIM. 06501038

RENCANA PENGAJARAN 2 Experimental Group Sekolah : SMP NEGERI I PAREPARE Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Kelas / Semester : VIII / 1 Periode Waktu : 2 x 45 menit I. Standar Kompetensi : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. II. Kompetensi Dasar : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana secara akurat, lancer dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. III. Them : Flora and fauna IV. Materi Pokok/Topik : Domestic animals V. Indikator : Merespon perintah guru dengan menemukan dan menghubungkan katakata yang berkaitan dengan topik. No. Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi Siswa 4.1 Kognitif : o Membaca teks yang diberikan.

o Menemukan kata-kata baru yang dianggap berhubungan dengan topik bagi siswa o Mengartikan kata ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia o Mengisi kata dalam kalimat rumpang Psikomotor : o Berkomunikasi secara lisan dan tertulis o Bekerjasama dengan siswa lain Afektif : o Mematuhi aturan-aturan yang disampaikan oleh guru VI. Kegiatan Pembelajaran : No. Rincian Kegiatan Siswa Alokasi 5.1 Awal : - Tegur sapa/mengecek kehadiran - Diberikan persepsi kepada siswa - Memberi motivasi untuk memulai pelajaran 15 menit 5.2 Inti : - Memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk membaca teks yang diberikan. - Menemukan atau menghubungkan kata-kata yang berhubungan dengan kata kunci yang telah disediakan tentang “animals” dengan kata benda. - Mengisi kata dalam kalimat rumpang - Mencari arti kata dalam Bahasa Indonesia. 60 menit 5.3 Penutup : - Mengoreksi hasil siswa - Menyimpulkan 15 menit VII. Sumber dan alat Buku paket dan LKS VIII. Penilaian Jenis tagihan : 1. Tugas Individu 2. Tugas Kelompok Bentuk Instrumen : 1. Uraian singkat 2. Jawaban singkat Parepare, 2008 Mengetahui, Peneliti, Kepala Sekolah SMP Negeri I Parepare

DRS. MUHAMMAD YAMIN, M.Pd. AMZAH NIP. 131 265 205 NIM. 06501038

RENCANA PENGAJARAN 3 Experimental Group Sekolah : SMP NEGERI I PAREPARE Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Kelas / Semester : VIII / 1 Periode Waktu : 2 x 45 menit I. Standar Kompetensi : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. II. Kompetensi Dasar : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana secara akurat, lancer dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. III. Thema : Flora and fauna IV. Materi Pokok/Topik : Part of a tree V. Indikator : Merespon perintah guru dengan menemukan dan menghubungkan katakata yang berkaitan dengan topik. No. Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi Siswa 4.1

4.2 4.3 Kognitif : o Membaca teks yang diberikan. o Menemukan kata-kata baru yang dianggap berhubungan dengan topik bagi siswa o Mengartikan kata ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia o Mengisi kata dalam kalimat rumpang Psikomotor : o Berkomunikasi secara lisan dan tertulis

o Bekerjasama dengan siswa lain Afektif : o Mematuhi aturan-aturan yang disampaikan oleh guru VI. Kegiatan Pembelajaran : No. Rincian Kegiatan Siswa Alokasi Waktu 5.1 Awal : - Tegur sapa/mengecek kehadiran - Diberikan persepsi kepada siswa - Memberi motivasi untuk memulai pelajaran 15 menit 5.2 Inti : - Memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk membaca teks yang diberikan. - Menemukan atau menghubungkan kata-kata yang berhubungan dengan kata kunci yang telah disediakan tentang “What can animals do?” dengan kata kerja dan kata benda. - Menemukan kata-kata baru dalam wacana - Mengisi kata dalam kalimat rumpang - Mencari arti kata dalam Bahasa Indonesia. 60 menit 5.3 Penutup : - Mengoreksi hasil siswa - Menyimpulkan 15 menit VII. Sumber dan alat Buku paket dan LKS VIII. Penilaian Jenis tagihan : 1. Tugas Individu 2. Tugas Kelompok Bentuk Instrumen : 1. Uraian singkat 2. Jawaban singkat Parepare, 2008 Mengetahui, Peneliti, Kepala Sekolah SMP Negeri I Parepare

DRS. MUHAMMAD YAMIN, M.Pd. AMZAH NIP. 131 265 205 NIM. 06501038 RENCANA PENGAJARAN 4 Experimental Group Sekolah : SMP NEGERI I PAREPARE Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris

Kelas / Semester : VIII / 1 Periode Waktu : 2 x 45 menit I. Standar Kompetensi : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. II. Kompetensi Dasar : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana secara akurat, lancer dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. III. Thema : Flora and fauna IV. Materi Pokok/Topik : Coconut V. Indikator : Merespon perintah guru dengan menemukan dan menghubungkan katakata berkaitan dengan topik. No. Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi Siswa 4.1

4.2 4.3 Kognitif : o Membaca teks yang diberikan o Menemukan kata-kata baru yang dianggap berhubungan dengan topik bagi siswa o Mengartikan kata ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia o Mengisi kata dalam kalimat rumpang Psikomotor : o Berkomunikasi secara lisan dan tertulis o Bekerjasama dengan siswa lain Afektif : o Mematuhi aturan-aturan yang disampaikan oleh guru VI. Kegiatan Pembelajaran : No. Rincian Kegiatan Siswa Alokasi Waktu 5.1 Awal : - Tegur sapa/mengecek kehadiran - Diberikan persepsi kepada siswa - Memberi motivasi untuk memulai pelajaran 15 menit 5.2 Inti : - Memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk membaca teks yang diberikan

- Menemukan dan menghubungkan kata-kata yang berhubungan dengan kata kunci “parts of white pelican’s body”. - Mengisi kata dalam kalimat rumpang - Mencari arti kata dalam Bahasa Indonesia. 60 menit 5.3 Penutup : - Mengoreksi hasil siswa - Menyimpulkan 15 menit VII. Sumber dan alat Buku paket dan LKS VIII. Penilaian Jenis tagihan : 1. Tugas Individu 2. Tugas Kelompok Bentuk Instrumen : 1. Uraian singkat 2. Jawaban singkat Parepare, 2008 Mengetahui, Peneliti, Kepala Sekolah SMP Negeri I Parepare

DRS. MUHAMMAD YAMIN, M.Pd. AMZAH NIP. 131 265 205 NIM. 06501038 APPENDIX F RENCANA PENGAJARAN I Control Group Sekolah : SMP NEGERI I PAREPARE Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Kelas / Semester : VIII / 1 Periode Waktu : 2 x 45 menit I. Standar Kompetensi : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. II. Kompetensi Dasar : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana secara akurat, lancer dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. III. Thema : Flora and fauna IV. Materi Pokok/Topik : Animals V. Indikator : Merespon perintah guru dengan menemukan dan mengartikan kata-kata

yang berkaitan dengan topik. No. Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi Siswa 4.1 Kognitif : o Membaca teks yang diberikan o Mengartikan kata ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia o Mengisi kata dalam kalimat rumpang Psikomotor : o Berkomunikasi secara lisan dan tertulis o Bekerjasama dengan siswa lain Afektif : o Mematuhi aturan-aturan yang disampaikan oleh guru VI. Kegiatan Pembelajaran : No. Rincian Kegiatan Siswa Alokasi Waktu 5.1 Awal : - Tegur sapa/mengecek kehadiran - Diberikan persepsi kepada siswa - Memberi motivasi untuk memulai pelajaran 15 menit 5.2 Inti : - Memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk membaca teks yang diberikan. - Memperkenalkan tehnik pengajaran yang akan digunakan. - Mengisi kata dalam kalimat rumpang - Mencari arti kata dalam Bahasa Indonesia. 60 menit 5.3 Penutup : - Mengoreksi hasil siswa - Menyimpulkan 15 menit VII. Sumber dan alat Buku paket dan LKS VIII. Penilaian Jenis tagihan : 1. Tugas Individu 2. Tugas Kelompok Bentuk Instrumen : 1. Uraian singkat 2. Jawaban singkat Parepare, 2008 Mengetahui, Peneliti, Kepala Sekolah SMP Negeri I Parepare

DRS. MUHAMMAD YAMIN, M.Pd. A M Z A H NIP. 131 265 205 NIM. 06205038

RENCANA PENGAJARAN 2 Control Group Sekolah : SMP NEGERI I PAREPARE Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Kelas / Semester : VIII / 1 Periode Waktu : 2 x 45 menit I. Standar Kompetensi : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. II. Kompetensi Dasar : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana secara akurat, lancer dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. III. Thema : Flora and fauna IV. Materi Pokok/Topik : Domestic animals V. Indikator : Merespon perintah guru dengan menemukan dan mengartikan kata-kata yang berkaitan dengan topik. No. Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi Siswa 4.1 Kognitif : o Membaca teks yang diberikan o Menemukan kata-kata baru yang dianggap berhubungan dengan topik bagi siswa. o Menjawab pertanyaan teks bacaan o Mengartikan ke dalam bahasa Indonesia Psikomotor : o Berkomunikasi secara lisan dan tertulis o Bekerjasama dengan siswa lain Afektif : o Mematuhi aturan-aturan yang disampaikan oleh guru VI. Kegiatan Pembelajaran : No. Rincian Kegiatan Siswa Alokasi Waktu 5.1 Awal : - Tegur sapa/mengecek kehadiran - Diberikan persepsi kepada siswa - Memberi motivasi untuk memulai pelajaran 15 menit

5.2 Inti : - Memberikan kepada kesempatan kepada siswa untuk membaca teks yang diberikan. - Menemukan kata-kata yang berhubungan dengan “animals” dengan kata benda. - Mengisi kata dalam kalimat rumpang - Mengartikan kata dalam bahasa Indonesia 60 menit 5.3 Penutup : - Mengoreksi hasil siswa - Menyimpulkan 15 menit VII. Sumber dan alat Buku paket dan LKS VIII. Penilaian Jenis tagihan : 1. Tugas Individu 2. Tugas Kelompok Bentuk Instrumen : 1. Uraian singkat 2. Jawaban singkat Parepare, 2008 Mengetahui, Peneliti, Kepala Sekolah SMP Negeri I Parepare

DRS. MUHAMMAD YAMIN, M.Pd. A M Z A H NIP. 131 265 205 NIM. 06205038

  RENCANA PENGAJARAN 3 Control Group Sekolah : SMP NEGERI I PAREPARE Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Kelas / Semester : VIII / 1 Periode Waktu : 2 x 45 menit I. Standar Kompetensi : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. II. Kompetensi Dasar : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana secara akurat, lancer dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat.

III. Thema : Flora and fauna IV. Materi Pokok/Topik : Parts of a tree V. Indikator : Merespon perintah guru dengan menemukan dan mengartikan kata-kata yang berkaitan dengan topik No. Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi Siswa 4.1

4.2 4.3 Kognitif : o Membaca teks yang diberikan o Menemukan kata-kata baru yang dianggap berhubungan dengan topik bagi siswa o Mengisi kata dalam kalimat rumpang o Mengartikan kata ke dalam bahasa Inggris Psikomotor : o Berkomunikasi secara lisan dan tertulis o Bekerjasama dengan siswa lain Afektif : o Mematuhi aturan-aturan yang disampaikan oleh guru VI. Kegiatan Pembelajaran : No. Rincian Kegiatan Siswa Alokasi Waktu 5.1 Awal : - Tegur sapa/mengecek kehadiran - Diberikan persepsi kepada siswa - Memberi motivasi untuk memulai pelajaran 15 menit 5.2 Inti : - Memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk membaca teks yang diberikan. - Menemukan kata-kata yang berkaitan dengan tentang “What can animals do?” dengan kata kerja dan kata benda. - Menjawab pertanyaan yang telah disediakan. - Mengartikan kata dalam bahasa Inggris 60 menit 5.3 Penutup : - Mengoreksi hasil siswa - Menyimpulkan 15 menit VII. Sumber dan alat Buku paket dan LKS VIII. Penilaian

Jenis tagihan : 1. Tugas Individu 2. Tugas Kelompok Bentuk Instrumen : 1. Uraian singkat 2. Jawaban singkat Parepare, 2008 Mengetahui, Peneliti, Kepala Sekolah SMP Negeri I Parepare

DRS. MUHAMMAD YAMIN, M.Pd. A M Z A H NIP. 131 265 205 NIM. 06205038

RENCANA PENGAJARAN 4 Control Group Sekolah : SMP NEGERI I PAREPARE Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Kelas / Semester : VIII / 1 Periode Waktu : 2 x 45 menit I. Standar Kompetensi : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. II. Kompetensi Dasar : Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks lisan fungsional pendek sangat sederhana secara akurat, lancer dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan terdekat. III. Tema : Flora and fauna IV. Materi Pokok/Topik : Coconut V. Indikator : Merespon perintah guru dengan menemukan dan mengartikan kata-kata yang berkaitan dengan topik No. Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi Siswa 4.1

4.2 4.3 Kognitif : o Membaca teks dan menjawab pertanyaan dari teks yagn diberikan. o Mengisi kata dalam kalimat rumpang o Menyebutkan kata-kata yang berkaitan dengan “plants” dan mengartikankan ke dalam, bahasa Indonesia o Menghubungkan kata-kata bahasa Inggris dengan kata-kata yang disediakan Psikomotor : o Berkomunikasi secara lisan dan tertulis o Bekerjasama dengan siswa lain Afektif : o Mematuhi aturan-aturan yang disampaikan oleh guru VI. Kegiatan Pembelajaran : No. Rincian Kegiatan Siswa Alokasi Waktu 5.1 Awal : - Tegur sapa/mengecek kehadiran - Diberikan persepsi kepada siswa - Memberi motivasi untuk memulai pelajaran 15 menit 5.2 Inti : - Memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk membaca wacana yang diberikan - Menyebutkan kata-kata yang berhubungan dengan “parts of a tree”. - Mengartikan kata bahasa Indonesia dalam bahasa Inggris - Menghubungkan kata-kata bahasa Inggris dengan kata-kata yang telah disediakan. 60 menit 5.3 Penutup : - Mengoreksi hasil siswa - Menyimpulkan 15 menit VII. Sumber dan alat Buku paket dan LKS VIII. Penilaian Jenis tagihan : 1. Tugas Individu 2. Tugas Kelompok Bentuk Instrumen : 1. Uraian singkat 2. Jawaban singkat Parepare, 2008 Mengetahui, Peneliti, Kepala Sekolah SMP Negeri I